Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Horticulture (pathway cause)



Horticulture (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Horticulture (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Horticulture (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers Yes Yes GISD (2018)
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Seeds sold over the internet locally and available to be mailed internationally Yes Yes
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Planted as an ornamental tree Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle)Sold at nurseries; recommended for soil stabilization and screens. Yes
Acer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple)Deliberately raised and planted Yes
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail)Accidental Yes Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Widely cultivated; seed and plants available locally and internationally Yes Yes Armitage (1992)
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) Yes
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)deliberate distribution Yes Jones (1987)
Adonidia merrillii (Christmas palm)Popular ornamental palm Yes Yes Lim (2012)
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes
Agave americana (century plant)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Badano and Pugnaire (2004)
Agave sisalana (sisal hemp) Yes Yes Rehm and Espig (1991)
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Introduced as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed) Yes Yes
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, deliberate Yes Yes Kowarik and Säumel (2007); Ruiz et al. (1990)
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Widely used in agroforestry systems Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Albizia niopoides (silk tree)Planted as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Vozzo (2002)
Aleurotrachelus atratus (palm-infesting whitefly) Yes
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Aloe vera (true aloe)Ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Ibrahim (2001)
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)Ornamental. Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes Yes Grubben (2004)
Amelanchier lamarckii (snowy mespilus) Yes NOBANIS (2009)
Amelanchier spicata (dwarf serviceberry) Yes NOBANIS (2009)
Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine)Plants and seeds sold at nurseries. Yes Yes
Amynthas agrestis (crazy worm)Movement with soil or other organic material accompanying plants Yes Yes Gates (1958; 1966); Tandy (1969)
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Cultivated worldwide as an ornamental fern Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
Anolis aeneus (bronze anole)On plants Yes White et al. (2011)
Anolis cristatellus (Puerto Rican crested anole)In ornamental flowers Yes Perry et al. (2006); Yokoyama (2012)
Anolis extremus (Barbados anole)Possible for Florida, USA introduction Yes Bartlett and Bartlett (1998)
Anolis trinitatis (St Vincent bush anole)On breadfruit trees Yes Lazell (1972)
Anolis wattsi (Watts' anole)Probably on pineapple plants imported into Trinidad & Tobago Yes White and Hailey (2006)
Anoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn)Accidentally spread with woody plants for planting being shipped with eggs or larvae within infested hosts. Dozens of interceptions in Europe since 1980. Haack et al. (2010) EFSA (2019) Hérard and Maspero (2019). Yes Haack et al. (2010); EFSA (2019); Hérard and Maspero (2019)
Anredera vesicaria (Texas madeira vine)Grown as an ornamental for its showy and fragrant inflorescences Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)Used as an ornamental. Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy) Yes BioNet-EAFRINET (2011)
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper) Yes Yes Csurhes (2009)
Arion vulgaris (Spanish slug) Yes Yes Rabitsch (2006); Weidema (2006); Dorler et al. (2018)
Armillaria limonea Yes Yes
Armillaria novae-zelandiae Yes Yes
Aronia x prunifolia Yes Yes
Arthurdendyus triangulatus (New Zealand flatworm)Movement of containerised plants Yes Yes Blackshaw (1992); Cannon et al. (1999); Dynes et al. (2001); Willis and Edwards (1977)
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Yes Dudley (2000)
Asclepias curassavica (bloodflower)Unknown Yes Batianoff and Butler (2002)
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper)As an ornamental Yes Yes Brookes and Barley (1992); Mulvaney (1991)
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern)As an ornamental Yes Yes
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Used as an ornamental worldwide Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale) Yes Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Bactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid) Yes
Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly) Yes Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly) Yes Yes
Bambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Bambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Extensively cultivated Yes Yes Dransfield and Widjaja (1995)
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Red varieties popular in gardening Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Begonia nelumbiifolia (lilypad begonia)Grown as an ornamental Yes Dave's Garden (2016)
Blighia sapida (akee apple)Used as an ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Bocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Riffle (1998)
Bombus terrestris (bumble bee) Yes Yes
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Popular ornamental. Widely commercialized Yes Yes Salam et al. (2017)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Cultivated in home gardens Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2018)
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Widely used as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017); Useful Tropical Plants (2017)
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes Yes
Bromelia pinguin (wild pineapple) Yes Giroux (2008)
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail)In Hawaii inter-island movement of ornamental plants has been blamed for the movement of B. asiatica Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Caesalpinia violacea (brasiletto)Planted in agroforestry schemes Yes Yes Chemas and Rico-Gray (1991)
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Very valuable in the horticulture trade for its colorful and variably-shaped leaves Yes Yes Deng (2012)
Calonectria pseudonaviculata (Buxus blight)Infected nursery stock/propagating material Yes Yes Henricot et al. (2008); Saracchi et al. (2008)
Calopogonium caeruleum (jicama)Widely introduced as cover-crop Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo) Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Yes Gilbert et al. (2005)
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean)Grown as an ornamental Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Candidatus Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Infected plants or propagation material (budwood) Yes Yes
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)Deliberate by locals Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Carpobrotus chilensis (sea fig)Used as an ornamental Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes Yes
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum) Yes Yes Bosch (2007); Duke (1983); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine)Sometimes cultivated for several purposes Yes Yes Nelson (2008)
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Often commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Cavanillesia platanifolia (cuipo)As an ornamental in large parks and public gardens Yes Yes IPlantz (2019)
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly) Yes
Ceratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)Used worldwide as an aquarium species Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )Widely commercialized as an ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Chondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed) Yes
Christella dentata (soft fern)Associated with greenhouse cultivation Yes Drummond (1959); Murakami et al. (2007); Strother and Smith (1970); Wagner (1950)
Chrysomyxa rhododendri (European Rhododendron rust) Yes Yes Bennell (1985)
Ciborinia allii (neck rot of onion) Yes Yes Lacy and Lorbeer (1995)
Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia) Yes Yes Franck (2012)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Commercialized as an ornamental and medicinal plant Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Clavibacter insidiosus (bacterial lucerne wilt) Yes Yes EPPO (2010)
Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato) Yes
Clavibacter nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight) Yes Yes
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis)Grown as an ornamental and used for landscaping in the USA Yes Yes Langeland and Meisenburg (2009); Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2018); Missouri Botanical Garden (2018)
Clerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)Grown as an ornamental plant Yes Yes Méndez Santos (2013)
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Clerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower) Yes Yes
Clover yellow mosaic virus Yes Yes
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Used as an ornamental Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Coccinella septempunctata (seven-spot ladybird) Yes Yes
Cocos nucifera (coconut)Nut kernels are used to feed animals Yes Yes Chan and Elevitch (2006)
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Introduced and cultivated in many countries as a garden plant Yes Yes De la Sagra (1850)
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Corms, stems and leaves are edible and planted for human consumption Yes Yes Safo-Kantaka (2004)
Coriandrum sativum (coriander)Used in British Victorian bouquets Yes Yes Lawton (2007)
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)Europe, Australia Yes EPPO (2009); Gardening Australia (2009)
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Cultivated in gardens Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Randall (2012)
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes Yes
Cotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)
Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus
Cowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)
Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)Consumed as a vegetable Yes Yes Denton (2004)
Crassula ovata (jade plant)It is transported around the world as an ornamental Yes Yes Mahr (2010)
Crescentia cujete (calabash tree)Used as an ornamental throughout the tropics worldwide Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Hybrid of horticultural origin Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)Used as ground cover Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Yes Yes
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows)Possible through movement of infected seedlings or fruit for human consumption (rare to very rare, accidental) Yes Yes
Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Yes Yes
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress) Yes Yes Dirr (2009)
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans) Yes Yes
Cuscuta campestris (field dodder) Yes Yes
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Spores are carried by wind. The fern is sold in nurseries Yes Yes Jones (1987)
Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Presumed cause. An attractive fern, but also likely to contaminate pots with other plants Yes Yes Murakami et al. (2007)
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Most likely pathway of introduction to Europe Yes Leuthardt et al. (2010)
Cylindropuntia fulgida (jumping cholla)Gardeners take cuttings from their friends’ or relatives’ gardens to plant in their own garden Yes Novoa et al. (2015)
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear) Yes Novoa et al. (2015)
Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass) Yes Floridata (2014)
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Escaped cultivation, grown from seed C. cardunculus reverts to its wild form Yes Yes Kelly and Pepper (1996)
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not) Yes Yes ​Missouri Botanical Garden (2017​)
Cyperus meyenianus (Meyen's flatsedge) Yes (2012)
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes Yes
Dacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly) Yes Yes
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Purchases for outdoor horticulture can result in spore distribution in new and distant regions. Yes Yes
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug) Yes Yes
Deroceras laeve (meadow slug) Yes
Desmodium cajanifolium (tropical tick trefoil)Reported as an ornamental Yes Wester (1992)
Diaporthe eres (apple leaf, branch and fruit fungus)Umbel browning and stem necrosis on carrot Yes Yes Bastide et al. (2017)
Dickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)D. solani has been found on diseased hyacinth bulbs Yes Chen et al. (2015); van der Wolf et al. (2014b)
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize) Yes Yes
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Yes Croat (2004)
Dimorphotheca sinuata (Cape marigold)Popular ornamental plant due to attractive flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Used as an ornamental Yes Yes PIER (2020)
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc) Yes Robinson (1999)
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Dombeya wallichii (pink ball)As an ornamental in gardens and urban areas Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2017)
Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2019)
Dypsis decaryi (triangle palm)Deliberate Yes PIER (2018)
East Asian Passiflora virus Yes
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Lenda et al. (2014)
Eichhornia paniculata (Brazilian water hyacinth)Water gardens Yes Yes Hériteau and Thomas (1994)
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Frequently moved unintentionally in nursery plants and construction materials Yes Yes Christy et al. (2007); Kraus (2009)
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Sometimes planted as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Epidendrum radicans (crucifix orchid) Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth) Yes
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Eranthemum pulchellum (blue-sage)Deliberate Yes PIER (2019)
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane) Yes Yes Hind (2012)
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Ornamental/ shade tree/ edible fruit Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)The movement of fire blight in the USA seems to have followed the introduction of apple and pear pro Yes Yes Bonn and Zwet (2000)
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)grown as an ornamental foliage crop Yes
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Cultivars are sold at numerous retail nurseries in many countries as well as online Yes Yes Amazon (2013); ISSG (2013)
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes Yes
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge) Yes Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Euphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)Commercialized as garden ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes Steinmann (2014); Burger and Huft (1995)
Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)Popular ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Euphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)Widely used as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Widely planted for ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)varieties still for sale Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)Originally but not anymore Yes
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug)Accidental introduction on plants, and also on machinery, tools and workers Yes Yes
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)Widely sold and used as lawn seed Yes Yes Gibson and Newman (2001)
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)Has been introduced and cultivated beyond its native range for use as an ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001); PIER (2014); Randall (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)
Ficus pumila (creeping fig) Yes Yes Britton (1918); Floridata (2014); Hooker (1882)
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes DAISIE (2014); Starr et al. (2003)
Fimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry) Yes Yes
Flacourtia indica (governor's plum)Though not common in Hawaii today, governor's-plum has been planted as a barrier hedge and fruit tre Yes PIER (2014)
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)accidental; nymphs and adults Yes Yes
Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)Inadvertently transported in infested plant material. Commonly intercepted on transported plant mate Yes Yes Nickle (2003); Vierbergen (1995)
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Weed in gardens and yards Yes Yes Damalas (2008)
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Floridata (2015)
Galphimia gracilis (goldshower)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Anderson (2007)
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Often planted as shade tree in cacao and coffee plantations Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2017)
Gunnera tinctoria (giant rhubarb) Yes Yes Williams et al. (2005)
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Intercepted in Norway on horticultural plants from the Netherlands Yes Yes Brown et al. (2008a)
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Branney (2005); Dave's Garden (2014)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Helenium amarum (bitterweed) Yes Yes
Helianthus debilis (beach sunflower)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Gilman and Park-Brown (1999)
Hemigraphis alternata (red ivy)Widely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Yes
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant Yes Yes Kabuce (2006)
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Yes Hadidi et al. (2003)
Humulus scandens (Japanese hop) Yes Yes
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes Yes CWS (2003)
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes Yes FNW Disseminules (2007)
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)Grown worldwide as a medicinal plant and sometimes as an ornamental Yes Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Widely commercialized as an ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes van Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam) Yes Beerling and Perrins (1993)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Extensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski (2008)
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Planted as forage and groundcover plant Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Grown as a garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Often cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )Often cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Widely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Iris domestica (blackberry lily) Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)widely used in horticulture and traded for this purpose Yes Yes Learn2grow (2016)
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)Cultivated for its fragrant, white flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Occasionally used as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2018)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)It is widely used as an ornamental, mostly in tropical and subtropical areas Yes Yes HEAR (2017)
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Accidental contaminant in commercial seed, peat or soil Yes Grøstad (2003)
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Popular ornamental plant Yes Yes Kalanchoe Growers (2016)
Kalanchoe integra (Never die)Introduced to various countries as an ornamental Yes Yes New York Botanical Garden (2016)
Kigelia africana (sausage tree)Grown as an ornamental and useful tree Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Lachnellula willkommii (European larch canker) Yes Tegethoff (1965)
Laelia rubescens (flor de la concepción) Yes García-González and Riverón-Giró (2015)
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Yes NOBANIS (2005)
Lampropeltis californiae (California kingsnake)Accidentally transported on ornamental trees Yes Yes Verzelen et al. (2017)
Lantana camara (lantana) Yes Yes
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Ornamental Yes Yes Branca and Donnini (2011)
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch (2004)
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas barometer bush)Popular ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)Used as an ornamental species Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al. (1999)
Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) Yes Yes Maddox et al. (2010)
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Widespread hedging plant Yes
Lilioceris lilii (lily leaf beetle) Yes Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Accidental transport with vegetation, soil, machinery and packaging Yes Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes Yes
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)Commonly sold 1900s-1980s in US, Europe Yes Luken and Thieret (1997)
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow’s honeysuckle)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2018); (2018); IPANA (2018); Go Botany (2018)
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Okada et al. (2009)
Ludwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)Accidental with growing medium – coconut fibre Yes Yes Ferrer and Laguna (2009)
Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)Aquatic ornamental, aquarium plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2020)
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al. (2005)
Lumbricus rubellus Yes Yes
Lumbricus terrestris Yes Yes
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Accidental Yes Yes NOBANIS (2015)
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)No information available but it could be a possibility as it is reported an ornamental Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern) Yes Ferriter (2001)
Lysichiton americanus (American skunk cabbage)Via sale of artificially propagated rhizomes Yes Yes EPPO (2006)
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes USDA (1915)
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes Yes Harman (in press)
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape) Yes Ross et al. (2009)
Mainsia rubi Yes
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Mangifera indica (mango)Often interplanted with other fruits and vegetables Yes Yes Bally (2006)
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla) Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Associated with aquatic plants Yes Yes
Melicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)Planted for fruits Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2003)
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Frequently sold as ornamental in USA and other countries Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Meloidogyne enterolobii (Pacara earpod tree root-knot nematode)rare Yes
Merremia umbellata (hogvine)Cultivated in botanic gardens and home gardens Yes Yes Sunshine Seeds (2016)
Miconia calvescens (miconia)Sold as a garden plant in Tahiti in the early 1980s Yes Yes Meyer (1998a)
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes Yes
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Ornamental use worldwide. Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2016)
Molineria capitulata (palm-grass)Deliberate Yes Burkill (1985)
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Cultivated for edible fruits Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Monochamus leuconotus (white coffee stem borer)Very slight risk that eggs may be transported on nursery trees. This should not happen if basic nurs Yes
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)No information available, but possible as it is used occasionally as an ornamental Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant) Yes
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, rare pathway Yes Yes
Moraea (Cape tulip) Yes Yes
Moraea collina (Cape tulip) Yes
Moraea miniata (two-leaf Cape-tulip) Yes Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry) Yes Yes Francis (2004)
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Introduced in many countries as an ornamental and fruit tree Yes Yes NAS (1980)
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)Used as an ornamental and landscape plant Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Widely commercialized as ornamental. Many cultivars and hybrids have been developed Yes Yes Ogbu (2011)
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes Alejandro et al. (2016)
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes Yes
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Nandina is widely grown and sold in horticultural industry Yes Yes Wirth et al. (2004)
Neolecanium cornuparvum (magnolia scale) Yes Yes
Nephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern) Yes Nauman (1981)
Nerium oleander (oleander)Used as an ornamental and a landscape species Yes Yes PIER (2018); Dave’s Garden (2020)
Nesticella mogera (cave-dwelling spider) Yes Rozwalka et al. (2013)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Used as ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2017)
Noronhia emarginata (Madagascar olive)Deliberate Yes PIER (2018)
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes Yes NOBANIS (2005)
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Ornamental, aromatic, culinary plant Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (wild olive) Yes Yes
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive) Yes Yes
Onopordum acaulon (horse thistle) Yes
Onopordum illyricum (Illyrian thistle) Yes
Opogona sacchari (banana moth) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus)Ornamental trade Yes Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes Yes
Orbea variegata (carrion-flower) Yes Hamilton et al. (2013)
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)Transported with ornamental plants and palm trees Yes Yes Johnson (2017)
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes Yes
Oxychilus alliarius (garlic snail) Yes USDA (1964)
Pachira aquatica (pachira nut)Cultivated as an outdoor and indoor plant Yes Yes Duff (2012)
Pachira insignis (wild chestnut)Cultivated as an ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000)
Paederia foetida (skunkvine)Infests nursery stock Yes Yes Pemberton and Pratt (2002)
Pandanus dubius (bakong)Used as an ornamental outside its native range Yes Yes Hanelt (2020); Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes Yes
Pandanus utilis (common screw pine)Deliberate Yes PROTA (2020)
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)Long distance and local trade in infested ornamental plants Yes Yes Macharia et al. (2017)
Paratrechina longicornis (crazy ant) Yes
Parmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Grown as an ornamental and useful tree Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Ornamental Yes Yes Baiwa et al. (2016)
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass) Yes
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) Yes Yes Akamine et al. (1974); Martin and Nakasone (1970)
Passiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)This is the major reason for the deliberate dispersal of the plant by people Yes Yes
Passiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)Fairly widespread use in the gardening trade Yes Amela Garcia (2008); Dave's Garden (2011); Gann et al. (2011); Ulmer and MacDougal (2004)
Passion fruit woodiness virus (passionfruit woodiness disease)Moves in infected Passiflora plant material Yes Yes Baker et al. (2014)
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pectobacterium parmentieri (black leg disease of potato)
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species exported from South Africa in 1700s for ornamental cultivation. Yes Yes Miller (1996); Walt JJAvan der (1977)
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium) Yes Yes Miller (1996); SANBI (2014); Walt JJAvan der (1977)
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)As a turf grass Yes Yes
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Ornamental plants Yes Yes Florabase (2012)
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Widely cultivated as a garden ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Persicaria perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed) Yes Yes Moul (1948)
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Used as an ornamental worldwide Yes Yes PROTA (2019); Dave's Garden (2019)
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)Propagated as an ornamental in Taiwan Yes Yes
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes Arif et al. (2012)
Phormium tenax (New Zealand flax)Many ornamental forms developed Yes Yes
Phthorimaea absoluta (tomato leafminer)South America, Europe, Africa and Asia Yes Yes Sylla et al. (2017); Campos et al. (2017)
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Deliberately selling rhizomes online or promoted as an ornamental Yes Yes Gucker (2009); Rickel (2012)
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Promoted as an ornamental Yes Rickel (2012); USDA-APHIS (2012)
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)Widely dispersed as food crop Yes Yes
Phytophthora austrocedriP. austrocedri detected in trade nursery plants of several species of Cupressaceae Yes Yes Henricot et al. (2017)
Phytophthora kernoviaePlanting of infected shrubs and trees Yes Yes EPPO (2013)
Phytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease) Yes Yes Zobel et al. (1985)
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug)Accidental introduction on imported plants, transport on workers, tools and machinery Yes Yes Gerson (2016)
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusExtensive exports from the Netherlands occurred prior to introduction of certification programmes. Still likely to be some infected bulbs in export stocks Yes Yes Plant Protection Service of the Netherlands (2010)
Plasmodiophora brassicae (club root)Infected plants could be moved long distance Yes
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)More than 40 cultivars and varieties Yes Yes Criley (2005)
Podosphaera spiraeae (Japanese spiraea powdery mildew) Yes
Polyscias balfouriana (Balfour aralia)Cultivated as a landscape ornamental and indoor potted plant Yes Yes Lowry and Plunkett (2010)
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia)Ornamental and hedge plant Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Polyscias guilfoylei (geranium aralia)Popular ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech) Yes Cooper et al. (2019)
Populus nigra (black poplar) Yes Yes
Poranopsis paniculata (bridal bouquet)Deliberate Yes Staples (2006)
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes Yes
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry) Yes Yes GISD (2011)
Prunus serotina (black cherry) Yes Morton (1987)
Pseudocercospora fuligena (black leaf mould) Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On planting stock Yes Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Ornamental vine Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive) Yes Yes
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)For fruit production Yes Samson (1989)
Pteris multifida (spider brake)Used as an ornamental worldwide Yes Yes HEAR (2017)
Pteris tripartita (giant brake)Used as an ornamental Yes Yes Flora and Fauna Web (2019); PROSEA (2019)
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)As an ornamental Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Ornamental, shade tree, windbreaker Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Pterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)Ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Widely used as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Puccinia buxi Yes Yes NAPPO (2006)
Puccinia gladioli Yes Yes Wise et al. (2004)
Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)Nitrogen fixing plant used for soil improvement Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)Popular ornamental shrub. Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Infested fruits, can serve as a reservoir from which dispersal can occur Yes Yes
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Deliberate, occasional Yes Yes Campbell (1977); Staples and Herbst (2005)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) Yes Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry) Yes Yes
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Weidema (2006)
Rubus argutus (sawtooth blackberry)Historically transported for horticulture (not currently) Yes Medel and Vargas (1981); Neal (1965); Smith (1985); Webb et al. (1988)
Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry)First introductions were for horticultural purposes Yes Ceska (1999)
Rubus buergeriDeliberate Yes Useful Temperate Plants (2019)
Rubus parviflorus (thimbleberry)First introductions for horticulture purposes Yes Biological Records Centre (2015)
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)Grown as ornamental Yes Yes Hupp et al. (2013)
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Sold as an ornamental at internet sites Yes Yes
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes Yes
Sagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead) Yes DAISIE (2009); NOBANIS (2009)
Salix humboldtiana (pencil willow)Deliberate Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)It is used locally as an ornamental Yes San Pedro Naturaleza (2020)
Sambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)Cultivated for its fruits and as an ornamental Yes Yes Charlebois et al. (2010)
Schizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree) Yes Yes Pacific Horticulture (2016)
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Seeds and plants available for ornamental purposes Yes Yes Minnesota Wildflowers (2016); PFAF (2016)
Senna aculeata (senna)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Castellanos and Lewis (2012)
Senna italica (Senegal senna)Cultivated for its leaves, flowers and seeds Yes Yes Okeyo and Bosch (2007)
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes Yes
Silene gallica (common catchfly)Escape from gardens Yes
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Intentionally cultivated as an ornamental or curiosity plant worldwide Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project (2014)
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Planted as ornamental. Seeds dispersed by birds. Yes Yes Gallagher et al. (2010)
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PBI Solanum Project (2020)
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Equipment, soil and planting material Yes ISSG (2014)
Solenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant) Yes Yes Green (1967)
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes Yes
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Yes Weber and Jakobs (2005)
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet) Yes Yes
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)Used as an aquatic ornamental Yes Yes Aquagreen (2020)
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)Movement of plants, interceptions Yes Yes Karsholt (1994)
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) Yes Yes
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Yes Kuo (2003)
Sternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil) Yes Yes
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Possible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Widely commercialized as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Tamarindus indica (tamarind)Ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Due to the association of T. melanocephalum with pests of horticulture, horticulture must be conside Yes Yes Fowler et al. (1990)
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Ornamental – showy flowers Yes Yes Everett (1982)
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Widely commercialized as ornamental and shade tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Terminalia muelleri (Australian almond)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1993)
Theba pisana (white garden snail) Yes Hanna (1966)
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Ornamental Yes Yes
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Grown on trellises and fences, in hanging baskets and as a ground cover Yes Yes Whistler (2000)
Thunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Used as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2019); Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower) Yes Yes Ng'inja et al. (1998)
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Widely commercialized as garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Tomato apical stunt viroid Yes Yes
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus) Yes Yes
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)Whitefly host switch during harvest and vegetable trade Yes Yes
Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt) Yes Yes
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)Whitefly host switch during harvest. Yes
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Ornamental and ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes Hummel and Kiviat (2004)
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris) Yes Yes
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine)Cultivated in botanic gardens and home gardens Yes Yes Austin (1980); Botanic Garden Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (2016)
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2010)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) Yes Yes Gross and Werner (1978)
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes Yes Royal Horticultural Society (2015)
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes
Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree)Often cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Vitex parviflora (molave)Used as an attractive ornamental species Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)Salt tolerant, low growing, attractive. Previously recommended to beachfront residents for planting Yes Cousins et al. (2010a); Gresham (2015)
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Popular ornamental plant Yes Trusty et al. (2007a)
Xanthomonas citri (citrus canker) Yes
Xanthomonas citri pv. punicae (bacterial blight of pomegranate) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. alfalfae (bacterial leaf spot of lucerne) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas hortorum pv. gardneri (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis (bacterial leaf streak of grasses) Yes Yes
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)Tubers are consumed by humans Yes Yes Manner (2011)
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Sometimes planted as ornamental Yes Yes Loewenstein and Loewenstein (2005)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Yes Smith et al. (2012)
Yucca gigantea (spineless yucca)Popular indoor and outdoor ornamental Yes Yes Smith and Figueiredo (2016)
Zachrysia provisoria (Cuban brown snail)Occasional, accidental Yes Yes Robinson and Fields (2004)
Zingiber capitatum (wild ginger) Yes Yes GBIF (2016)
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes
Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube) Yes Azam-Ali et al. (2006)
Zophopetes dysmephila (palm tree nightfighter) Yes Yes Claassens and Dickson (1986)