Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)



Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 08 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abrus precatorius (rosary pea)Species is cultivated for ornamental, medicinal, and food additive purposes Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003; Padua et al., 1999; Weber, 2003
Abutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow) Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Possibly escaping from cultivation and becoming naturalized Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015; PIER, 2015
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Used as an ornamental tree from where it can escape into nearby areas Yes PIER, 2016
Acacia crassicarpa (northern wattle) Yes
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle) Yes WorldWideWattle, 2015
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail) Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) Yes
Acridotheres fuscus (jungle myna) Yes
Acridotheres tristis (common myna) Yes
Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) Yes
Adenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree) Yes ISSG, 2012
Adiantum hispidulum (rosy maidenhair fern)Escaped from cultivation and/or naturalized in south eastern USA, Hawaii, Natal and Singapore Yes Schelpe and Anthony, 1986
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)spores are carried by wind, accidental Yes Palmer, 2003
Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) Yes
Agave americana (century plant)Seeds, bulbils and stem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes DAISIE, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016
Agave sisalana (sisal hemp) Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot)Occasionally planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Vickery, 2009
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Cited as escaping from gardens and naturalizing in nearby areas. Yes PFAF, 2016
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, accidental Yes Constán-Nava, 2012; Kowarik and Säumel, 2007
Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)Spread by seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)Occasionally planted as ornamental Yes Yes Manner, 2011
Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian goose) Yes Lever, 2005
Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)In Hawaii, occasional escape from cultivation Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant) Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Stems and seeds Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover) Yes Yes Duke, 1981; Hanelt et al., 2001
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort)Originally introduced as a medicinal herb for garden cultivation Yes Yes Mosley, 2014
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes
Ammotragus lervia (aoudad)There many examples of free-ranging populations originated from escapes from game reserves, both in Yes Yes Cassinello et al., 2004; Gray, 1985
Amphisbaena fuliginosa (speckled worm lizard)Possible pathway Yes Murphy et al., 2010
Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)This species invasively self-seeds and seeds are wind-dispersed Yes PIER, 2008; Motooka et al., 2003
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)Known to have escaped from cultivation in India and into the wild Yes Yes Morton, 1987
Anolis extremus (Barbados anole)Port of Spain (Trinidad) introduction of specimens released by collector, in transit from Barbados Yes Murphy, 1997
Anolis sagrei (brown anole) Yes
Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine) Yes
Anser indicus (bar-headed goose) Yes Lever, 2005
Antigonon leptopus (coral vine)Planted as a garden ornamental Yes Yes Burke and DiTommaso, 2011
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Oidtmann et al., 2005
Apis mellifera scutellata (africanized bee)From South Africa & Tanzania to Brazil, then escaped into the Brazilian countryside Yes Piereira and Chaud-Netto, 2005
Ardisia crenata (coral berry)This is the primary invasion pathway Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper) Yes Csurhes, 2009
Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp) Yes
Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe)Can propagate by seeds and vegetatively Yes Yes Randall, 2012; Starr et al., 2003; Weeds of Australia, 2015
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Meerman, 2003; Randall, 2012
Aronia x prunifolia Yes
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Arundo donax (giant reed) Yes Dudley, 2000
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Stansbury, 1999
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Atriplex semibaccata (Australian saltbush) Yes
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003; Motooka et al., 2003; Motooka et al., 2003; Motooka et al., 2003
Bambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Ohrnberger, 1999
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Aguilar, 2001
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Csurhes and Edwards, 1998
Barringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)Fruits can float and remain viable for many months Yes Yes Yaplito, 2001
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Connor, 2002
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes Smith, 2010
Belonesox belizanus (pike killifish)A population of B. belizanus discovered in Hillsborough County (Florida) in 1997 were thought to hav Yes USGS, 2015
Bixa orellana (annatto) Yes Morton, 1960
Bos taurus (cattle) Yes
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Hitchcock, 1950
Branta canadensis (Canada goose) Yes Lever, 2005
Branta hutchinsii Yes Lever, 2005
Briza maxima (large quaking grass) Yes Yes
Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)Often planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja asiatica (dog tail) Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Seed and stem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes GISD, 2016
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Les and Mehrhoff, 1999
Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower) Yes Yes Gillman and Watson, 2011; PIER, 2014
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)Seed and rhizomes Yes Yes PIER, 2016
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Individuals break off and root Yes Graveson, 2012
Callisia repensSeeds and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel) Yes Jouanin, 1986; Jouanin, 1992
Calopogonium caeruleum (jicama)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Graveson, 2012
Canis lupus familiaris (dogs) Yes
Canna indica (canna lilly) Yes
Capra hircus (goats) Yes
Capsicum baccatum (pepper) Yes Yes Walter and Lebot, 2007
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seed and root fragments Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Can escape from cultivated areas Yes Yes Gildenhuys et al., 2013
Carpobrotus edulis (hottentot fig) Yes
Carpodacus mexicanus (house finch) Yes
Cassia grandis (pink shower)Widely cultivated as an ornamental in urban and garden areas Yes Yes Toruan-Purba, 1999
Cassytha filiformis (love-vine) Yes
Castor canadensis (beaver) Yes
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree) Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Centaurea macrocephala Yes
Centella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort) Yes
Centratherum punctatum (lark daisy)Planted as ornamental Yes Woodson and Schery, 1975
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Farmed deer are a risk Yes
Cestrum diurnum (day jessamine)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Species is a popular ornamental and is known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Chamaedorea elegans (parlour palm) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2009
Christella dentata (soft fern)This is not an example of an escape but the planting of it as an ornamental Yes Drummond, 1959
Cichlasoma urophthalmum (mayan cichlid)Released and/or escaped from fish farms possibly responsible for populations in Florida Yes Schofield et al., 2016
Cinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia) Yes Yes
Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon) Yes Kueffer et al., 2009
Cirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle) Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower) Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower) Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)Grown as an ornamental and has been known to escape cultivation Yes Yes
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban) Yes
Clerodendrum speciosissimum (Java glory bower) Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012
Clerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower) Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)Escaped from cultivation Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Coccinella septempunctata (seven-spot ladybird) Yes
Colocasia esculenta (taro)Occasionally planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Colubrina asiatica (latherleaf)Frequently found in coastal hammocks. Escaped from cultivation Yes Jones, 1996
Columba livia (pigeons) Yes
Combretum grandiflorum (showy combretum) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Combretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)Capable of spreading by both seed and root suckers Yes Yes PIER, 2015; Randall, 2012; Staples et al., 2000
Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) Yes
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant)Accidental, discard house/garden plant Yes
Coriandrum sativum (coriander) Yes Randall, 2012
Cornu aspersum (common garden snail) Yes
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)Europe, Australia Yes Motooka et al., 2003; Gardening Australia, 2009
Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass) Yes Edgar and Connor, 2010
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes Yes DAISIE, 2009
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)Attractive garden plant Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Known to have escaped cultivation in Panama, Paraguay, Florida and other parts of the Caribbean and South America Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Flora of Panama, 2016; Motooka et al., 2003
Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray) Yes Dickoré and Kasperek, 2010
Crassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop) Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Crassula ovata (jade plant) Yes Verloove, 2013
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) Yes Alverson and Sigg, 2008
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Escaped from cultivation and becoming invasive Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed) Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Seeds as contaminant in crop seeds, forage, hay and agricultural equipment Yes Yes Maddox et al., 2011
Cuphea hyssopifolia (false heather) Yes Francis, 2004
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress)Often planted as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder) Yes
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cyathea cooperi (australian tree fern)Spores are carried by wind Yes Palmer, 2003
Cygnus olor (mute swan) Yes
Cylindropuntia fulgida (jumping cholla)Plants and detached segments are often thrown over garden fences or taken to garbage dump sites Yes Mathenge et al., 2009
Cylindropuntia rosea (hudson pear) Yes Deltoro et al., 2014
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Cynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Naturalized along roadsides and in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not)Accidental Yes New York Botanical Garden, 2017
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments are commonly dispersed in dumped garden waste. Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) Yes
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes Yes
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Fruits and seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2016
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)Contaminant in crops and crop seeds Yes Yes Heuzé et al., 2015
Dalbergia sissoo Yes Morton, 2007
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura)Can spread by both seed and vegetative fragmentation Yes Yes PIER, 2014; Randall, 2012
Daucus carota (carrot) Yes
Delonix regia (flamboyant) Yes PIER, 2009
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Plants produce many seeds and may also spread by rooting at the nodes Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Dioscorea alata (white yam)Bulbils, plant fragments Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)Escaped from cultivated areas Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc)Not explicitly mentioned in literature, but likely based on the species’ biology Yes
Dolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Seeds, tuber and stem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)Seeds Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Elaeagnus pungens (thorny olive) Yes Miller, 2003
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) Yes Munger, 2003
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)Evident, but no supporting refs Yes
Elodea nuttallii (Nuttall's waterweed) Yes Bowmer et al., 1995
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)Cultivated in gardens and yards Yes Yes Gilman, 2011
Equus caballus [ISC] (horse) Yes
Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)Seeds and stolons Yes Yes Brosnan and Deputy, 2008
Erigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane) Yes Kunkel, 1972; National Museums Northern Ireland, 2010; Orchard, 1994
Erythrina berteroana (coralbean)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Barrance et al., 2003
Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) Yes
Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Escaped from plantations Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry) Yes
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Often naturalized close to plantings Yes Zouhar, 2009
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge) Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Escape from gardens and yards Yes Little et al., 1974
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge )Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Little et al., 1974
Falcataria moluccana (batai wood) Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)most common Yes
Fallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)very common indeed Yes Bailey and Conolly, 2000
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Seeds dispersed by birds Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)Naturalised in places where it has been introduced as a garden cultivation Yes Yes
Ficus carica (common fig)Species cultivated for thousands of years and can escape from cultivation Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001
Ficus elastica (rubber plant)Species can escape from cultivation Yes Yes Tawan, 2000
Ficus lyrata (fiddle-leaf fig) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Hutchinson and Rendle, 1916; Madulid, 1995; Starr et al., 2003
Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree) Yes Randall, 2012
Ficus pumila (creeping fig)Spreads by vegetative fragments, known to escape from cultivation and garden rubbish Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014; Starr et al., 2003
Flacourtia indica (governor's plum) Yes
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops) Yes ISSG, 2014
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)Widely cultivated as ornamental and escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier) Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier) Yes Yes Kabuce and Priede, 2010
Garrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei)Popular caged birds in China Yes Yes Li et al., 2006
Gaultheria shallon (salal) Yes Pojar and Mackinnon, 2004
Globodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode) Yes
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Fruits –escaped from plantations and colonizing wild habitats Yes Yes IUCN, 2013
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Seeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Grevillea robusta (silky oak)Prolific seed producer. Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant)From disposal of aquarium contents Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) Yes Yes Darwent, 1975
Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood) Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Populations in Europe are thought to originate, at least partly, from specimens used for biocontrol Yes Brown et al., 2008a
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Henderson, 2003
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornamental plant Yes Kabuce, 2006
Heterotis niloticus (African bonytongue)Natural Yes
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)Garden ornamental Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)Naturalized outside plantations Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes
Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) Yes PIER, 2007
Holcus lanatus (common velvet grass) Yes Yes
Homarus americanus (American lobster)Live export/import, Aquaculture Yes Jørstad et al., 2011; Stebbing et al., 2012; Motooka et al., 2003
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Yes USGS-NAS, 2002
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort) Yes
Hygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed) Yes Yes Ramey, 2001
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit) Yes
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Downstream spread through natural and engineered waterways after escape from ponded pastures in Aust Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee, 2012
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)a potential source of invasion, as seed is available to home gardeners online Yes
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)Escaped from planted areas Yes Yes Williams and Baruch, 2000
Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Hypostomus plecostomus (suckermouth catfish)Escape/release from aquaculture ponds through drained water Yes Yes Hoover et al., 2014
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)escape from gardens Yes Beerling and Perrins, 1993
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam) Yes Trepl, 1984
Indigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)Cultivation escape Yes Yes PIER, 2013
Ipomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)Planted as ornamental Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)Seeds Yes PROTA, 2014
Isatis tinctoria (dyers woad) Yes
Jacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda) Yes
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)Seeds Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Francis, 2004
Jatropha curcas (jatropha) Yes Pitt, 1999
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush) Yes
Justicia pectoralis (freshcut) Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Seeds and cuttings Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016
Kalanchoe daigremontiana (devil's backbone)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes Moran, 2009
Kalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)Seeds and plantlets Yes Yes BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Australia Natural Heritage Trust, 2003
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2014
Lagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)Cultivated as ornamental and roadside tree Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Leiothrix lutea (red-billed leiothrix)Frequent escapee from cages/aviaries Yes Kawano et al., 2000
Lepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed) Yes Yes Klaar et al., 2004
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Leuciscus idus (ide) Yes
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al., 1999
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Very common Yes
Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)Frequent accidental escape Yes Henderson, 2001; Motooka et al., 2003; Zhao, 2012
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant)In West Java, Indonesia Yes Akers, 2010
Linaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax) Yes
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Seeds escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Meyer et al., 2008
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)Seeds spread by birds and mammals Yes Swearingen et al., 2010
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Dandelot et al., 2005; Okada et al., 2009
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Dandelot et al., 2005
Lupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)Accidental Yes Yes NOBANIS, 2015
Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern)Primary method of introduction Yes Ferriter, 2001
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes
Macaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque) Yes
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree) Yes
Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape) Yes Sukopp, 2004
Malvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)Often planted as ornamental and escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Webb et al., 1988
Mangifera indica (mango) Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Manilkara zapota (sapodilla) Yes
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Potential for escape from garden ponds, for example in cases of flood transporting snails into water Yes
Melicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime) Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2003
Melilotus officinalis (Yellow sweet clover)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Garden escape Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)Cultivation escape Yes Yes PFAF, 2013
Merremia tuberosa (woodrose)Often escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Miconia calvescens (miconia) Yes Csurhes, 1998; Medeiros et al., 1997; Meyer, 1996
Mimosa casta (graceful mimosa) Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Mimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)Seeds Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012; Velez and Overbeek, 1950
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant) Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock) Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Various States in USA; NSW Australia Yes Harley, 2007; Meyer, 2003
Molothrus bonariensis (shiny cowbird) Yes
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) Yes PIER, 2014
Moorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass) Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Morella faya (firetree) Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Disturbed areas near cultivated land Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Morus nigra (black mulberry)Species is known to escape from cultivation and naturalize Yes Randall, 2012
Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) Yes Yes Duke, 1981
Muntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Naturalized in many countries; bats and birds disperse the seeds Yes Yes NAS, 1980
Mus musculus (house mouse) Yes
Mustela furo (ferret) Yes
Myiopsitta monachus (monk parakeet) Yes
Mylopharyngodon piceus (black amur)Escaped from an aquaculture facility in Missouri Yes Nico, 2011
Myocastor coypus (coypu) Yes
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes Gregory, 2003; Kay and Hoyle, 2001
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes
Myroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam) Yes
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Bird and animal dispersed seeds Yes Stone, 2009
Nasua narica (white-nosed coati) Yes
Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati) Yes
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Neovison vison (American mink) Yes
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes Gordon, 1998; Guala, 1990; Majtkowski and Majtkowsk, 2000
Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco)N. glauca has been transported globally as an ornamental plant used in gardens from where it has sub Yes Yes Ollerton et al., 2012
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) Yes Funk et al., 2007; PIER, 2014; Randall, 2012
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes Stuckey, 1973
Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil) Yes Yes
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)Commonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Oeceoclades maculata (monk orchid) Yes Yes Stern, 1988
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (wild olive) Yes
Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive) Yes
Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) Yes
Ondatra zibethicus (muskrat) Yes
Opuntia aurantiaca (jointed cactus) Yes
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia monacantha (common prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)e.g. Kruger National Park Yes
Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)Accidental introduction Yes Muoneke, 1988
Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)Releases or escapes from fish farms, hatcheries and zoos Yes Nico, 2011
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)Accidental Yes Canonico et al., 2005; Nico and Schofield, 2011
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon)This is the origin of the Swedish mouflon population Yes Liberg et al., 2010
Oxyura jamaicensis (ruddy duck) Yes
Paederia foetida (skunkvine) Yes
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Possible from its use as an ornamental Yes
Passiflora caerulea (blue passionflower) Yes Yes
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit) Yes Yes
Passiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)Seeds dispersed by birds and mammals Yes Yes Staples et al., 2000
Passiflora tarminiana (banana passionfruit) Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Accidental escape from agricultural fields and vegetable gardens Yes Yes Cain et al., 2010
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Known to be a garden escape in Puerto Rico Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Species known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012
Pelophylax cf. bedriagaeEspecially in Belgium Yes Holsbeek et al., 2008
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Seed dispersal from ornamental plantings Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed) Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed) Yes
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Widely planted for traditional medicine purposes Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo, 2007
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid) Yes Ackerman, 2012
Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) Yes
Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm) Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2006
Phormium tenax (New Zealand flax)Often used as a decorative garden plant Yes Yes
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry) Yes
Pimenta dioica (allspice)Seeds are vector-dispersed eg. birds causing local escape from gardens Yes
Pimenta racemosa (bay rum tree) Yes
Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)Seeds Yes Yes Francis, 1992
Pinus elliottii (slash pine) Yes
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Gherardi, 2007; Rivers, 2002
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) Yes
Plantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain) Yes
Plectranthus scutellarioides (coleus) Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; PIER, 2014; Randall, 2012
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass)Weed in gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Podarcis sicula (Italian wall lizard)Missouri population escaped from a terrarium overturned by a feral cat. 80 individuals were observed Yes Briggler et al., 2015
Poecilia reticulata (guppy) Yes
Polypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass)Occasional garden escape Yes Hubbard, 1984
Pomacea maculataAfter snail farms were abandoned in SE Asia, snails dispersed Yes
Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar) Yes Jobling, 1990
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes
Procyon lotor (raccoon) Yes Lutz, 1995
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)Escape from plantations Yes Pasiecznik et al., 2001
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On ornamental plants Yes
Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon) Yes Yes Copp et al., 2005a
Psittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet) Yes Yes Strubbe and Matthysen, 2009a
Ptychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)Fruits dispersed by birds Yes Yes Daehler and Baker, 2006
Pycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul) Yes
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered bulbul) Yes Yes National Audubon Society, 2017
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes
Rauvolfia caffra (quinine tree )Escaped from cultivation in Cuba Yes Yes Granda and Fuentes, 1987
Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) Yes
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Accidental, frequent Yes Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2012; Wagner et al., 1999
Rivina humilis (bloodberry)Assumed Yes
Rosa multiflora (Multiflora rose)Root-stock, and planted as a hedge and for conservation Yes Yes Munger, 2002
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Bruun, 2005
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)Known cultivation escape Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)Extensively escaped from cultivation Yes Meyer et al., 2008; Svenning, 2002; Motooka et al., 2003
Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry)Common garden escape Yes Ceska, 1999
Rubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry) Yes Gardner, 1999
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry) Yes ISSG, 2014
Rubus racemosus (black raspberry)Often planted as an ornamental and for its edible fruits Yes Yes Lim, 2012
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Planted as ornamental Yes Yes ISSG, 2010
Ruellia macrophylla (large leaved ruellia)Escaped from gardens Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Escaped from cultivation Yes Floridata, 2016
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Sagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead) Yes DAISIE, 2009; NOBANIS, 2009
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014; Liogier and Martorell, 2000
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes ISSG, 2009
Salvinia minima Yes ISSG, 2006
Salvinia molesta (Kariba weed) Yes McFarland et al., 2004
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)Invasions are usually associated with nearby gardens Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)Naturalized outside cultivation Yes Yes Meyer and Lavergne, 2004
Sansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)Commonly escapes from gardens and yards Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree)Seeds are dispersed by birds and bats Yes Yes Gilman and Watson, 1994; PIER, 2012
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Occurs in gardens but could spread nearby via its rhizomes Yes Gucker, 2009
Senna alata (candle bush) Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Senna multijuga (November shower) Yes Yes
Senna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)Known to have escaped cultivation as a garden ornamental Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2014
Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna)Species is known to have escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Randall, 2007
Senna surattensis (golden senna)Escaped from cultivation in places including India, Burma, Indochina, and the Philippines Yes Yes Little and Skolmen, 1989; Randall, 2012; Wagner et al., 2014
Setaria palmifolia (palm grass) Yes
Silene gallica (common catchfly)Has escaped from gardens in China Yes
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)Used as an ornamental and promoted as rootstock for eggplant Yes Yes Staples and Herbst, 2005
Solanum erianthum (potato tree)Known to have escaped cultivation Yes Randall, 2012
Solanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Grown as an ornamental or curiosity plant worldwide, and has the potential to escape cultivation Yes PBI Solanum Project, 2014
Solanum quitoense (naranjilla) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)Known to escape cultivation Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Planted as ornamental. Seeds dispersed by birds. Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010
Solanum tuberosum (potato) Yes Yes
Solidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod) Yes
Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod) Yes Weber and Jakobs, 2005
Spathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid) Yes Yes
Spermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood) Yes
Sphagneticola trilobata (wedelia) Yes
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)Used as an ornamental in Africa and Colombia from where it is possible to spread Yes Veldekamp, 2003
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Yes Kuo, 2003
Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass) Yes Herbiguide, 2013
Sus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig) Yes
Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)Commonly planted as an ornamental Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)Species known to escape cultivation Yes Yes Funk et al., 2007; Randall, 2012
Tabebuia heterophylla (pink trumpet tree)Likely, no cited evidence Yes
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui)Seeds could be carried by wind into adjacent areas Yes
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Escaped from cultivation/gardens Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia) Yes
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Thespesia populnea (portia tree) Yes
Threskiornis aethiopicus (sacred ibis)In Taiwan, USA, Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Canary Islands, Netherlands Yes Clergeau and Yésou, 2006; Clergeau et al., 2005; Herring and Gawlik, 2008; Ottens, 2006
Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)Stem fragments and roots Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)Stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)Seeds, cuttings, stem fragments and roots Yes Yes PIER, 2012; Starr et al., 2003
Tibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)Likely introduced as an ornamental to Hawaii; could contaminate other plants grown with it Yes Yes Almasi, 2000
Tibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)Reported as escaped in Genting Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. Yes Faravani and Bakar, 2007
Tilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)Accidental introduction Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Tinca tinca (tench) Yes Nico and Fuller, 2011
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Escaped from gardens and naturalized in areas near cultivation Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Stem fragments dumped in garden waste Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Tradescantia pallida (purple queen)Cuttings, and discarded plants Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005
Tradescantia spathacea (boat lily)Seeds, cuttings, and discarded plants Yes Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; PIER, 2012
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes O'Neill, 2006
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover)Escapes cultivation Yes Minnesota Wildflowers, 2015
Trioceros jacksonii (Jackson’s chameleon)Accidentally released in Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo County, California Yes McKeown, 1997
Triphasia trifolia (limeberry)Used as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Escaped and naturalized Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)Releases and escapes from aquaria Yes Verreycken et al., 2010
Urena lobata (caesar weed)Escaped from plantations Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Weed of gardens and parks Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2015
Urochloa mutica (para grass)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Varanus niloticus (Nile monitor)introduced to certain areas after escaping enclosures Yes Cardoza et al., 1993; Enge et al., 2004; Pleguezuelos, 2004
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) Yes Gross and Werner, 1978
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena) Yes ISSG, 2015; Motooka et al., 2003
Vulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue) Yes Yes
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria) Yes Swearingen and Remaley, 2010
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet) Yes Sydney Weeds Committee, 2016
Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)Cultivation escape Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Ziziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Zoysia matrella (Manila grass)Spreads by rhizomes Yes Duble, 2016