Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)



Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Garden waste disposal (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Seeds Yes Yes PROSEA (2016)
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow) Yes Coordinating Group Alien Pest Species (CGAPS) (2014)
Acacia decurrens (green wattle)Spread in dumped garden waste and contaminated soil Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail)Accidental Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Rhizome pieces propagate easily. Yes Bourdôt (1984); Bourdôt et al. (1985)
Adonidia merrillii (Christmas palm)Fruits Yes Lim (2012)
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
Agastache rugosa (Korean mint) Yes Pliszko (2015)
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes DAISIE (2016); Weeds of Australia (2016)
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Badano and Pugnaire (2004)
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed) Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2016)
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Establishes itself easily in open soil where cultivated. Yes Johnson (1971)
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)Stem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Randall (2007)
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)This species may spread by cuttings Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Aloe vera (true aloe)Ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Alpinia purpurata (red ginger)Rhizomes Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger) Yes Yes Ibrahim (2001)
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant) Yes
Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Stem and root fragments Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Planted in gardens and water-gardens Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)Spores, plant fragments, rhizomes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
Anredera baselloides (Madeira vine) Yes
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Underground tubers/roots Yes Yes Burke and DiTommaso (2011)
Ardisia crenata (coral berry)Incorrect disposal of garden waste has been implicated in new populations Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Ardisia humilis (low shoebutton)Used as ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes Healy (2961)
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper) Yes Csurhes (2009)
Arion vulgaris (Spanish slug) Yes Rabitsch (2006); Weidema (2006); Dorler et al. (2018)
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Yes Randall (2012); Starr et al. (2003); Weeds of Australia (2015)
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)Cultivated as an ornamental and for medicinal use; seeds are small, numerous, and winged Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005); USDA-ARS (2015)
Aronia x prunifolia Yes
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Stansbury (1999)
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)As escapee from cultivation in garden waste Yes NSW Weedwise (2018)
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Seeds may be spread in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly) Yes Yes
Bambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)Stem fragments, rhizomes Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Bambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)Stem fragments, rhizomes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Seeds and stolons Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Seeds and stem segments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Aguilar (2001)
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Seeds and stem segments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Csurhes and Edwards (1998)
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Can reseed in compost, even after two years Yes Dave's Garden (2017)
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Seeds Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Often grown as an ornamental Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Seeds and weed of gardens Yes Yes ISSG (2018)
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes Yes
Blattella germanica (German cockroach) Yes Valles (1996)
Bontia daphnoides (white alling)Possible; reported as cultivated in house gardens Yes NMNH (2017)
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Not documented but possible Yes Yes
Brassica rapa (field mustard)It is possible that seeds remain in the soil following cultivation in home gardens Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2018)
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Possibly, as it can reproduce by seeds, cuttings and root suckers Yes
Bromus secalinus (rye brome)In Finland, found in an area used for the disposal of florists’ waste Yes Carlsson et al. (2014)
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)Stem segments Yes Alvarez (2008)
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Stem segments and seeds can be dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Plants will root Yes Graveson (2012)
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Plants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer) Yes Kehrli and Bacher (2004)
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean)Seeds Yes Yes Kooi (2016)
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Randall (2012)
Capsicum baccatum (pepper) Yes Yes Walter and Lebot (2007)
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)Weed in gardens and lawns Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seed and root fragments Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Carpobrotus chilensis (sea fig)Escaped from cultivation via discarded stem pieces Yes Jonkers (2001)
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Commonly spread in dumped garden waste Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)Widely cultivated as an ornamental in urban and garden areas Yes Yes Bosch (2007); Duke (1983); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine) Yes
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Often commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Planted as ornamental Yes Woodson and Schery (1975)
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) Yes
Ceratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)Possible due to its use in aquaria and fishponds Yes
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)Seeds Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine) Yes Yes
Christella dentata (soft fern)Weed of urban areas Yes CSIRO (1998); Randall (2002); Randall (2009)
Cirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle) Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine)Stem fragments, fruits Yes Yes Smith (2010)
Clavibacter insidiosus (bacterial lucerne wilt) Yes EPPO (2010)
Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato) Yes
Clavibacter nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight) Yes
Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot) Yes
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban) Yes
Clerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)Escaped from gardens and yards Yes Yes Alain (1957)
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental. Often escaped from gardens Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum) Yes PIER (2012)
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Possible, if cuttings are able to root Yes
Combretum grandiflorum (showy combretum) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)Species is widely cultivated, and is capable of spreading by root suckers Yes Yes Staples et al. (2000)
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant) Yes
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass)Possible cause Yes University of Queensland (2013)
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes DAISIE (2009)
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes
Crassula ovata (jade plant)Can survive in waste dumps Yes Boyd (2013)
Crescentia cujete (calabash tree)Possible as it is used as an ornamental, although no information is available Yes
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Corms and rhizomes dispersed in dumping garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virusImproper disposal can cause contamination of subsequent crops Yes
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans) Yes Yes
Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder) Yes
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed in gardens Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear) Yes Deltoro et al. (2014)
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)Rhizomes, tillers and plant fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Oyen (1999)
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments are commonly dispersed in dumped garden waste. Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom) Yes Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura)Can spread by both seed and vegetative fragmentation Yes Yes PIER (2014); Randall (2012)
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug) Yes NOBANIS (2015)
Deroceras laeve (meadow slug)Accidental Yes AnimalBase (2015)
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes Blackshaw and Rode (1991)
Desmodium cajanifolium (tropical tick trefoil)No information available but possible from its cultivation Yes
Diaporthe gulyae (Phomopsis stem canker of sunflower)Possible - Carried on infected plant residues Yes Yes
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane)Accidental Yes Space and Flynn (2002)
Dimorphotheca sinuata (Cape marigold)Seeds Yes Yes Halvorson and Guertin (2003)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Although no information available, it is possible as it is used as an ornamental Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Tuber and stem fragments Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)Seeds, cuttings, stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Planted as ground cover in gardens. Spreads by seeds and rotting nodes Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Duranta erecta (golden dewdrop) Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)Cultivar spreads by rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs Yes Yes Dransfield and Beentje (1995)
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Potential seed contaminant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Tokarska-Guzik (2005); Dajdok and Kącki (2009)
Elodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed) Yes Bowmer et al.; 1995
Elodea nuttallii (Nuttall's waterweed) Yes Preston and Croft (1997)
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes PROTA (2018)
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)Stem fragments, seeds Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Cuttings and plant disposals Yes Yes PIER (2012)
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)Accidental escape Yes Whistler (1995)
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass) Yes Alien plants of Belgium (2018)
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Common weed in gardens, parks and lawns Yes Yes Fried and Dumbardon-Martial (2015)
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Seeds/dumped vegetation Yes Yes Weeds of New Zealand (2016)
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge) Yes
Euphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)Seeds, stem and root fragments Yes Yes Galindo-García et al. (2019)
Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)Seeds, stem fragments and cuttings Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Euphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)Seeds, stem fragments, cuttings Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Cuttings and stem fragments Yes PIER (2016)
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Seeds and plant parts Yes Yes
Euphorbia trigona (African milk weed)Spreads by cuttings and stem fragments Yes PROTA (2016)
Euwallacea fornicatus (polyphagous shot-hole borer) Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)common Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)flytipping common issue in UK Yes
Fallopia x bohemica Yes
Ficus lyrata (fiddle-leaf fig) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2014); Hutchinson and Rendle (1916); Madulid (1995); Starr et al. (2003)
Ficus pumila (creeping fig)Spreads by vegetative fragments, known to escape from cultivation and garden rubbish Yes Yes DAISIE (2014); Starr et al. (2003)
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes Mabberley (1997); Starr et al. (2003); USDA-ARS (2014); Whistler (2000)
Furcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Garden plant with bulbils could establish Yes Yes
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)Common weed in gardens Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede (2010)
Galphimia gracilis (goldshower)Seeds, cuttings Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode) Yes
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode) Yes
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Seeds Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003)
Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) Yes Yes Darwent (1975)
Hakea sericea (silky hakea) Yes
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Henderson (2003)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Helianthus debilis (beach sunflower)Seeds, stolons Yes Yes Gilman and Park-Brown (1999)
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Tiley et al. (1996)
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant, thus the chance of spread with waste soil Yes Yes Kabuce (2006)
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Spread by stem segments Yes Yes PIER (2013)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes PIER (2007)
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard) Yes Brooks (2004)
Holmskioldia sanguinea (Chinese hat plant)Capable of regenerating by cuttings Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Hadidi et al. (2003)
Humulus scandens (Japanese hop) Yes
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort) Yes
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane) Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)Naturalized in rubbish dumps Yes Yes Flora Mesoamericana (2018)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Often used in gardens and fences Yes Yes Henderson (2015)
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government (2017)
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Seed/stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Seeds Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Seeds in garden waste Yes Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants (2010)
Iris domestica (blackberry lily)Possible, from its cultivation Yes
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)Seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005); Francis (2004)
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Possible from its cultivation Yes
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)Possible, as it is listed as escaped from cultivation Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2020)
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut) Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Moran (2009)
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds, plantlets, leaves, plant fragments Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2011)
Kigelia africana (sausage tree)Plants can spread by disposal of fruits Yes González Gutiérrez et al. (2009)
Kyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga) Yes MPI (2016)
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Seeds Yes Yes
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2014)
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Seeds in dumped garden waste Yes Gilman and Watson (1993)
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes
Leonurus japonicus (honeyweed)Seeds Yes Yes eFloras (2014)
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)In garden soil used for compost. Yes Dave’s Garden (2016)
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas barometer bush)Cultivated as ornamental and spread by seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Martin (2020)
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)Possible from its cultivation although no details available Yes
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al. (1999)
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Accidental transport with vegetation and soil Yes
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Meyer et al. (2008)
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes
Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)Aquatic ornamental. Planted in ponds Yes Yes NZPCN (2020)
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Accidental Yes Yes Fremstad and Elven (2002)
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)No information available but it could be a possibility as it is reported an ornamental Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Stolons and rhizomes in garden waste dumping Yes Yes Diggs and Lipscomb (2014)
Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)Garden weed Yes Yes Makowski and Morrison (1989)
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Seeds Yes Yes Webb et al. (1988)
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Stem fragments dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weed Watch (2012)
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn) Yes
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Root and root crops infected. Yes
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Mansur (2001)
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Seeds might be dispersed on garden soil waste. Yes
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Various States in USA; NSW Australia Yes Harley (2007)
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)No information available, but possible as it is used occasionally as an ornamental Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, common pathway Yes
Morus nigra (black mulberry)Species is known to escape from cultivation and naturalize Yes Randall (2012)
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)Dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Brisbane City Council (2020)
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Seeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Ogbu (2011)
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris) Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)Seeds can be spread in dumped garden waste Yes Queensland Government (2013)
Nephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern) Yes Langeland (2001)
Nerium oleander (oleander)Possible as it is recorded as a garden escape Yes Yes HEAR (2017)
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)Seeds might be dispersed in garden soil Yes
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Planted as an ornamental Yes Yes PIER (2017)
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Seed, stem fragment in garden waste Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil) Yes Yes
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Stem fragments Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Stems and roots Yes Yes Francis (2005)
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Weed in gardens and lawns Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes
Orbea variegata (carrion-flower)From garden waste dumped in the bush Yes NSW Department of Primary Industries (2020)
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel) Yes
Pachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)Seeds, escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Kenny (2000)
Paederia foetida (skunkvine) Yes Possley and Brazis (1998)
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Possible from its use as an ornamental Yes
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Seeds and stem fragments in garden waste dumps Yes Yes Manidool (1992)
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Seeds, stolons and, rhizomes Yes Violi (2000)
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)Stem fragments Yes Yes
Passiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower) Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Known to be a garden escape in Puerto Rico; species can reproduce by cuttings Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); SANBI (2014)
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium) Yes Miller (1996); SANBI (2004); Walt JJAvan der (1977); Wiersema and Leon (2013)
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Disposal of seed heads from previous year Yes Florabase (2012)
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Possible. No details but reported as naturalized in Madeira Yes DAISIE (2019)
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)Removal of waste containing old but green stalks can disperse plant Yes
Phenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug) Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Accidental disposal of rhizomes by dumping yard waste Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Accidental disposal of rhizomes by dumping yard waste Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)Not documented but probable Yes
Phytophthora kernoviaeRelevant to historic managed gardens (UK) Yes FERA (2010a)
Pittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood) Yes Tee et al. (1999)
Plantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain) Yes
Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage) Yes Yes Randall (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)Popular garden ornamental, and is capable of regenerating by cuttings Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2014b)
Plumbago auriculata (cape leadwort) Yes
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Seeds, stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1994)
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Podranea ricasoliana (pink trumpet vine)Vegetative spread, usually from carelessly discarded garden waste Yes Sykes (1981); Webb et al. (1988); Malan and Notten (2002); Howell (2008); NZPCN (2020)
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed) Yes Burnett and Moore (2014)
Polyscias balfouriana (Balfour aralia)Seeds and stem cuttings Yes Yes Hume (1951)
Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia)Seeds, stem and root fragments Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Polyscias guilfoylei (geranium aralia)Stem fragments Yes Yes Duvauchelle (2007)
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed) Yes
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry) Yes GISD (2011)
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On infested prunings Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Pteris multifida (spider brake)Although not reported it is a possibility as a result of its cultivation Yes
Pteris tripartita (giant brake)Not mentioned in literature, but a possibility from its cultivation Yes
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Possible, as it is recorded as an ornamental that has escaped from cultivation Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Possible as it is used as an ornamental Yes
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn) Yes California Invasive Plant Council (2017)
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Raoiella indica (red palm mite)Investigated as one of the pathways in Florida Yes
Rhagoletis cingulata (cherry fruit fly)Infested fruits Yes
Rivina humilis (bloodberry)Assumed Yes
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Bruun (2005)
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) Yes Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder (2014)
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry) Yes ISSG (2014)
Rubus racemosus (black raspberry)Seeds, underground shoots Yes Yes Adams (1972)
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Seeds Yes Yes ISSG (2010)
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)Seeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Hupp et al. (2013)
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) Yes Yes DAISIE (2014)
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)Possible, as it is used locally as an ornamental Yes San Pedro Naturaleza (2020)
Sambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)Seeds, rhizomes, fragments Yes Yes Charlebois et al. (2010)
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Stem fragments Yes PIER (2014)
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)Leaf segments and rhizomes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)Leaf segments and rhizomes Yes Arnold (2004); ISSG (2012)
Securigera varia (crown vetch) Yes
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes Yes
Senna alata (candle bush)It is highly probable that seeds could be transported locally through garden waste from cultivation as an ornamental Yes
Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)Cultivated in gardens Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Standley and Steyermark (1946)
Senna multijuga (November shower)Species is known to have escaped garden cultivation Yes Yes PIER (2014); Randall (2012)
Senna occidentalis (coffee senna)Reported as a garden weed so possibly dispersed with garden waste Yes PIER (2016)
Senna surattensis (golden senna)Escaped from cultivation in places including India, Burma, Indochina, and the Philippines Yes Yes Little and Skolmen (1989); Randall (2012); Wagner et al. (2014)
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Sisymbrium irio Yes
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)Seeds could be a contaminant in garden waste Yes
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Intentionally cultivated as an ornamental or curiosity plant worldwide. Yes PBI Solanum Project (2014)
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Known to escape cultivation Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)Cultivated as an ornamental Yes PBI Solanum Project (2020)
Solanum tuberosum (potato)Species has a long and wide history of cultivation; can reproduce by both seed and tubers Yes Yes
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)A whole nest could move - accidental Yes Taber (2000)
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Weber (2011)
Solidago nemoralis (grey goldenrod)Hypothetical Yes
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Seeds, rhizomes Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Weed in gardens Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)Seeds as contaminant in soil Yes Yes Zouhar (2005)
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)This species can be dispersed by dividing rhizomes, corms or bulbs Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia) Yes
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet)Seeds, root shoots Yes Yes
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)Possible dispersion through high waters or by turions moved in muddy soil Yes Les (2020); PIER (2020)
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)The species is used as an ornamental, seeds could be spread through soil and garden waste Yes Yes Duistermaat (2004)
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed) Yes
Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass) Yes
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Possible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)Commonly planted as an ornamental, can be spread by vegetative fragments in garden waste Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)Grown in gardens as a homegrown fruit tree Yes Morton (1987); Randall (2012); Whistler and Elevitch (2006)
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Seeds Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Tamarindus indica (tamarind)Seeds Yes Yes POWO (2018)
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Rhizomes, spores and tubers Yes Yes
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Dumping of garden cuttings Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)Stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)Cuttings, stem fragments and roots Yes Yes PIER (2012); Starr et al. (2003)
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)No information available, but possible as the species is reported as a garden escape Yes PIER (2018)
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)Popular ornamental plant Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds in dumped garden waste Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2018)
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus)Improper disposal of garden waste can be a source of contamination for other crops Yes
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Stem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)Plant segments and discarded plants Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Seeds, cuttings, and discarded plants Yes Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (2011); PIER (2012)
Tradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)Frequent Yes Biosecurity Queensland (2012)
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)Stem fragments/plantlets and rhizomes Yes Yes
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Weed of gardens and parks Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Verbena officinalis (vervain)As an escape from cultivation Yes Méndez Santos (2002)
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium (2016)
Vespa velutina (Asian hornet) Yes
Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree)Seeds and cuttings Yes Yes White (2013)
Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)A single new population accidentally established from cuttings disposed of on sandy soils Yes USDA-APHIS (2013)
Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) Yes
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Vegetative reproduction from trimmings Yes University of Florida (2013)
Xanthomonas citri pv. punicae (bacterial blight of pomegranate) Yes
Xyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)Disposal of bouquets containing dried inflorescences Yes
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Seeds Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Sydney Weeds Committee (2016)
Yucca gigantea (spineless yucca)Stem and root fragments in garden waste Yes Yes NZPCN (2020)
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)As distributed with stolons of lawn grasses Yes Ames (1938)
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger) Yes Yes
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes