Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Forage (pathway cause)



Forage (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Forage (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Forage (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Eaten by goats, camels, bovines, elephants, rhinos, vervet monkeys and bushbucks Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010; Wesley et al., 2013; Whitten, 1988
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia)Introduced to Australia for its potential use as forage for cattle. Yes Csurhes and Naive, 2009; Pedley, 1981
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Trees are browsed by cattle Yes Yes Banerjee, 1973
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)Leaves and fruits are used as animal fodder Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)Used as a cut-and-carry forage for animals Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass) Yes Yes Zlatnik, 1999
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes Yes
Albizia adinocephala (cream albizia)Albizia adinocephala provides livestock fodder with a high crude-protein content Yes Rico Arce et al., 2008
Albizia chinensis (Chinese albizia) Yes Yes
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Leaves and stems are used as forage Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)Used to feed farm animals Yes Yes Hammel et al., 2003; León, 1987
Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Alosa pseudoharengus (alewife)For piscivorous fishes, within the USA Yes Yes
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)As a fodder for goats and rabbits. Yes Quattrocchi, 2012
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)Species cultivated as fodder and forage crop for livestock. Yes Yes Duke, 1981; Hanelt et al., 2001
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort)In hay Yes Olliff et al., 2001
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) Yes
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass) Yes Yes
Aristida ternipes (spidergrass)Forage/stock Yes Yes Allred, 2003
Arracacia xanthorrhiza (arracacha) Yes Hermann, 1997
Arrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass)Used as hay Yes Yes
Arthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass) Yes Yes
Atriplex argentea (silverscale saltbush) Yes
Atriplex semibaccata (Australian saltbush) Yes Yes
Avena barbata (slender oat)Has been introduced to N. America as a contaminant in forage seeds Yes USDA-NRCS, 2012
Axonopus fissifolius Yes Yes
Balanites aegyptiaca (simple-thorned torchwood)Leaves and young shoots are used as forage Yes Booth and Wickens, 1988
Bambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)Leaves used as forage Yes Yes Duriyaprapan and Jansen, 1995
Bambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Leaves consumed by goats Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Leaves good fodder for sheep, goats and cattle Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes Yes
Bothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem) Yes Yes Texas Invasives, 2015
Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass) Yes Yes
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)USA: 1970s but likely earlier too Yes Hull AC Jr, 1974
Brassica juncea (mustard) Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Seeds and foliage eaten by various animals. The seeds are sold at markets in Mexico as bird food Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2018; Vibrans, 2018
Bromus hordeaceus (soft brome)Variety Blando (Reg.No. 11) Yes Yes Alderson and Sharp, 1993; Howard, 1998; Smith, 1968
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes Yes Kshnikatkina and Varlamov, 2005
Calopogonium caeruleum (jicama)Green manure in pastures Yes Cook et al., 2005
Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo)Used as forage legume, green manure, pioneer legume and cover crop Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine) Yes Yes
Cenchrus biflorus (Indian sandbur) Yes Yes
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes Yes Marshall et al., 2012
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2009
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Forage, fodder, hay production Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Leaves and stems sometimes used as forage for livestock Yes Yes Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Planted for forage, hay and silage Yes Yes Staples, 1992
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Introduced and cultivated in many countries as a forage and fodder crop for livestock and poultry Yes Yes Schaaffhausen, 1952; FAO, 2017
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Corms, stems and leaves are used as animal fodder Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass)Used as emergency feed for livestock Yes Yes Pleasants and Whitehead, 1977
Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)Used as green fodder Yes Yes Denton, 2004
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed) Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Contaminant in forage and hay Yes Yes Maddox et al., 2011
Cuscuta campestris (field dodder) Yes Yes
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed in pasturelands Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Widely introduced in tropical regions Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Cynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Grazed, and used for hay and silage Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Used as fodder and for hay production Yes Yes Heuzé et al., 2015
Danthonia decumbens (heath grass)Introduced to Tasmania and Victoria from Europe as a fodder grass Yes Alfonso, 2010; Mallett, 2005
Descurainia sophia (flixweed) Yes Blackshaw and Rode, 1991
Desmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)Often promoted as forage Yes Yes Demski et al., 1981; Schifino-Wittmann, 2000; Smith, 1995
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Pasture for grazing Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Dichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass) Yes Quattrocchi, 2006
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass) Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)Forage/fodder for livestock. Yes Yes Tropical Forages, 2016
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Tubers (yams) and bulbils are also used to feed animals Yes Yes
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Planted as a forage and fodder crop Yes Yes FAO, 2014
Echinochloa pyramidalis Yes
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Eragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)Use for pasture and hay Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)Use for pasture, forage, fodder Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass)Cultivated for hay, used as a forage grass in arid areas Yes Yes FAO, 2015; PROTA, 2015; Uchytil, 1992
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Used to be cultivated as a forage species in southern Brazil Yes Yes Reis, 1993; Kissmann, 1997; Medeiros et al., 2004
Erythrina berteroana (coralbean)Leaves are eaten by cattle, goats, rabbits, etc Yes Yes Barrance et al., 2003
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)Grown for fodder and hay Yes Yes
Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue) Yes Yes Darbyshire, 2007
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Used for medicinal purposes, firewood and seeds collected to use hairs for pillows Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2018
Gaultheria shallon (salal) Yes EPPO, 2014; Pojar and Mackinnon, 2004
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Main cause of introduction to many countries/regions was cultivation as a fodder crop Yes Yes EPPO, 2008; Kabuce, 2006; Nielsen et al., 2005
Hirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard) Yes South East Natural Resources Management Board, 2009
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)Introduced to enhance livestock production Yes Yes Williams and Baruch, 2000
Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) Yes Yes
Indigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)Introduced by the USDA as a forage plant Yes Yes Wallace, 1957
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo) Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Ischaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Used to establish permanent pastures Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Used as livestock forage by Paiute people of Oregon Yes Mahar, 1953
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)Browsed by livestock Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)By birds and fish Yes Mukhopadhyay and Dewanji, 2005
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Bouda and Chien, 2005
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) Yes
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Used as bird food and as fodder for other animals. Yes CONABIO, 2016
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)To Madagascar (1954), South Africa and Swaziland (1939), Zimbabwe (1940), and Brazil (1930s) Yes Welcomme, 1988
Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) Yes Yes
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop) Yes Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Limnocharis flava (yellow bur-head) Yes
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)In hay as feed Yes Thompson et al., 1987
Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro) Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Animal forage Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Medicago lupulina (black medick)Cultivated as forage for livestock Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Medicago polymorpha (bur clover) Yes Yes
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Often planted as forage crop Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass)Planted as forage and fodder Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Microstegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop)Moderate uncertainty Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010; Warren et al., 2010
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Fodder for goats and cattle Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Forage for goats, but according to Vélez and Overbeek (1950), this species is avoided by cattle Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa diplotricha (creeping sensitive plant) Yes Yes DAF, 2016; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, rare pathway Yes
Moorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass) Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)Fruits used to feed pigs Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean)Cultivated as a cover crop and fodder/forage crop Yes Yes Duke, 1981
Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)Widely introduced forage crop Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Used as a fodder/forage species Yes Yes Hanelt, 2017
Orobanche ramosa (branched broomrape) Yes Yes Jacobsohn, 1984
Oryza barthii Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Yes PAG, 2000
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Cultivated as forage and cut-and-carry systems Yes Yes Manidool, 1992
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)widely introduced as forage for livestock Yes Yes PIER, 2017
Paspalum millegrana (yerba brava)Young plants are consumed by cattle Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Grown in pastures Yes Yes Heuzé and Tran, 2016
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Sometimes used as forage Yes Yes Más and Garcia-Molinari, 2006
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)Widely introduced as a pasture grass around the world Yes Bowen and Hollinger, 2002; Randall, 2012
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes Yes
Paspalum virgatum (sword grass)Young plants consumed by cattle Yes Yes Sistachs and Leon, 1987
Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)Widely introduced as a forage crop Yes
Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass) Yes Yes Choubey and Bhagat, 2005
Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)P. purpureum is one of the highest yielding tropical forage grasses Yes Yes FAO, 2013
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Leaves used in Mexico to feed domestic animals Yes Rueda, 1994
Phalaris aquatica (bulbous canarygrass) Yes Yes Barry, 2007
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)Cultivated for its edible seeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) Yes Yes
Phragmites australis (common reed) Yes Yes
Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Yes Yes NatureServe, 2012
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Weed in pastures Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)Ingested by horses used to transport people in recreational trails Yes Wells and Lauenroth, 2007
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass)As contaminant in hay, straw or packing material Yes Yes
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Tomaino, 2004
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Dispersed by birds, racoons and opossums Yes Zona, 1997; PIER, 2017
Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)Forage legume Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Originally to the USA, but unlikely now Yes Bugwood, 2008
Rutilus rutilus (roach) Yes Yes Welcomme, 1988
Sacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass) Yes Mallett and Orchard, 2002
Salsola kali (common saltwort) Yes
Salsola paulsenii (barbwire Russian thistle) Yes
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch) Yes Yes
Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)Used as a forage grass Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Securigera varia (crown vetch) Yes
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban) Yes Yes Ipor and Oyen, 1997
Sesbania sesban (sesban) Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Setaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail) Yes Arregui et al., 2001; Leithead et al., 1971; Muller and Via, 2012
Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) Yes Yes
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Yes Smith, 2002
Silene latifolia subsp. alba (white campion)Contaminant of hay Yes Yes Alberta Weed Monitoring Network, 2014
Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple)movement of hay, within USA Yes Yes Mullahey et al., 2006
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes Yes
Sporisorium pulverulentum (Sporisorium smut of wild Saccharum) Yes
Sporobolus africanus (rat’s tail grass)can occur in hay Yes Yes
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes Yes
Themeda arguens (Christmas grass)Young plants used as forage Yes Yes Smith, 1979
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Used as forage and fodder Yes Roothaert and Paterson, 1997
Trifolium angustifolium (narrow-leaf clover)Used in making hay as a protein source Yes Kamalak and Canbolat, 2010
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover)Cultivated as a forage crop Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010; Clark and Malte, 1913; Minnesota Wildflowers, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2016
Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)Widely cultivated as forage crop Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2017
Tripsacum latifolium (wideleaf gamagrass)Cultivated as fodder plant Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Ulex europaeus (gorse)As a contaminant of hay Yes Yes Tulang, 1992
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Permanent pastures and fresh feed Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2015
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Shade tolerant Yes Schultze-Kraft, 1992
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Pasture grass Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Cultivated as forage Yes Yes Gupta, 2013
Vachellia macracantha (porknut)cultivated for fodder Yes Yes Seigler and Ebinger, 1988
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)In harvested hay, when seeds are present Yes Yes
Verbena litoralis (blue vervain) Yes Yes
Vulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue)Possibly spread in hay, straw Yes Yes
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Zoysia matrella (Manila grass)Grazed in coconut plantations Yes FAO, 2015