Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)



Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Seeds Yes Yes PROSEA, 2016
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow) Yes PROSEA, 2016
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail)Accidental Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Rhizome pieces propagate easily. Yes Bourdôt, 1984; PROSEA, 2016
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
Agastache rugosa (Korean mint) Yes Pliszko, 2015
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes DAISIE, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Badano and Pugnaire, 2004
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed) Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Establishes itself easily in open soil where cultivated. Yes Johnson, 1971
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)This species may spread by cuttings Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
Aloe vera (true aloe)Ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)Rhizomes Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Ibrahim, 2001
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant) Yes
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Stem and root fragments Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Planted in gardens and water-gardens Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Spores, plant fragments, rhizomes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Anredera baselloides (Madeira vine) Yes
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Underground tubers/roots Yes Yes Burke and DiTommaso, 2011
Ardisia crenata (coral berry)Incorrect disposal of garden waste has been implicated in new populations Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Ardisia humilis (low shoebutton)Used as ornamental Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes PROSEA, 2016
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper) Yes Csurhes, 2009
Arion vulgaris (Spanish slug) Yes Rabitsch, 2006; Weidema, 2006
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Yes Randall, 2012; Starr et al., 2003; Weeds of Australia, 2015
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)Cultivated as an ornamental and for medicinal use; seeds are small, numerous, and winged Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2015
Aronia x prunifolia Yes
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Stansbury, 1999
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Seeds may be spread in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Seeds and stolons Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Seeds and stem segments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Aguilar, 2001
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Seeds and stem segments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Csurhes and Edwards, 1998
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Can reseed in compost, even after two years Yes PROSEA, 2016
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Seeds Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Often grown as an ornamental Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Seeds and weed of gardens Yes Yes ISSG, 2018
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes Yes
Blattella germanica (German cockroach) Yes Valles, 1996
Bontia daphnoides (white alling)Possible; reported as cultivated in house gardens Yes NMNH, 2017
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Not documented but possible Yes Yes
Brassica rapa (field mustard)It is possible that seeds remain in the soil following cultivation in home gardens Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2018
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Possibly, as it can reproduce by seeds, cuttings and root suckers Yes
Bromus secalinus (rye brome)In Finland, found in an area used for the disposal of florists’ waste Yes Carlsson et al., 2014
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)Stem segments Yes Alvarez, 2008
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Stem segments and seeds can be dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Plants will root Yes Graveson, 2012
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Plants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Kehrli and Bacher, 2004
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012
Capsicum baccatum (pepper) Yes Yes Walter and Lebot, 2007
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seed and root fragments Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)Widely cultivated as an ornamental in urban and garden areas Yes Yes Bosch, 2007; Duke, 1983; Hanelt et al., 2001
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine) Yes
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Often commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Planted as ornamental Yes Woodson and Schery, 1975
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) Yes
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)Seeds Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine) Yes Yes
Christella dentata (soft fern)Weed of urban areas Yes CSIRO, 1998; Randall, 2002; Randall, 2009
Cirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle) Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al., 2016
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban) Yes
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum) Yes PIER, 2012
Combretum grandiflorum (showy combretum) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)Species is widely cultivated, and is capable of spreading by root suckers Yes Yes Staples et al., 2000
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass)Possible cause Yes University of Queensland, 2013
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes DAISIE, 2009
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes
Crassula ovata (jade plant)Can survive in waste dumps Yes Boyd, 2013
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Corms and rhizomes dispersed in dumping garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusImproper disposal can cause contamination of subsequent crops Yes
Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder) Yes
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed in gardens Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear) Yes Deltoro et al., 2014
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)Rhizomes, tillers and plant fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Oyen, 1999
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments are commonly dispersed in dumped garden waste. Yes Yes PROSEA, 2016
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) Yes Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura)Can spread by both seed and vegetative fragmentation Yes Yes PIER, 2014; Randall, 2012
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug) Yes NOBANIS, 2015
Deroceras laeve (meadow slug)Accidental Yes AnimalBase, 2015
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes Blackshaw and Rode, 1991
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane)Accidental Yes Space and Flynn, 2002
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Tuber and stem fragments Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Planted as ground cover in gardens. Spreads by seeds and rotting nodes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop) Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)Cultivar spreads by rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs Yes Yes Dransfield and Beentje, 1995
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Tokarska-Guzik, 2005; Dajdok and Kącki, 2009
Elodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed) Yes PROSEA, 2016; PROSEA, 2016
Elodea nuttallii (Nuttall's waterweed) Yes Preston and Croft, 1997
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes PROTA, 2018
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Cuttings and plant disposals Yes Yes PIER, 2012
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)Accidental escape Yes Whistler, 1995
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass) Yes Alien plants of Belgium, 2018
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Common weed in gardens, parks and lawns Yes Yes Fried and Dumbardon-Martial, 2015
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Seeds/dumped vegetation Yes Yes Weeds of New Zealand, 2016
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge) Yes
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Cuttings and stem fragments Yes PIER, 2016
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Seeds and plant parts Yes Yes
Euphorbia trigona (African milk weed)Spreads by cuttings and stem fragments Yes PROTA, 2016
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)common Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)flytipping common issue in UK Yes
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Ficus lyrata (fiddle-leaf fig) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Hutchinson and Rendle, 1916; Madulid, 1995; Starr et al., 2003
Ficus pumila (creeping fig)Spreads by vegetative fragments, known to escape from cultivation and garden rubbish Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014; Starr et al., 2003
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes Mabberley, 1997; Starr et al., 2003; USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000
Furcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Garden plant with bulbils could establish Yes Yes
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)Common weed in gardens Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode) Yes
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode) Yes
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Seeds Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) Yes Yes Darwent, 1975
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Henderson, 2003
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Tiley et al., 1996
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant, thus the chance of spread with waste soil Yes Yes Kabuce, 2006
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Spread by stem segments Yes Yes PIER, 2013
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes PIER, 2007
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard) Yes Brooks, 2004
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant)Capable of regenerating by cuttings Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Hadidi et al., 2003
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort) Yes
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane) Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Naturalized in rubbish dumps Yes Yes Flora Mesoamericana, 2018
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Often used in gardens and fences Yes Yes Henderson, 2015
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2017
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Seed/stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes PROSEA, 2016
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Seeds Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Seeds in garden waste Yes Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2010
Iris domestica (blackberry lily)Possible, from its cultivation Yes
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)Seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Francis, 2004
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Possible from its cultivation Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut) Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Moran, 2009
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds, plantlets, leaves, plant fragments Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Seeds Yes Yes PROSEA, 2016
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Seeds in dumped garden waste Yes Gilman and Watson, 1993
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Seeds Yes Yes PROSEA, 2016
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)In garden soil used for compost. Yes PROSEA, 2016
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al., 1999
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Accidental transport with vegetation and soil Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Meyer et al., 2008
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Accidental Yes Yes Fremstad and Elven, 2002
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Stolons and rhizomes in garden waste dumping Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb, 2014
Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)Garden weed Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison, 1989
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Seeds Yes Yes Webb et al., 1988
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn) Yes
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Root and root crops infected. Yes
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Mansur, 2001
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Seeds might be dispersed on garden soil waste. Yes
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Various States in USA; NSW Australia Yes Harley, 2007
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Holm et al., 1997
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, common pathway Yes
Morus nigra (black mulberry)Species is known to escape from cultivation and naturalize Yes Randall, 2012
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Seeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris) Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)Seeds can be spread in dumped garden waste Yes Queensland Government, 2013
Nephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern) Yes Langeland, 2001
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)Seeds might be dispersed in garden soil Yes
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes PIER, 2017
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Seed, stem fragment in garden waste Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil) Yes Yes
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Stem fragments Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Stems and roots Yes Yes Francis, 2005
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Weed in gardens and lawns Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes
Pachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)Seeds, escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Kenny, 2000
Paederia foetida (skunkvine) Yes Possley and Brazis, 1998
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Possible from its use as an ornamental Yes
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Seeds and stem fragments in garden waste dumps Yes Yes Manidool, 1992
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Seeds, stolons and, rhizomes Yes Violi, 2000
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)Stem fragments Yes Yes
Passiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower) Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Known to be a garden escape in Puerto Rico; species can reproduce by cuttings Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; SANBI, 2014
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium) Yes Miller, 1996; SANBI, 2004; PROSEA, 2016; Wiersema and Leon, 2013
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Disposal of seed heads from previous year Yes PROSEA, 2016
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Possible. No details but reported as naturalized in Madeira Yes DAISIE, 2019
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)Removal of waste containing old but green stalks can disperse plant Yes
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Accidental disposal of rhizomes by dumping yard waste Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Accidental disposal of rhizomes by dumping yard waste Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)Not documented but probable Yes
Pittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood) Yes Tee et al., 1999
Plantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain) Yes
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage) Yes Yes Randall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)Popular garden ornamental, and is capable of regenerating by cuttings Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014b
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed) Yes Burnett and Moore, 2014
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry) Yes GISD, 2011
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On infested prunings Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Possible as it is used as an ornamental Yes
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn) Yes PROSEA, 2016
Raoiella indica (red palm mite)Investigated as one of the pathways in Florida Yes
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Infested fruits Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry)Assumed Yes
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Bruun, 2005
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry) Yes ISSG, 2014
Rubus racemosus (black raspberry)Seeds, underground shoots Yes Yes Adams, 1972
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Seeds Yes Yes ISSG, 2010
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)Seeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Hupp et al., 2013
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes ISSG, 2009
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Stem fragments Yes PIER, 2014
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)Leaf segments and rhizomes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)Leaf segments and rhizomes Yes Arnold, 2004; ISSG, 2012
Securigera varia (crown vetch) Yes
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes Yes
Senna alata (candle bush)It is highly probable that seeds could be transported locally through garden waste from cultivation as an ornamental Yes
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)Cultivated in gardens Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Standley and Steyermark, 1946
Senna multijuga (November shower)Species is known to have escaped garden cultivation Yes Yes PIER, 2014; Randall, 2012
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)Reported as a garden weed so possibly dispersed with garden waste Yes PIER, 2016
Senna surattensis (golden senna)Escaped from cultivation in places including India, Burma, Indochina, and the Philippines Yes Yes Little and Skolmen, 1989; Randall, 2012; Wagner et al., 2014
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Sisymbrium irio Yes
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)Seeds could be a contaminant in garden waste Yes
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Intentionally cultivated as an ornamental or curiosity plant worldwide. Yes PBI Solanum Project, 2014
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Known to escape cultivation Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Solanum tuberosum (potato)Species has a long and wide history of cultivation; can reproduce by both seed and tubers Yes Yes
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)A whole nest could move - accidental Yes Taber, 2000
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Weber, 2011
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)Hypothetical Yes
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Seeds, rhizomes Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Weed in gardens Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)Seeds as contaminant in soil Yes Yes Zouhar, 2005
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)This species can be dispersed by dividing rhizomes, corms or bulbs Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia) Yes
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet)Seeds, root shoots Yes Yes
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)The species is used as an ornamental, seeds could be spread through soil and garden waste Yes Yes Duistermaat, 2004
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed) Yes
Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass) Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)Commonly planted as an ornamental, can be spread by vegetative fragments in garden waste Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)Grown in gardens as a homegrown fruit tree Yes Morton, 1987; Randall, 2012; Whistler and Elevitch, 2006
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Rhizomes, spores and tubers Yes Yes
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Dumping of garden cuttings Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)Cuttings, stem fragments and roots Yes Yes PIER, 2012; Starr et al., 2003
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)Popular ornamental plant Yes Starr et al., 2003
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds in dumped garden waste Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2018
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Stem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)Plant segments and discarded plants Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Seeds, cuttings, and discarded plants Yes Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; PIER, 2012
Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)Frequent Yes Biosecurity Queensland, 2012
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)Stem fragments/plantlets and rhizomes Yes Yes
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Weed of gardens and parks Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes PROSEA, 2016
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes
Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)A single new population accidentally established from cuttings disposed of on sandy soils Yes USDA-APHIS, 2013
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Vegetative reproduction from trimmings Yes University of Florida, 2013
Xyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)Disposal of bouquets containing dried inflorescences Yes
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Seeds Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Sydney Weeds Committee, 2016
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)As distributed with stolons of lawn grasses Yes Ames, 1938
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger) Yes Yes
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes