Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Forage (pathway cause)



Forage (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Forage (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Forage (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Eaten by goats, camels, bovines, elephants, rhinos, vervet monkeys and bushbucks Yes Achigan-Dako (2010); Wesley et al. (2013); Whitten (1988)
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia)Introduced to Australia for its potential use as forage for cattle. Yes Csurhes and Naive (2009); Pedley (1981)
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Trees are browsed by cattle Yes Yes Banerjee (1973)
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)Leaves and fruits are used as animal fodder Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)Used as a cut-and-carry forage for animals Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass) Yes Yes Zlatnik (1999)
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes Yes
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia)Albizia adinocephala provides livestock fodder with a high crude-protein content Yes Rico Arce et al. (2008)
Albizia chinensis (Chinese albizia) Yes Yes
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Leaves and stems are used as forage Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Albizia niopoides (silk tree)Forage for cattle Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Albizia procera (white siris)Leaves are used as forage and fodder Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)Used to feed farm animals Yes Yes Hammel et al. (2003); León (1987)
Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Alosa pseudoharengus (alewife)For piscivorous fishes, within the USA Yes Yes
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)As a fodder for goats and rabbits. Yes Quattrocchi (2012)
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)Species cultivated as fodder and forage crop for livestock. Yes Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort)In hay Yes Olliff et al. (2001)
Amaranthus cruentus (red amaranth) Yes
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) Yes
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass) Yes Yes
Aristida ternipes (spidergrass)Forage/stock Yes Yes Allred (2003)
Arracacia xanthorrhiza (arracacha) Yes Hermann (1997)
Arrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass)Used as hay Yes Yes
Arthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass) Yes Yes
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Fruits eaten by birds and other animals. Yes NSW Weedwise (2018)
Atriplex argentea (silverscale saltbush) Yes
Atriplex semibaccata (Australian saltbush) Yes Yes
Avena barbata (slender oat)Has been introduced to N. America as a contaminant in forage seeds Yes USDA-NRCS (2012)
Axonopus fissifolius Yes Yes
Balanites aegyptiaca (simple-thorned torchwood)Leaves and young shoots are used as forage Yes Booth and Wickens (1988)
Bambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)Leaves used as forage Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen (1995)
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Leaves consumed by goats Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Leaves good fodder for sheep, goats and cattle Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes Yes
Bothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)Widely used as permanent pasture on lower fertility soils. Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Bothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem) Yes Yes Texas Invasives (2015)
Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass) Yes Yes
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)USA: 1970s but likely earlier too Yes Hull AC Jr (1974)
Brassica juncea (mustard) Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Seeds and foliage eaten by various animals. The seeds are sold at markets in Mexico as bird food Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2018); Vibrans (2018)
Bromus hordeaceus (soft brome)Variety Blando (Reg.No. 11) Yes Yes Alderson and Sharp (1993); Howard (1998); Smith (1968)
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes Yes Kshnikatkina and Varlamov (2005)
Butia capitata (coquinho-azedo)Fruits and leaves foraged from natural populations by local communities Yes De Lima et al. (2011)
Calopogonium caeruleum (jicama)Green manure in pastures Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo)Used as forage legume, green manure, pioneer legume and cover crop Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean)Used to feed cattle and poultry Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine) Yes Yes
Cenchrus biflorus (Indian sandbur) Yes Yes
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes Yes Marshall et al. (2012)
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Forage, pasture, hay Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Forage, fodder, hay production Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)Forage for cattle and goats Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Leaves and stems sometimes used as forage for livestock Yes Yes Brink and Achigan-Dako (2012)
Clavibacter insidiosus (bacterial lucerne wilt) Yes Yes EPPO (2010)
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Planted for forage, hay and silage Yes Yes Staples (1992)
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Used to feed animals Yes Ross-Ibarra and Molina-Cruz (2002)
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Introduced and cultivated in many countries as a forage and fodder crop for livestock and poultry Yes Yes Schaaffhausen (1952); FAO (2017)
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Corms, stems and leaves are used as animal fodder Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass)Used as emergency feed for livestock Yes Yes Pleasants and Whitehead (1977)
Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)Used as green fodder Yes Yes Denton (2004)
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed) Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Contaminant in forage and hay Yes Yes Maddox et al. (2011)
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans) Yes Yes
Cuscuta campestris (field dodder) Yes Yes
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed in pasturelands Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)Sometimes used as forage Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Widely introduced in tropical regions Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Cynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Grazed, and used for hay and silage Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Used as fodder and for hay production Yes Yes Heuzé et al. (2015)
Danthonia decumbens (heath grass)Introduced to Tasmania and Victoria from Europe as a fodder grass Yes Alfonso (2010); Mallett (2005)
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes Blackshaw and Rode (1991)
Desmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)Often promoted as forage Yes Yes Demski et al. (1981); Schifino-Wittmann (2000); Smith (1995)
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Pasture for grazing Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Dichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)Used as fodder/forage grass Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Dichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass) Yes Quattrocchi (2006)
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass) Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)Forage/fodder for livestock. Yes Yes Tropical Forages (2016)
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Tubers (yams) and bulbils are also used to feed animals Yes Yes
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)It is usually foraged from the wild for food and for use as green manure Yes Gaur and Bhatt (1994); Badola (2010); HEAR (2020)
Drymaria arenarioides (alfombrilla)Grazed on by livestock Yes Allison (1977)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Planted as a forage and fodder crop Yes Yes FAO (2014)
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass) Yes Yes Pl@ntNet (2017)
Echinochloa pyramidalis Yes
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes Yes Bossard et al. (2000)
Eragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)Use for pasture and hay Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)Use for pasture, forage, fodder Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass)Cultivated for hay, used as a forage grass in arid areas Yes Yes FAO (2015); PROTA (2015); Uchytil (1992)
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Used to be cultivated as a forage species in southern Brazil Yes Yes Reis (1993); Kissmann (1997); Medeiros et al. (2004)
Erythrina berteroana (coralbean)Leaves are eaten by cattle, goats, rabbits, etc Yes Yes Barrance et al. (2003)
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)Grown for fodder and hay Yes Yes
Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue) Yes Yes Darbyshire (2007)
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Used for medicinal purposes, firewood and seeds collected to use hairs for pillows Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2018)
Gaultheria shallon (salal) Yes EPPO (2014); Pojar and Mackinnon (2004)
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Main cause of introduction to many countries/regions was cultivation as a fodder crop Yes Yes EPPO (2008); Kabuce (2006); Nielsen et al. (2005)
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard) Yes South East Natural Resources Management Board (2009)
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)Introduced to enhance livestock production Yes Yes Williams and Baruch (2000)
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes Yes
Indigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)Introduced by the USDA as a forage plant Yes Yes Wallace (1957)
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo) Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Ischaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Used to establish permanent pastures Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Used as livestock forage by Paiute people of Oregon Yes Mahar (1953)
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)Browsed by livestock Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)By birds and fish Yes Mukhopadhyay and Dewanji (2005)
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Bouda and Chien (2005)
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) Yes
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Used as bird food and as fodder for other animals. Yes CONABIO (2016)
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)To Madagascar (1954), South Africa and Swaziland (1939), Zimbabwe (1940), and Brazil (1930s) Yes Welcomme (1988)
Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) Yes Yes
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop) Yes Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)Fruits eaten by birds Yes Witmer (1996); Maddox et al. (2010)
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)The species is foraged locally for medicinal practices and to manufacture various articles. Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)In hay as feed Yes Thompson et al. (1987)
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes
Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro) Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Used as forage to feed rabbits Yes Yes Phuong et al. (2013)
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Animal forage Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Medicago lupulina (black medick)Cultivated as forage for livestock Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Medicago polymorpha (bur clover) Yes Yes
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Often planted as forage crop Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass)Planted as forage and fodder Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Microstegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop)Moderate uncertainty Yes EPPO Executive Committee (2012); Warren et al. (2010)
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Fodder for goats and cattle Yes Yes Grandtner and Chevrette (2013)
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Forage for goats, but according to Vélez and Overbeek (1950), this species is avoided by cattle Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant) Yes Yes DAF (2016); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
Monochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)Foraged locally for food Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, rare pathway Yes
Moorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass) Yes Blanca et al. (2009)
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)Fruits used to feed pigs Yes Yes Francis (2004)
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean)Cultivated as a cover crop and fodder/forage crop Yes Yes Duke (1981)
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)Seeds eaten by birds and other animals Yes Gilman (1999)
Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)Widely introduced forage crop Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Used as a fodder/forage species Yes Yes Hanelt (2017)
Orobanche ramosa (branched broomrape) Yes Yes Jacobsohn (1984)
Oryza barthii Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Yes PAG (2000)
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Cultivated as forage and cut-and-carry systems Yes Yes Manidool (1992)
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)widely introduced as forage for livestock Yes Yes PIER (2017)
Paspalum millegrana (yerba brava)Young plants are consumed by cattle Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari (2006)
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Grown in pastures Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran (2016)
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Sometimes used as forage Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari (2006)
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)Widely introduced as a pasture grass around the world Yes Yes Bowen and Hollinger (2002); Randall (2012)
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes Yes
Paspalum virgatum (sword grass)Young plants consumed by cattle Yes Yes Sistachs and Leon (1987)
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)Widely introduced as a forage crop Yes
Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass) Yes Yes Choubey and Bhagat (2005)
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)P. purpureum is one of the highest yielding tropical forage grasses Yes Yes FAO (2013)
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Leaves used in Mexico to feed domestic animals Yes Rueda (1994)
Phalaris aquatica (bulbous canarygrass) Yes Yes Barry (2007)
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)Cultivated for its edible seeds Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) Yes Yes
Phragmites australis (common reed) Yes Yes
Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Yes Yes NatureServe (2012)
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Weed in pastures Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)Ingested by horses used to transport people in recreational trails Yes Wells and Lauenroth (2007)
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass)As contaminant in hay, straw or packing material Yes Yes
Polyscias guilfoylei (geranium aralia)Leaves and young shoots used as forage Yes Yes Cáceres et al. (1996)
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Tomaino (2004)
Pseudelephantopus spicatus (false elephant’s foot) Yes Blake (1948)
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Dispersed by birds, racoons and opossums Yes Zona (1997); PIER (2017)
Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)Forage legume Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Originally to the USA, but unlikely now Yes Bugwood (2008)
Rutilus rutilus (roach) Yes Yes Welcomme (1988)
Sacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass) Yes Mallett and Orchard (2002)
Salsola kali (common saltwort) Yes
Salsola paulsenii (barbwire Russian thistle) Yes
Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)Foraged by various aquatic birds Yes Argentina Nativa (2020)
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch) Yes Yes
Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)Used as a forage grass Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Sechium edule (chayote)Fruits used as fodder for pigs, poultry and cattle Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Securigera varia (crown vetch) Yes
Senna italica (Senegal senna)Leaves and young pods Yes Yes Okeyo and Bosch (2007)
Sesbania bispinosa (dunchi fibre)As fodder for sheep, cattle and goats Yes Yes Duke (1983); Orwa et al. (2009); Flore de La Réunion (2016)
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban) Yes Yes Ipor and Oyen (1997)
Sesbania sesban (sesban) Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001)
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Setaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail) Yes Arregui et al. (2001); Leithead et al. (1971); Muller and Via (2012)
Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) Yes Yes
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Yes Smith (2002)
Silene latifolia subsp. alba (white campion)Contaminant of hay Yes Yes Alberta Weed Monitoring Network (2014)
Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple)movement of hay, within USA Yes Yes Mullahey et al. (2006)
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes Yes
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)Foraged by aquatic animals Yes Les (2020)
Sporisorium pulverulentum (Sporisorium smut of wild Saccharum) Yes
Sporobolus africanus (rat’s tail grass)can occur in hay Yes Yes
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Foraged by Iguana iguana Yes Standley Rand et al. (1990)
Tamarindus indica (tamarind)Leaves used as forage and animal fodder Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes Yes
Themeda arguens (Christmas grass)Young plants used as forage Yes Yes Smith (1979)
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Used as forage and fodder Yes Roothaert and Paterson (1997)
Tragus racemosus (stalker bur grass)Occasionally foraged by animals Yes PROTA (2020)
Trifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover)Used in making hay as a protein source Yes Kamalak and Canbolat (2010)
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover)Cultivated as a forage crop Yes BRC (Biological Records Centre) (2016); Clark and Malte (1913); Minnesota Wildflowers (2015); USDA-ARS (2016)
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)Widely cultivated as forage crop Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Tripsacum latifolium (wideleaf gamagrass)Cultivated as fodder plant Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
Ulex europaeus (gorse)As a contaminant of hay Yes Yes Tulang (1992)
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Permanent pastures and fresh feed Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2015)
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Shade tolerant Yes Schultze-Kraft (1992)
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Pasture grass Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Cultivated as forage Yes Yes Gupta (2013)
Vachellia macracantha (porknut)cultivated for fodder Yes Yes Seigler and Ebinger (1988)
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)In harvested hay, when seeds are present Yes Yes
Verbena litoralis (blue vervain) Yes Yes
Vulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue)Possibly spread in hay, straw Yes Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. alfalfae (bacterial leaf spot of lucerne) Yes Yes
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube) Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Zoysia matrella (Manila grass)Grazed in coconut plantations Yes FAO (2015)