Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)



Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 08 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Frequent escape from cultivation Yes Yes PROSEA (2016)
Abrus precatorius (rosary pea)Species is cultivated for ornamental, medicinal, and food additive purposes Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003); Padua et al. (1999); Weber (2003)
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow) Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Possibly escaping from cultivation and becoming naturalized Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2015); PIER (2015)
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Used as an ornamental tree from where it can escape into nearby areas Yes PIER (2016)
Acacia crassicarpa (northern wattle) Yes
Acacia decurrens (green wattle)Escaped from old forestry plantations in many parts of Australia, as well as other countries Yes FloraBase (2016); Weeds of Australia (2016)
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle) Yes WorldWideWattle (2015)
Acacia saligna (coojong)Species is known to escape cultivation Yes Yes Doran and Turnbull (1997); Weeds of Australia (2016)
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail)Accidental Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) Yes
Acridotheres fuscus (jungle myna) Yes
Acridotheres tristis (common myna) Yes
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) Yes
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree) Yes ISSG (2012)
Adiantum hispidulum (rosy maidenhair fern)Escaped from cultivation and/or naturalized in south eastern USA, Hawaii, Natal and Singapore Yes Schelpe and Anthony (1986)
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)spores are carried by wind, accidental Yes Palmer (2003)
Adonidia merrillii (Christmas palm)Escaped from cultivation Yes Smith (2010)
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes DAISIE (2016); Weeds of Australia (2016)
Agave fourcroydes (henequen)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Badano and Pugnaire (2004)
Agave sisalana (sisal hemp) Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Agave vivipara (Caribbean agave)Bulbils Yes PROTA (2015)
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot)Occasionally planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Vickery (2009)
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Cited as escaping from gardens and naturalizing in nearby areas. Yes PFAF (2016)
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, accidental Yes Constán-Nava (2012); Kowarik and Säumel (2007)
Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris)Escaped from agroforestry systems and gardens Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2009)
Albizia procera (white siris)Found naturalized in areas near cultivation Yes Parrotta (2004)
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)Stem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Randall (2007)
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Spread by seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Escaped or persistent after cultivation Yes Yes Grayum (2003)
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)Occasionally planted as ornamental Yes Yes Manner (2011)
Aloe vera (true aloe) Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian goose) Yes Lever (2005)
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Escaped and naturalized Yes Yes GRIIS (2019)
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)In Hawaii, occasional escape from cultivation Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant) Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Stems and seeds Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover) Yes Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort)Originally introduced as a medicinal herb for garden cultivation Yes Yes Mosley (2014)
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth) Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003)
Amaranthus tricolor (edible amaranth) Yes
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes
Ammotragus lervia (aoudad)There many examples of free-ranging populations originated from escapes from game reserves, both in Yes Yes Cassinello et al. (2004); Gray (1985)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush) Yes Karmyzova (2014)
Amphisbaena fuliginosa (speckled worm lizard)Possible pathway Yes Murphy et al. (2010)
Amynthas agrestis (crazy worm)Movement with soil or other organic material accompanying plants Yes Gates (1958)
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)This species invasively self-seeds and seeds are wind-dispersed Yes PIER (2008); Rojas and Chavez Vibrans (2010)
Angiopteris evecta (king fern)It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)Known to have escaped from cultivation in India and into the wild Yes Yes Morton (1987)
Anolis extremus (Barbados anole)Port of Spain (Trinidad) introduction of specimens released by collector, in transit from Barbados Yes Murphy (1997)
Anolis sagrei (brown anole) Yes
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes
Anredera vesicaria (Texas madeira vine)Escaped and naturalized in the Philippines Yes Yes Pelser (2017)
Anser indicus (bar-headed goose) Yes Lever (2005)
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Planted as a garden ornamental Yes Yes Burke and DiTommaso (2011)
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Apis mellifera scutellata (africanized bee)From South Africa & Tanzania to Brazil, then escaped into the Brazilian countryside Yes Piereira and Chaud-Netto (2005)
Ardisia crenata (coral berry)This is the primary invasion pathway Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Ardisia humilis (low shoebutton)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper) Yes Csurhes (2009)
Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp) Yes
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe)Can propagate by seeds and vegetatively Yes Yes Randall (2012); Starr et al. (2003); Weeds of Australia (2015)
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005); Liogier and Martorell (2000); Meerman (2003); Randall (2012)
Aronia x prunifolia Yes
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Dudley (2000)
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Stansbury (1999)
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Escaped from cultivation Yes NSW Weedwise (2018)
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Atriplex semibaccata (Australian saltbush) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi) Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015); PIER (2015); Randall (2012); Space et al. (2003)
Bambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Ohrnberger (1999)
Bambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)Escaped from cultivation and naturalized Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2019)
Bambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)Escaped from cultivation Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019)
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Aguilar (2001)
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Csurhes and Edwards (1998)
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)Fruits can float and remain viable for many months Yes Yes Yaplito (2001)
Basella alba (malabar spinach)Possible as it is cultivated as an ornamental Yes
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Connor (2002)
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Smith (2010)
Begonia nelumbiifolia (lilypad begonia)This species is grown as an ornamental, but due to its limited dispersal capabilities, only local distance can be possible Yes
Belonesox belizanus (pike killifish)A population of B. belizanus discovered in Hillsborough County (Florida) in 1997 were thought to hav Yes USGS (2015)
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Seeds Yes Yes DAFF (2011)
Bixa orellana (annatto) Yes Morton (1960)
Bontia daphnoides (white alling)It has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized Yes Little et al. (1974)
Bos taurus (cattle) Yes
Bothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)Escaped from pastures Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Naturalized Yes Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Hitchcock (1950)
Branta canadensis (Canada goose) Yes Lever (2005)
Branta hutchinsii Yes Lever (2005)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Escaped from cultivation into fields and disturbed areas Yes Young-Mathews (2012); Vibrans (2018)
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Spreading by root suckers near areas where cultivated Yes PIER (2017); Wildlife of Hawaii (2017)
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes Yes
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)Often planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail) Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Seed and stem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes GISD (2016)
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Les and Mehrhoff (1999)
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower) Yes Yes Gillman and Watson (2011); PIER (2014)
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Seed and rhizomes Yes Yes PIER (2016)
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Individuals break off and root Yes Graveson (2012)
Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)Seeds and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel) Yes Jouanin (1986); Jouanin (1992)
Calopogonium caeruleum (jicama)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Graveson (2012)
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)Species is known to escape from cultivated areas Yes PIER (2014)
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Canis lupus familiaris (dogs) Yes
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes
Capra hircus (goats) Yes
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)Known to have escaped garden and crop cultivation Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Randall (2012)
Capsicum baccatum (pepper) Yes Yes Walter and Lebot (2007)
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)Weed in gardens and lawns Yes Yes ISSG (2019)
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seed and root fragments Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Can escape from cultivated areas Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al. (2013)
Carpobrotus chilensis (sea fig)Escaped from cultivation via discarded stem pieces Yes Jonkers (2001)
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes
Carpodacus mexicanus (house finch) Yes
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Commonly spread in dumped garden waste Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Cassia grandis (pink shower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental in urban and garden areas Yes Yes Toruan-Purba (1999)
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine) Yes
Castor canadensis (beaver) Yes
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree) Yes Binggelli (1999)
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Planted as ornamental Yes Woodson and Schery (1975)
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Farmed deer are a risk Yes
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Species is a popular ornamental and is known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Chamaedorea elegans (parlour palm) Yes Yes Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )Seeds and rhizomes Yes Yes Staples et al. (2000)
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Often escaped from cultivation: seeds, stem fragments, seeds as contaminants Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Christella dentata (soft fern)This is not an example of an escape but the planting of it as an ornamental Yes Drummond (1959)
Cichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)Released and/or escaped from fish farms possibly responsible for populations in Florida Yes Schofield et al. (2016)
Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia) Yes Yes
Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon) Yes Kueffer et al. (2009)
Cirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle) Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)
Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower) Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower) Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)Grown as an ornamental and has been known to escape cultivation Yes Yes
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban) Yes
Clerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)Escaped from gardens and yards Yes Yes Alain (1957)
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental. Often escaped from gardens Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Clerodendrum speciosissimum (Java glory bower) Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Randall (2012)
Clerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower) Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Escaped from cultivation Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Possible, if cuttings are able to root Yes
Coccinella septempunctata (seven-spot ladybird) Yes
Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Escaped from cultivation and naturalized in many countries. Often naturalized in areas near villages and farms Yes Yes Jansen (2006); PROTA (2017)
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Occasionally planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Colubrina asiatica (latherleaf)Frequently found in coastal hammocks. Escaped from cultivation Yes Jones (1996)
Columba livia (pigeons) Yes
Combretum grandiflorum (showy combretum) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)Capable of spreading by both seed and root suckers Yes Yes PIER (2015); Randall (2012); Staples et al. (2000)
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant)Accidental, discard house/garden plant Yes
Coriandrum sativum (coriander) Yes Randall (2012)
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)Europe, Australia Yes EPPO (2009); Gardening Australia (2009)
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes Edgar and Connor (2010)
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes Yes DAISIE (2009)
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)Attractive garden plant Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Known to have escaped cultivation in Panama, Paraguay, Florida and other parts of the Caribbean and South America Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Flora of Panama (2016); Paraguay Checklist (2016)
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes Dickoré and Kasperek (2010)
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes OEPP/EPPO (2007)
Crassula ovata (jade plant) Yes Verloove (2013)
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) Yes Alverson and Sigg (2008)
Crescentia cujete (calabash tree)Possible, although most of the fruits remain under the tree Yes
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Escaped from cultivation and becoming invasive Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed) Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Seeds as contaminant in crop seeds, forage, hay and agricultural equipment Yes Yes Maddox et al. (2011)
Cucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)Escaped from cultivation. Often naturalized outside cultivation Yes Yes Wilkins-Ellert (2004)
Cuphea hyssopifolia (false heather) Yes Francis (2004)
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress) Yes Sanz Elorza (2004); Flora Argentina (2017); Flora Italiana (2017)
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder) Yes
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Spores are carried by wind Yes Palmer (2003)
Cygnus olor (mute swan) Yes
Cylindropuntia fulgida (jumping cholla)Plants and detached segments are often thrown over garden fences or taken to garbage dump sites Yes Mathenge et al. (2009)
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear) Yes Deltoro et al. (2014)
Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)Rhizomes, tillers and plant fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Oyen (1999)
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)Seeds, rhizomes and tillers Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Cynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Naturalized along roadsides and in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not)Accidental Yes New York Botanical Garden (2017); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2017)
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments are commonly dispersed in dumped garden waste. Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes Yes
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Fruits and seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2016)
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Contaminant in crops and crop seeds Yes Yes Heuzé et al. (2015)
Dalbergia sissoo Yes Morton (2007)
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura)Can spread by both seed and vegetative fragmentation Yes Yes PIER (2014); Randall (2012)
Daucus carota (carrot) Yes
Delonix regia (flamboyant) Yes PIER (2009)
Derris elliptica (tuba root)Seed and stem fragments Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Desmodium cajanifolium (tropical tick trefoil)Escaping from cultivation Yes Wester (1992)
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane)Accidental Yes Space and Flynn (2002)
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Plants produce many seeds and may also spread by rooting at the nodes Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Dimorphotheca sinuata (Cape marigold)Escaped from cultivation and naturalized in the wild Yes Yes Calflora (2020)
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Bulbils, plant fragments Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)Escaped from cultivated areas Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)escaped from cultivation in Panama Yes Standley (1928)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Escaped from cultivation Yes PIER (2020)
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc)Not explicitly mentioned in literature, but likely based on the species’ biology Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Seeds, tuber and stem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)Escaped and/or persistent after cultivation Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Dypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)Escaped from gardens Yes Dransfield and Beentje (1995)
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Seeds Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber) Yes Tokarska-Guzik (2005); Bagi and Böszörményi (2008); Dajdok and Kącki (2009)
Elaeagnus pungens (thorny olive) Yes Miller (2003)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) Yes Munger (2003)
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)Evident, but no supporting refs Yes
Elodea nuttallii (Nuttall's waterweed) Yes Bowmer et al. (1995)
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Seeds Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Emilia praetermissa (yellow thistle)Weed in gardens and lawns Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Cultivated in gardens and yards Yes Yes Gilman (2011)
Equus caballus [ISC] (horse) Yes
Eragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)Accidental escape Yes Pink (2004)
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass) Yes Alien plants of Belgium (2018)
Eranthemum pulchellum (blue-sage)Accidental Yes PIER (2019)
Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)Seeds and stolons Yes Yes Brosnan and Deputy (2008)
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane) Yes Kunkel (1972); National Museums Northern Ireland (2010); Orchard (1994)
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Seeds Yes Yes Weeds of New Zealand (2016)
Erythrina berteroana (coralbean)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Barrance et al. (2003)
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) Yes
Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Escaped from plantations Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry) Yes
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Often naturalized close to plantings Yes Zouhar (2009)
Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree) Yes
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge) Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Escape from gardens and yards Yes Little et al. (1974)
Euphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)Escaped from cultivation and naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes Hyde et al. (2020)
Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)Escaped from cultivation and naturalized Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020)
Euphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)Escaped from cultivation and naturalized Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone) Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000)
Euphorbia trigona (African milk weed)Escaped from gardens/cultivation Yes PROTA (2016)
Euphorbia umbellata (African milk bush) Yes PROTA (2017); Weeds of Australia (2017)
Falcataria moluccana (batai wood) Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)most common Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)very common indeed Yes Bailey and Conolly (2000)
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Seeds dispersed by birds Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)Naturalised in places where it has been introduced as a garden cultivation Yes Yes
Ficus carica (common fig)Species cultivated for thousands of years and can escape from cultivation Yes Yes Hanelt et al. (2001)
Ficus elastica (rubber plant)Species can escape from cultivation Yes Yes Tawan (2000)
Ficus lyrata (fiddle-leaf fig) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2014); Hutchinson and Rendle (1916); Madulid (1995); Starr et al. (2003)
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree) Yes Randall (2012)
Ficus pumila (creeping fig)Spreads by vegetative fragments, known to escape from cultivation and garden rubbish Yes Yes DAISIE (2014); Starr et al. (2003)
Flacourtia indica (governor's plum) Yes
Flemingia lineata (wild hops)Naturalized in areas near cultivation Yes Yes Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
Flemingia macrophylla (large leaf flemingia) Yes
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops) Yes ISSG (2014)
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Escaped from its cultivation at La Laguna Botanical Garden at El Salvador Yes Dendroflora de El Salvador (2018)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)Widely cultivated as ornamental and escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier) Yes Yes Damalas (2008)
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier) Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede (2010)
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Brown (2012)
Galphimia gracilis (goldshower)Escaped from cultivation and naturalized Yes Yes Wunderlin (1998)
Garcia nutans (false tung oil tree)Escaped from cultivation Yes Oviedo et al. (2012)
Garrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei)Popular caged birds in China Yes Yes Li et al. (2006)
Gaultheria shallon (salal) Yes Pojar and Mackinnon (2004)
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode) Yes
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Fruits –escaped from plantations and colonizing wild habitats Yes Yes IUCN (2013)
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003)
Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth) Yes Flora of Pakistan (2015)
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Grevillea robusta (silky oak)Prolific seed producer. Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant)From disposal of aquarium contents Yes Weeds CRC (2008)
Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) Yes Yes Darwent (1975)
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim (2005)
Hakea sericea (silky hakea) Yes
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Populations in Europe are thought to originate, at least partly, from specimens used for biocontrol Yes Brown et al. (2008a)
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Henderson (2003)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Helianthus debilis (beach sunflower)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Alien plants of Belgium (2020)
Hemigraphis alternata (red ivy)Garden waste dumping Yes Yes University of Queensland (2016)
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Pyšek et al. (2007d)
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant Yes Kabuce (2006)
Heterotis niloticus (African bonytongue)Natural Yes
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Garden ornamental Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Naturalized outside plantations Yes Yes Weaver and Francis (1989)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes PIER (2007)
Holcus lanatus (common velvet grass) Yes Yes
Homarus americanus (American lobster)Live export/import, Aquaculture Yes Jørstad et al. (2011); Stebbing et al. (2012); van der Meeren et al. (2010)
Humulus scandens (Japanese hop) Yes
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes USGS-NAS (2002)
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort) Yes
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes Yes Ramey (2001)
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Downstream spread through natural and engineered waterways after escape from ponded pastures in Aust Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee (2012)
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)a potential source of invasion, as seed is available to home gardeners online Yes
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)Escaped from planted areas Yes Yes Williams and Baruch (2000)
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Hypostomus plecostomus (suckermouth catfish)Escape/release from aquaculture ponds through drained water Yes Yes Hoover et al. (2014)
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam) Yes Yes Flora Mesoamericana (2018)
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)escape from gardens Yes Beerling and Perrins (1993)
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam) Yes Trepl (1984)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Christenhusz (2009)
Indigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)Cultivation escape Yes Yes PIER (2013)
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Has escaped after being planted as ornamental Yes Queensland Government (2016)
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Escaped from gardens, often naturalized Yes Yes Weber (2003)
Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Escapes from cultivation (gardens and fences) Yes Yes PIER (2017)
Ipomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )Escaped from cultivation, gardens urban parks Yes Queensland Government (2016)
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Queensland Government (2017)
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
Ipomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)Planted as ornamental Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Seeds Yes PROTA (2014)
Ipomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)Escaped from gardens Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Iris domestica (blackberry lily) Yes Acevedo Rodríguez et al. (2005)
Isatis tinctoria (dyer's woad) Yes
Ixora casei (giant red ixora)Cultivated and naturalized Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)Seeds Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005); Francis (2004)
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)escaped from cultivation and naturalized in several countries Yes Hammer (2000); Parker and Parsons (2012)
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine) Yes PIER (2016)
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Possible from its cultivation Yes
Jatropha curcas (jatropha) Yes Pitt (1999)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)Considered as a garden escape in some countries where it has been introduced Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2020); HEAR (2017)
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush) Yes
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut) Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Moran (2009)
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds and plantlets Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2011)
Kalanchoe integra (Never die)Sometimes grown as ornamental Yes
Kigelia africana (sausage tree)Escape from cultivation in Cuba Yes González Gutiérrez et al. (2009)
Laelia rubescens (flor de la concepción) Yes García-González and Riverón-Giró (2015)
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Australia Natural Heritage Trust (2003)
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Escaped and naturalized Yes Yes Welman (2005)
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2014)
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Cultivated as ornamental and roadside tree Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Lampropeltis californiae (California kingsnake)Possibly escape of animals bred in captivity Yes Mateo et al. (2011); Cabrera-Pérez et al. (2012)
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea) Yes Yes PFAF (2017)
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet) Yes Yes Oyen (1991)
Leiothrix lutea (red-billed leiothrix)Frequent escapee from cages/aviaries Yes Kawano et al. (2000)
Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed) Yes Yes Klaar et al. (2004)
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop)Seeds escape from cultivation Yes PIER (2018)
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Lespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza)Grown for fodder Yes Hoveland and Donnelly (1985)
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Leuciscus idus (ide) Yes
Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas barometer bush)Cultivated as ornamental and spread by seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Martin (2020)
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)Ornamental escaped from cultivation Yes Maddox et al. (2010)
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al. (1999)
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Very common Yes
Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)Frequent accidental escape Yes Henderson (2001); I3N-Brasil (2015); Zhao (2012)
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant)In West Java, Indonesia Yes Akers (2010)
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Meyer et al. (2008)
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)Seeds spread by birds and mammals Yes Swearingen et al. (2010)
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow’s honeysuckle) Yes Skibo (2006); Nyboer (2007); (2018); MA-DACF (2018)
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Dandelot et al. (2005); Okada et al. (2009)
Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)Escaped from cultivation. Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Dandelot et al. (2005)
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin) Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2017)
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Accidental Yes Yes NOBANIS (2015)
Lygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)No information available but it is a possibility as it is used as an ornamental. Yes Yadav et al. (2012)
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern)Primary method of introduction Yes Ferriter (2001)
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes
Macaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque) Yes
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape) Yes Sukopp (2004)
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Often planted as ornamental and escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Webb et al. (1988)
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Stem fragments dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weed Watch (2012)
Mangifera indica (mango) Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla) Yes
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Escaped from cultivation --widely naturalized Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Potential for escape from garden ponds, for example in cases of flood transporting snails into water Yes
Melicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime) Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2003)
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Garden escape Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)Cultivation escape Yes Yes PFAF (2013)
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Miconia calvescens (miconia) Yes Csurhes (1998); Medeiros et al. (1997); Meyer (1996)
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa) Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012); Velez and Overbeek (1950)
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower) Yes Dave’s Garden (2016)
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Various States in USA; NSW Australia Yes Harley (2007); Meyer (2003)
Molineria capitulata (palm-grass)Accidental Yes Siqueira (2006)
Molothrus bonariensis (shiny cowbird) Yes
Momordica balsamina (common balsam apple)Deliberate Yes Bosch (2004)
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) Yes PIER (2014)
Moorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass) Yes Blanca et al. (2009)
Morella faya (firetree) Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Disturbed areas near cultivated land Yes Csurhes and Navie (2016)
Morus nigra (black mulberry)Species is known to escape from cultivation and naturalize Yes Randall (2012)
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) Yes Yes Duke (1981)
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Naturalized in many countries; bats and birds disperse the seeds Yes Yes NAS (1980)
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)Dispersed in dumped garden waste. Animals are seed dispersers Yes Pikart et al. (2011); Brisbane City Council (2020)
Mus musculus (house mouse) Yes
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Seeds, stem fragments. It can be found naturalized in areas near cultivation Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Seeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Ogbu (2011)
Mustela furo (ferret) Yes
Myiopsitta monachus (monk parakeet) Yes
Mylopharyngodon piceus (black amur)Escaped from an aquaculture facility in Missouri Yes Nico (2011)
Myocastor coypus (coypu) Yes
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes Gregory (2003); Kay and Hoyle (2001)
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes
Myroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam) Yes
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Bird and animal dispersed seeds Yes Stone (2009)
Nasua narica (white-nosed coati) Yes
Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati) Yes
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris) Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Neovison vison (American mink) Yes
Nerium oleander (oleander)As an escape from cultivation Yes HEAR (2017); PIER (2018)
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes Gordon (1998); Guala (1990); Majtkowski and Majtkowsk (2000)
Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco)N. glauca has been transported globally as an ornamental plant used in gardens from where it has sub Yes Yes Ollerton et al. (2012)
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco) Yes Sudhakar Reddy et al. (2008)
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) Yes Funk et al. (2007); PIER (2014); Randall (2012)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)Planted as an ornamental; propagates easily vegetatively Yes Yes PIER (2017)
Noronhia emarginata (Madagascar olive)Deliberate Yes Daehler and Baker (2006)
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes Stuckey (1973)
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Seed, stem fragment in garden waste Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil) Yes Yes
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel (1995)
Oeceoclades maculata (monk orchid) Yes Yes Stern (1988)
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Seeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (wild olive) Yes
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive) Yes
Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) Yes
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus) Yes
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia monacantha (common prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)e.g. Kruger National Park Yes
Orbea variegata (carrion-flower)Escaped from gardens Yes NSW Department of Primary Industries (2020); Government of South Australia (2021)
Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)Accidental introduction Yes Muoneke (1988)
Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)Releases or escapes from fish farms, hatcheries and zoos Yes Nico (2011)
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)Accidental Yes Canonico et al. (2005); Nico and Schofield (2011)
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon)This is the origin of the Swedish mouflon population Yes Liberg et al. (2010)
Pachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Kenny (2000)
Paederia foetida (skunkvine) Yes
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes
Parmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Escaped from cultivation in northern Queensland, Australia Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Possible from its use as an ornamental Yes
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)Escaped from cultivation/gardens Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Escaped from cultivation/pastures/lawns Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass)Seeds, stolons, and rhizomes in garden waste Yes Violi (2000)
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)Possible from its use as a pasture grass
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower) Yes Yes
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) Yes Yes
Passiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)Seeds dispersed by birds and mammals Yes Yes Staples et al. (2000)
Passiflora tarminiana (banana passionfruit) Yes Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge et al. (2001)
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Accidental escape from agricultural fields and vegetable gardens Yes Yes Cain et al. (2010)
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Known to be a garden escape in Puerto Rico Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000)
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000)
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Species known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000); Randall (2012)
Pelophylax cf. bedriagaeEspecially in Belgium Yes Holsbeek et al. (2008)
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Seed dispersal from ornamental plantings Yes Florabase (2012)
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Seeds and stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed) Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Widely planted for traditional medicine purposes Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo (2007)
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Possible. No details but reported as naturalized in Madeira Yes DAISIE (2019)
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid) Yes Ackerman (2012)
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) Yes
Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm) Yes DiTomaso and Healy (2006)
Phormium tenax (New Zealand flax)Often used as a decorative garden plant Yes Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Rhizomes disposed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government (2017)
Phyllostachys flexuosa (drooping timber bamboo)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
Phyllostachys reticulata (giant timber bamboo)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) Yes
Phytophthora kernoviae Yes
Pimenta dioica (allspice)Seeds are vector-dispersed eg. birds causing local escape from gardens Yes
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree) Yes
Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)Seeds Yes Yes Francis (1992)
Pinus elliottii (slash pine) Yes
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Gherardi (2007); Rivers (2002)
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) Yes
Plantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain) Yes
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua (2014); PIER (2014); Randall (2012)
Plumbago auriculata (cape leadwort) Yes
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Escaped and naturalized Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Weed in gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Podarcis sicula (Italian wall lizard)Missouri population escaped from a terrarium overturned by a feral cat. 80 individuals were observed Yes Briggler et al. (2015)
Poecilia reticulata (guppy) Yes
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass)Occasional garden escape Yes Hubbard (1984)
Polyscias balfouriana (Balfour aralia)Escaped and naturalized Yes Yes Oviedo and Gonzalez-Oliva (2015)
Polyscias guilfoylei (geranium aralia)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Wunderlin (1998)
Pomacea maculataAfter snail farms were abandoned in SE Asia, snails dispersed Yes
Pongamia pinnata (Indian beech) Yes Wunderlin et al. (2020)
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar) Yes Jobling (1990)
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes
Procyon lotor (raccoon) Yes Lutz (1995)
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)Escape from plantations Yes Pasiecznik et al. (2001)
Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (false eranthemum)Accidental Yes Starr et al. (2004)
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On ornamental plants Yes
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Persistent after escaping from cultivation Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2018)
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Yes Copp et al. (2005a)
Psittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet) Yes Yes Strubbe and Matthysen (2009a)
Pteris multifida (spider brake)As a garden escapee Yes Keener et al. (2020)
Pteris tripartita (giant brake)Through wind spore dispersal Yes Morton (1957)
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Escaped from cultivation Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Pterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)Escape from cultivation Yes Yes
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Possible as found near where planted Yes Morton (1976)
Ptychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)Fruits dispersed by birds Yes Yes Daehler and Baker (2006)
Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) Yes
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered bulbul) Yes Yes National Audubon Society (2017)
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)As a garden escape aided by bird dispersal. Yes Vergara-Tabares et al. (2016)
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Escaped from cultivation in Cuba Yes Yes Granda and Fuentes (1987)
Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) Yes
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Accidental, frequent Yes Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2012); Wagner et al. (1999)
Rivina humilis (bloodberry)Assumed Yes
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)Root-stock, and planted as a hedge and for conservation Yes Yes Munger (2002)
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Bruun (2005)
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)Known cultivation escape Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)Extensively escaped from cultivation Yes Meyer et al. (2008); Svenning (2002); Zucaratto and dos Santos Pires (2014)
Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry)Common garden escape Yes Ceska (1999)
Rubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry) Yes Gardner (1999)
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry) Yes ISSG (2014)
Rubus racemosus (black raspberry)Often planted as an ornamental and for its edible fruits Yes Yes Lim (2012)
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes ISSG (2010)
Ruellia macrophylla (large leaved ruellia)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Escaped from cultivation Yes Floridata (2016)
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Sagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead) Yes DAISIE (2009); NOBANIS (2009)
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) Yes Yes DAISIE (2014); Liogier and Martorell (2000)
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)Possible, as it is used locally as an ornamental Yes San Pedro Naturaleza (2020)
Salvinia minima Yes ISSG (2006)
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes McFarland et al. (2004)
Sambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)Escaped from cultivation, naturalized Yes Yes Alien plants of Belgium (2020)
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Invasions are usually associated with nearby gardens Yes Queensland Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (2014)
Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)Naturalized outside cultivation Yes Yes Meyer and Lavergne (2004)
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)Commonly escapes from gardens and yards Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree)Seeds are dispersed by birds and bats Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1994); PIER (2012)
Sechium edule (chayote)Escaped and spontaneous in abandoned lands Yes Yes Lira (1996)
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Occurs in gardens but could spread nearby via its rhizomes Yes Gucker (2009)
Senecio glastifolius (holly-leaved senecio) Yes Yes
Senna aculeata (senna)Naturalized in Cuba Yes Yes Oviedo and Gonzalez-Oliva (2015)
Senna alata (candle bush) Yes Dutton and Dale Thomas (1991)
Senna italica (Senegal senna)Naturalized on islands across Caribbean region and South America Yes Yes van der Burg et al. (2012); POWO (2020)
Senna multijuga (November shower) Yes Yes
Senna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)Known to have escaped cultivation as a garden ornamental Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2014)
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna)Species is known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Randall (2007)
Senna surattensis (golden senna)Escaped from cultivation in places including India, Burma, Indochina, and the Philippines Yes Yes Little and Skolmen (1989); Randall (2012); Wagner et al. (2014)
Sesbania grandiflora (sesbania) Yes
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Silene gallica (common catchfly)Has escaped from gardens in China Yes
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)Used as an ornamental and promoted as rootstock for eggplant Yes Yes Staples and Herbst (2005)
Solanum erianthum (potato tree)Known to have escaped cultivation Yes Randall (2012)
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Grown as an ornamental or curiosity plant worldwide, and has the potential to escape cultivation Yes PBI Solanum Project (2014)
Solanum quitoense (naranjilla) Yes Yes Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Known to escape cultivation Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Planted as ornamental. Seeds dispersed by birds. Yes Yes Gallagher et al. (2010)
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)Escaped from cultivation Yes ISSG (2020)
Solanum tuberosum (potato) Yes Yes
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Weber and Jakobs (2005)
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Seeds, rhizomes Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Spartium junceum (Spanish broom)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid) Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia) Yes
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet) Yes Yes
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)Possible through high waters or attached to aquatic animal Yes Les (2020)
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)Used as an ornamental in Africa and Colombia from where it is possible to spread Yes Veldekamp (2003);
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Yes Kuo (2003)
Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass) Yes Herbiguide (2013)
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree)Will spread slowly if no seed predators are available Yes Janzen (1972); PIER (2017)
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Possible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
Sus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig) Yes
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster) Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)Commonly planted as an ornamental Yes Yes ISSG (2012)
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)Species known to escape cultivation Yes Yes Funk et al. (2007); Randall (2012)
Tabebuia heterophylla (pink trumpet tree)Likely, no cited evidence Yes
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui)Seeds could be carried by wind into adjacent areas Yes
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Seeds Yes PROTA (2018)
Tamarindus indica (tamarind)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes POWO (2018)
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Escaped from cultivation/gardens Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond) Yes Yes Thomson and Evans (2006)
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Often naturalized Yes Yes Smith (1995)
Thespesia populnea (portia tree) Yes
Threskiornis aethiopicus (sacred ibis)In Taiwan, USA, Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Canary Islands, Netherlands Yes Clergeau and Yésou (2006); Clergeau et al. (2005); Herring and Gawlik (2008); Ottens (2006)
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Stem fragments and roots Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Daniel (1995); Flora of Panama (2020)
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)Seeds, cuttings, stem fragments and roots Yes Yes PIER (2012); Starr et al. (2003)
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Escaped from cultivation in Hawaii Yes PIER (2018)
Tibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)Likely introduced as an ornamental to Hawaii; could contaminate other plants grown with it Yes Yes Almasi (2000)
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)Reported as escaped in Genting Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. Yes Faravani and Bakar (2007)
Tilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)Accidental introduction Yes Hogg (1976)
Tinca tinca (tench) Yes Nico and Fuller (2011)
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Seeds in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Seeds in dumped garden waste and contaminated agricultural produce Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET (2018)
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Escaped from gardens and naturalized in areas near cultivation Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Stem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)Cuttings, and discarded plants Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Seeds, cuttings, and discarded plants Yes Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (2011); PIER (2012)
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes O'Neill (2006)
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover)Escapes cultivation Yes Minnesota Wildflowers (2015)
Trimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)Stem fragments/plantlets and rhizomes Yes Yes
Trioceros jacksonii (Jackson’s chameleon)Accidentally released in Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo County, California Yes McKeown (1997)
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry)Used as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2012)
Turbina corymbosa (Christmas vine) Yes Bosser and Heine (2000)
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Escaped and naturalized Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)Releases and escapes from aquaria Yes Verreycken et al. (2010)
Urena lobata (caesar weed)Escaped from plantations Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Weed of gardens and parks Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2015)
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Varanus niloticus (Nile monitor)introduced to certain areas after escaping enclosures Yes Cardoza et al. (1993); Enge et al. (2004); Pleguezuelos (2004)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) Yes Gross and Werner (1978)
Verbena officinalis (vervain)As a weed following its cultivation Yes PROTA (2020)
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes ISSG (2015); Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium (2016)
Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree)Escaped from gardens and invaded areas near cultivation Yes Yes Swearingen and Bargeron (2016)
Vitex parviflora (molave)Escaped from cultivation in Guam Yes University of Guam CNAS (2020)
Vulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue) Yes Yes
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria) Yes Swearingen and Remaley (2010)
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Seeds Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Sydney Weeds Committee (2016)
Yucca gigantea (spineless yucca)Stem and root fragments in garden waste Yes Yes NZPCN (2020)
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid)Can spread unintentionally from lawns and gardens. It is also present in pots at nurseries Yes Ames (1938); Dave’s Garden (2018.)
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)Cultivation escape Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube) Yes Yes Van der Burg et al. (2012)
Zoysia matrella (Manila grass)Spreads by rhizomes Yes Duble (2016)