Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Horticulture (pathway cause)



Horticulture (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Horticulture (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Horticulture (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Seeds sold over the internet locally and available to be mailed internationally Yes Yes
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Planted as an ornamental tree Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle)Sold at nurseries; recommended for soil stabilization and screens. Yes
Acer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple)Deliberately raised and planted Yes
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail)Accidental Yes Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Widely cultivated; seed and plants available locally and internationally Yes Yes Armitage, 1992
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) Yes
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)deliberate distribution Yes Jones, 1987
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes
Agave americana (century plant)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Badano and Pugnaire, 2004
Agave sisalana (sisal hemp) Yes Yes Rehm and Espig, 1991
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Introduced as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed) Yes Yes
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, deliberate Yes Yes Kowarik and Säumel, 2007; Ruiz et al., 1990
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Widely used in agroforestry systems Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Aleurotrachelus atratus (palm-infesting whitefly) Yes
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
Aloe vera (true aloe)Ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Ibrahim, 2001
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)Ornamental. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes Yes Grubben, 2004
Amelanchier lamarckii (snowy mespilus) Yes NOBANIS, 2009
Amelanchier spicata (dwarf serviceberry) Yes NOBANIS, 2009
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine)Plants and seeds sold at nurseries. Yes Yes
Amynthas agrestis (crazy worm)Movement with soil or other organic material accompanying plants Yes Yes GISD, 2018; Tandy, 1969
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Cultivated worldwide as an ornamental fern Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Anolis aeneus (bronze anole)On plants Yes White et al., 2011
Anolis cristatellus (Puerto Rican crested anole)In ornamental flowers Yes Perry et al., 2006; Yokoyama, 2012
Anolis extremus (Barbados anole)Possible for Florida, USA introduction Yes Bartlett and Bartlett, 1998
Anolis trinitatis (St Vincent bush anole)On breadfruit trees Yes Lazell, 1972
Anolis wattsi (Watts' anole)Probably on pineapple plants imported into Trinidad & Tobago Yes White and Hailey, 2006
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)Used as an ornamental. Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy) Yes BioNet-EAFRINET, 2011
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper) Yes Yes Csurhes, 2009
Arion vulgaris (Spanish slug) Yes Yes Rabitsch, 2006; Weidema, 2006
Armillaria limonea Yes Yes
Armillaria novae-zelandiae Yes Yes
Aronia x prunifolia Yes Yes
Arthurdendyus triangulatus (New Zealand flatworm)Movement of containerised plants Yes Yes Blackshaw, 1992; Cannon et al., 1999; Dynes et al., 2001; Willis and Edwards, 1977
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Yes Dudley, 2000
Asclepias curassavica (bloodflower)Unknown Yes Batianoff and Butler, 2002
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper)As an ornamental Yes Yes Brookes and Barley, 1992; Mulvaney, 1991
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern)As an ornamental Yes Yes
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) Yes Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid) Yes
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly) Yes Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly) Yes Yes
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Extensively cultivated Yes Yes Dransfield and Widjaja, 1995
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Red varieties popular in gardening Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Riffle, 1998
Bombus terrestris (bumble bee) Yes Yes
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Popular ornamental. Widely commercialized Yes Yes Salam et al., 2017
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Cultivated in home gardens Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2018
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Widely used as an ornamental Yes Yes GISD, 2018; GISD, 2018
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes Yes
Bromelia pinguin (wild pineapple) Yes Giroux, 2008
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail)In Hawaii inter-island movement of ornamental plants has been blamed for the movement of B. asiatica Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Caesalpinia violacea (brasiletto)Planted in agroforestry schemes Yes Yes Chemas and Rico-Gray, 1991
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Very valuable in the horticulture trade for its colorful and variably-shaped leaves Yes Yes Deng, 2012
Calonectria pseudonaviculata (Buxus blight)Infected nursery stock/propagating material Yes Yes Henricot et al., 2008; Saracchi et al., 2008
Calopogonium caeruleum (jicama)Widely introduced as cover-crop Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo) Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Yes Gilbert et al., 2005
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes Yes
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum) Yes Yes Bosch, 2007; Duke, 1983; Hanelt et al., 2001
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine) Yes Yes
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Often commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Chondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed) Yes
Christella dentata (soft fern)Associated with greenhouse cultivation Yes Drummond, 1959; Murakami et al., 2007; Strother and Smith, 1970; Wagner, 1950
Chrysomyxa rhododendri (European Rhododendron rust) Yes Yes Bennell, 1985
Ciborinia allii (neck rot of onion) Yes Yes Lacy and Lorbeer, 1995
Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia) Yes Yes Franck, 2012
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Commercialized as an ornamental and medicinal plant Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis)Grown as an ornamental and used for landscaping in the USA Yes Yes Langeland and Meisenburg, 2009; GISD, 2018; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018
Clerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower) Yes Yes
Coccinella septempunctata (seven-spot ladybird) Yes Yes
Cocos nucifera (coconut)Nut kernels are used to feed animals Yes Yes Chan and Elevitch, 2006
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Introduced and cultivated in many countries as a garden plant Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Corms, stems and leaves are edible and planted for human consumption Yes Yes Safo-Kantaka, 2004
Coriandrum sativum (coriander)Used in British Victorian bouquets Yes Yes Lawton, 2007
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)Europe, Australia Yes GISD, 2018; Gardening Australia, 2009
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Cultivated in gardens Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes Yes
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (African cotton leaf curl begomovirus)
Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)Consumed as a vegetable Yes Yes Denton, 2004
Crassula ovata (jade plant)It is transported around the world as an ornamental Yes Yes Mahr, 2010
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Hybrid of horticultural origin Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)Used as ground cover Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Yes Yes
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows)Possible through movement of infected seedlings or fruit for human consumption (rare to very rare, accidental) Yes Yes
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress) Yes Yes Dirr, 2009
Cuscuta campestris (field dodder) Yes Yes
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Spores are carried by wind. The fern is sold in nurseries Yes Yes Jones, 1987
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Presumed cause. An attractive fern, but also likely to contaminate pots with other plants Yes Yes Murakami et al., 2007
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Most likely pathway of introduction to Europe Yes Leuthardt et al., 2010
Cylindropuntia fulgida (jumping cholla)Gardeners take cuttings from their friends’ or relatives’ gardens to plant in their own garden Yes GISD, 2018
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear) Yes GISD, 2018
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes Floridata, 2014
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Escaped cultivation, grown from seed C. cardunculus reverts to its wild form Yes Yes Kelly and Pepper, 1996
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not) Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Cyperus meyenianus (Meyen's flatsedge) Yes GISD, 2018
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes Yes
Dacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly) Yes Yes
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Purchases for outdoor horticulture can result in spore distribution in new and distant regions. Yes Yes
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug) Yes Yes
Deroceras laeve (meadow slug) Yes
Dickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)D. solani has been found on diseased hyacinth bulbs Yes Chen et al., 2015; van der Wolf et al., 2014b
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Yes Croat, 2004
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc) Yes Robinson, 1999
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)As an ornamental in gardens and urban areas Yes Yes GISD, 2018
East Asian Passiflora virus Yes
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Lenda et al., 2014
Eichhornia paniculata (Brazilian water hyacinth)Water gardens Yes Yes Hériteau and Thomas, 1994
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Frequently moved unintentionally in nursery plants and construction materials Yes Yes GISD, 2018; Kraus, 2009
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Sometimes planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth) Yes
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane) Yes Yes Hind, 2012
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Ornamental/ shade tree/ edible fruit Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)The movement of fire blight in the USA seems to have followed the introduction of apple and pear pro Yes Yes Bonn and Zwet, 2000
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)grown as an ornamental foliage crop Yes
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Cultivars are sold at numerous retail nurseries in many countries as well as online Yes Yes Amazon, 2013; ISSG, 2013
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes Yes
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge) Yes Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Widely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)varieties still for sale Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)Originally but not anymore Yes
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug)Accidental introduction on plants, and also on machinery, tools and workers Yes Yes
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)Widely sold and used as lawn seed Yes Yes Gibson and Newman, 2001
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)Has been introduced and cultivated beyond its native range for use as an ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; PIER, 2014; Randall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Yes Britton, 1918; Floridata, 2014; Hooker, 1882
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014; Starr et al., 2003
Fimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry) Yes Yes
Flacourtia indica (governor's plum)Though not common in Hawaii today, governor's-plum has been planted as a barrier hedge and fruit tre Yes PIER, 2014
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)accidental; nymphs and adults Yes Yes
Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)Inadvertently transported in infested plant material. Commonly intercepted on transported plant mate Yes Yes Nickle, 2003; Vierbergen, 1995
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Weed in gardens and yards Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galphimia glauca (goldshower )Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Floridata, 2015
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Often planted as shade tree in cacao and coffee plantations Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Gunnera tinctoria (giant rhubarb) Yes Yes Williams et al., 2005
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Intercepted in Norway on horticultural plants from the Netherlands Yes Yes Brown et al., 2008a
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Branney, 2005; GISD, 2018
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Hemigraphis alternata (red ivy)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Yes
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant Yes Yes Kabuce, 2006
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Yes Hadidi et al., 2003
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes Yes CWS, 2003
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes Yes FNW Disseminules, 2007
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)Grown worldwide as a medicinal plant and sometimes as an ornamental Yes Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Widely commercialized as an ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) Yes Beerling and Perrins, 1993
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Extensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski, 2008
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Planted as forage and groundcover plant Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Often cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )Often cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Iris domestica (blackberry lily) Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)widely used in horticulture and traded for this purpose Yes Yes Learn2grow, 2016
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)Cultivated for its fragrant, white flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Occasionally used as an ornamental Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Accidental contaminant in commercial seed, peat or soil Yes Grøstad, 2003
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Popular ornamental plant Yes Yes Kalanchoe Growers, 2016
Kalanchoe integra (Never die)Introduced to various countries as an ornamental Yes Yes New York Botanical Garden, 2016
Lachnellula willkommii (European larch canker) Yes Tegethoff, 1965
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Yes NOBANIS, 2005
Lantana camara (lantana) Yes Yes
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Ornamental Yes Yes Branca and Donnini, 2011
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch, 2004
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Deliberately by locals Yes
Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)Deliberate by locals Yes
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al., 1999
Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) Yes Yes Maddox et al., 2010
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Widespread hedging plant Yes
Lilioceris lilii (lily leaf beetle) Yes Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Accidental transport with vegetation, soil, machinery and packaging Yes Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes Yes
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)Commonly sold 1900s-1980s in US, Europe Yes Luken and Thieret, 1997
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow’s honeysuckle)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018;, 2018; GISD, 2018; Go Botany, 2018
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Okada et al., 2009
Ludwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)Accidental with growing medium – coconut fibre Yes Yes Ferrer and Laguna, 2009
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al., 2005
Lumbricus rubellus Yes Yes
Lumbricus terrestris Yes Yes
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Accidental Yes Yes NOBANIS, 2015
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Ferriter, 2001
Lysichiton americanus (American skunk cabbage)Via sale of artificially propagated rhizomes Yes Yes EPPO, 2006
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes USDA, 1915
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape) Yes Ross et al., 2009
Mainsia rubi Yes
Mangifera indica (mango)Often interplanted with other fruits and vegetables Yes Yes Bally, 2006
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Associated with aquatic plants Yes Yes
Melicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)Planted for fruits Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Frequently sold as ornamental in USA and other countries Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Meloidogyne enterolobii (Pacara earpod tree root-knot nematode)rare Yes
Merremia umbellata (hogvine)Cultivated in botanic gardens and home gardens Yes Yes Sunshine Seeds, 2016
Miconia calvescens (miconia)Sold as a garden plant in Tahiti in the early 1980s Yes Yes Meyer, 1998a
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Ornamental use worldwide. Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Cultivated for edible fruits Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Monochamus leuconotus (white coffee stem borer)Very slight risk that eggs may be transported on nursery trees. This should not happen if basic nurs Yes
Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant) Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, rare pathway Yes Yes
Moraea (Cape tulip) Yes Yes
Moraea collina (Cape tulip) Yes
Moraea miniata (two-leaf Cape-tulip) Yes Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry) Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Introduced in many countries as an ornamental and fruit tree Yes Yes NAS, 1980
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Widely commercialized as ornamental. Many cultivars and hybrids have been developed Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al., 2016
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes Yes
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Nandina is widely grown and sold in horticultural industry Yes Yes Wirth et al., 2004
Neolecanium cornuparvum (magnolia scale) Yes Yes
Nephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern) Yes Nauman, 1981
Nesticella mogera (cave-dwelling spider) Yes Rozwalka et al., 2013
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Used as ornamental Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes Yes NOBANIS, 2005
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Ornamental, aromatic, culinary plant Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (wild olive) Yes Yes
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive) Yes Yes
Onopordum acaulon (horse thistle) Yes
Onopordum illyricum (Illyrian thistle) Yes
Opogona sacchari (banana moth) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus)Ornamental trade Yes Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes Yes
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)Transported with ornamental plants and palm trees Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes Yes
Oxychilus alliarius (garlic snail) Yes USDA, 1964
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)Cultivated as an outdoor and indoor plant Yes Yes Duff, 2012
Pachira insignis (wild chestnut)Cultivated as an ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000
Paederia foetida (skunkvine)Infests nursery stock Yes Yes Pemberton and Pratt, 2002
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes Yes
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Long distance and local trade in infested ornamental plants Yes Yes Macharia et al., 2017
Paratrechina longicornis (crazy ant) Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Ornamental Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass) Yes GISD, 2018
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) Yes Yes Akamine et al., 1974; Martin and Nakasone, 1970
Passiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)This is the major reason for the deliberate dispersal of the plant by people Yes Yes
Passiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)Fairly widespread use in the gardening trade Yes Amela Garcia, 2008; Dave's Garden, 2011; Gann et al., 2011; Ulmer and MacDougal, 2004
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pectobacterium parmentieri (black leg disease of potato)
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species exported from South Africa in 1700s for ornamental cultivation. Yes Yes Miller, 1996; GISD, 2018
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium) Yes Yes Miller, 1996; SANBI, 2014; GISD, 2018
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)As a turf grass Yes Yes
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Ornamental plants Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Widely cultivated as a garden ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Persicaria perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed) Yes Yes Moul, 1948
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Used as an ornamental worldwide Yes Yes PROTA, 2019; GISD, 2018
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)Propagated as an ornamental in Taiwan Yes Yes
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes
Phormium tenax (New Zealand flax)Many ornamental forms developed Yes Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Deliberately selling rhizomes online or promoted as an ornamental Yes Yes Gucker, 2009; Rickel, 2012
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Promoted as an ornamental Yes Rickel, 2012; USDA-APHIS, 2012
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)Widely dispersed as food crop Yes Yes
Phytophthora austrocedriP. austrocedri detected in trade nursery plants of several species of Cupressaceae Yes Yes Henricot et al., 2017
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Zobel et al., 1985
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug)Accidental introduction on imported plants, transport on workers, tools and machinery Yes Yes Gerson, 2016
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusExtensive exports from the Netherlands occurred prior to introduction of certification programmes. Still likely to be some infected bulbs in export stocks Yes Yes Plant Protection Service of the Netherlands, 2010
Plasmodiophora brassicae (club root)Infected plants could be moved long distance Yes
Podosphaera spiraeae (Japanese spiraea powdery mildew) Yes
Populus nigra (black poplar) Yes Yes
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes Yes
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry) Yes Yes GISD, 2011
Prunus serotina (black cherry) Yes Morton, 1987
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On planting stock Yes Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Ornamental vine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive) Yes Yes
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)For fruit production Yes Samson, 1989
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Ornamental, shade tree, windbreaker Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Widely used as an ornamental Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Puccinia buxi Yes Yes NAPPO, 2006
Puccinia gladioli Yes Yes Wise et al., 2004
Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)Nitrogen fixing plant used for soil improvement Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)Popular ornamental shrub. Yes Yes GISD, 2018
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Infested fruits, can serve as a reservoir from which dispersal can occur Yes Yes
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Deliberate, occasional Yes Yes Campbell, 1977; Staples and Herbst, 2005
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) Yes Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry) Yes Yes
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Weidema, 2006
Rubus argutus (sawtooth blackberry)Historically transported for horticulture (not currently) Yes Medel and Vargas, 1981; Neal, 1965; Smith, 1985; Webb et al., 1988
Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry)First introductions were for horticultural purposes Yes Ceska, 1999
Rubus parviflorus (thimbleberry)First introductions for horticulture purposes Yes Biological Records Centre, 2015
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)Grown as ornamental Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Sold as an ornamental at internet sites Yes Yes
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes Yes
Sagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead) Yes DAISIE, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Schizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree) Yes Yes Pacific Horticulture, 2016
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Seeds and plants available for ornamental purposes Yes Yes Minnesota Wildflowers, 2016
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes Yes
Silene gallica (common catchfly)Escape from gardens Yes
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Intentionally cultivated as an ornamental or curiosity plant worldwide Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project, 2014
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Planted as ornamental. Seeds dispersed by birds. Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Equipment, soil and planting material Yes ISSG, 2014
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant) Yes Yes Green, 1967
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes Yes
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Yes Weber and Jakobs, 2005
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet) Yes Yes
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)Movement of plants, interceptions Yes Yes Karsholt, 1994
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) Yes Yes
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Yes Kuo, 2003
Sternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil) Yes Yes
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Due to the association of T. melanocephalum with pests of horticulture, horticulture must be conside Yes Yes Fowler et al., 1990
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Ornamental – showy flowers Yes Yes Everett, 1982
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Widely commercialized as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Hanna, 1966
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Ornamental Yes Yes
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Grown on trellises and fences, in hanging baskets and as a ground cover Yes Yes Whistler, 2000
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower) Yes Yes Ng'inja et al., 1998
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Widely commercialized as garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Tomato apical stunt viroid Yes Yes
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)Whitefly host switch during harvest and vegetable trade Yes Yes
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)Whitefly host switch during harvest. Yes
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Ornamental and ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes Hummel and Kiviat, 2004
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris) Yes Yes
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine)Cultivated in botanic gardens and home gardens Yes Yes Austin, 1980; Botanic Garden Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 2016
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2010
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) Yes Yes Gross and Werner, 1978
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes Yes Royal Horticultural Society, 2015
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes
Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)Salt tolerant, low growing, attractive. Previously recommended to beachfront residents for planting Yes Cousins et al., 2010a; Gresham, 2015
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Popular ornamental plant Yes Trusty et al., 2007a
Xanthomonas citri (citrus canker) Yes
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)Tubers are consumed by humans Yes Yes Manner, 2011
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Sometimes planted as ornamental Yes Yes Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Yes Smith et al., 2012
Zachrysia provisoria (Cuban brown snail)Occasional, accidental Yes Yes Robinson and Fields, 2004
Zingiber capitatum (wild ginger) Yes Yes GBIF, 2016
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes
Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube) Yes Azam-Ali et al., 2006
Zophopetes dysmephila (palm tree nightfighter) Yes Yes Claassens and Dickson, 1986