Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Disturbance (pathway cause)



Disturbance (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Disturbance (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Disturbance (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Reported for disturbed habitats: as a weed of irrigated fields, roadsides and overgrazed grasslands. Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Common weed in disturbed sites Yes PROTA, 2015
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia)Naturalized in open disturbed areas such as roadsides. Yes Csurhes and Naive, 2009
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)A fast grower in open areas Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2016
Acacia crassicarpa (northern wattle) Yes
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) Yes Johnston and Pickering, 2005
Acmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)Weed Yes Yes Chung et al., 2007
Adenostoma fasciculatum (chamise) Yes
Adiantum hispidulum (rosy maidenhair fern)In Singapore, A. hispidulum occurs on bare but shaded earth banks around the suburbs of towns. Yes Holttum, 1954
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot)Grows in waste ground Yes Yes Nienaber and Thieret, 2003
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Weed of disturbed sites Yes PROTA, 2016
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Reported to be a colonizer in disturbed sites Yes Johnson, 1921
Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass) Yes Yes Zlatnik, 1999
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, both accidental and deliberate Yes Constán-Nava, 2012; Kowarik and Säumel, 2007
Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass)From Washington to Idaho, USA along road verges Yes Lass and Prather, 2007
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Weed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort) Yes Evangelista et al., 2011
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes Yes
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth) Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) Yes
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) Yes
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) Yes
Annona glabra (pond apple) Yes Land Protection, 2005
Anredera baselloides (Madeira vine) Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Reported at roadsides and disturbed areas Yes Padhi et al., 2013
Aristida ternipes (spidergrass)Grows on disturbed soils Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)Species is known to grow in disturbed areas Yes Yes PIER, 2015; Wunderlin and Hansen, 2003
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)Accidental Yes Yes Kegode and Darbyshire, 2013
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)Naturalized in disturbed areas Yes Yes Little and Skolmen, 2003
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Along roadsides, in disturbed sites, and in parks and gardens Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Avena barbata (slender oat)Seed can propagate on freshly disturbed ground Yes
Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush) Yes
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Cultivated and naturalized in secondary shrublands Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Escaped and naturalized in secondary bushland and thickets Yes Yes Aguilar, 2001
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Grows in roadsides, thickets, and secondary shrublands Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia) Yes
Batis maritima (saltwort) Yes
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Escaped from gardens and often naturalised in disturbed areas Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Naturalized along roadsides Yes Yes MacKee, 1994
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Escaped and naturalized in disturbed areas Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010; Smith, 2010
Boerhavia diffusa (red spiderling) Yes Yes Muzila, 2006
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Abeyakoon and Pigott, 1975; Ninot et al., 2000; Palo et al., 2008
Bromus hordeaceus (soft brome)Weed fields, disturbed areas & waste space Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome)Found in open disturbed areas Yes Romo and Eddleman, 1987
Bromus secalinus (rye brome)Often found in open disturbed areas. Yes Yes Afonin et al., 2016
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Aggressive invader of heavily disturbed sites Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes Yes Brandes, 1991; Jehlik and Slavik, 1968
Caesalpinia violacea (brasiletto)Rehabilitation of disturbed areas Yes Yes Barreto, 1998
Calliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra) Yes
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Individuals break off and root Yes Graveson, 2012
Canis latrans (Coyote)Range increase due to human modification of landscape, and possibly elimination of wolves Yes Yes IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, 2008
Caprella muticaNatural or artificial dispersal following disturbance Yes Yes Ashton, 2006
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seed and root fragments Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Often common along roadsides and disturbed areas Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005
Carex kobomugi (Asiatic sand sedge)Dispersed to New York from New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Louise Wootton, Georgian Court Yes Yes Lamont and Young, 2014
Cassia javanica (pink shower)Naturalized in disturbed places near cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree)Prefers disturbed areas. Therefore forest disturbances increase the possibility of invasion Yes Cokeley et al., 2000; Dawson et al., 2008
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Escaped and naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree) Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Cedrela odorata (Spanish cedar) Yes Cintron, 1990
Cenchrus biflorus (Indian sandbur) Yes
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes
Centaurea iberica Yes
Centaurea melitensis (Maltese starthistle) Yes Hubbert, 2007
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Weed on disturbed open areas Yes Yes Barkworth, 2003
Christella dentata (soft fern)Colonizes disturbed gullies, trailsides and areas frequented by pigs. For references, please see te Yes
Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)Common in grassy slopes, wasteland and along roadsides Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse)Landslides etc. Yes Peters, 2001
Cocos nucifera (coconut)Planted in disturbed areas Yes Yes Chan and Elevitch, 2006
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes Panov et al., 2007
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)North America Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010; USDA-FS, 2009
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes Pausas et al., 2006
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos) Yes
Crotalaria maypurensis (rattlebox weed)Common along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Avendaño, 2011
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Weed on disturbed sites and along roadsides Yes Yes Francis, 2004
Croton argenteus (silver July croton)Weed in disturbed areas and sunny open fields Yes Yes González, 2000
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress)Along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes Belov, 2009
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Commonly colonises disturbed fields associated with overgrazing Yes Thomsen et al., 1986
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Plants escaped from cultivation often colonize disturbed areas Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Cynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Naturalized along roadsides and in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)Grows as a weed in disturbed areas Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments are commonly dispersed in dumped garden waste. Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Often common along roadsides and in disturbed sites Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2016
Dalea scandens (low prairie clover)Pioneer species on disturbed sites Yes Groom, 2012
Datura ferox (fierce thornapple) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura)Species is often found growing sporadically in disturbed areas Yes Yes
Delonix regia (flamboyant) Yes PIER, 2009
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Spread facilitated by feral pigs/goats Yes US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Common grass in degraded areas Yes Perkins, 2014
Dichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass)Common on disturbed sites and along roadsides Yes Yes PIER, 2015
Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)A weed in disturbed areas Yes Quattrocchi, 2006
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)At disturbed sites in Australia. Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Digitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)Weed in disturbed sites Yes Quattrocchi, 2006
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc)Not explicitly mentioned in literature, but likely based on the species’ biology Yes
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Common weed in disturbed areas Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)This species grows as a weed Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2013
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes Bossard et al., 2000
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) Yes Katz and Shafroth, 2003
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) Yes Munger, 2003
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Tolerant of disturbed sites, may use disturbed sites as stepping stones to natural areas from urban Yes Meshaka et al., 2009
Epilobium ciliatum (northern willowherb) Yes
Eragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)Grows along railways and roadsides Yes Yes Barkworth et al., 2004
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)Grows along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes Barkworth et al., 2004
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass)Spreads by seed and stolons Yes Uchytil, 1992
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Especially along roads and trails, on compacted soils Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed) Yes Yes
Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)Naturalized along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes Coile, 1993
Erodium cicutarium (common storksbill) Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Naturalized and spreading on disturbed and waste sties Yes Yes Little et al., 1974
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Protects bare soil in dry areas from wind and water Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Falcataria moluccana (batai wood) Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed) Yes
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) Yes
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Escaped from cultivation and often naturalized in disturbed areas Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)Common weed in roads, open slopes, muddy places near water, grasslands, and paddy fields Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops)Weed Yes Yes ISSG, 2014
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Galphimia glauca (goldshower )Naturalized along roadsides Yes Yes Anderson, 2007
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Naturalized in disturbed sites and along roadsides Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Seeds Yes Yes Motooka et al., 2003
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) Yes
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Association with distrurbed habitat and population hot spots. Yes
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Hemigraphis alternata (red ivy)Naturalized along roads and trails Yes Yes PIER, 2016
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed)Common on roadsides and other disturbed places Yes DiTomaso and Healy, 2007
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady) Yes Yes Prota4U, 2013
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes
Holcus lanatus (common velvet grass) Yes Yes
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Ditching, dyking and diversion of natural stream and river systems affecting both substrate and flow Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee, 2012; Achigan-Dako, 2010
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)anthropogenic disturbance is a major vector in North America Yes LaFantasie, 2008
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)This species easily colonizes disturbed areas Yes Yes Williams and Baruch, 2000
Hyptis suaveolens (pignut) Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam) Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam) Yes Trepl, 1984
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Common weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Indigofera trita subsp. scabra (Asian Indigo)Common weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA, 2014
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)It grows as a weed Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014
Ischaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Naturalized on heavily grazed areas Yes Yes PROTA, 2015
Jatropha curcas (jatropha) Yes Pitt, 1999
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Juncus effusus (common rush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Dominant means of local accidental spread is by disturbance of wet soil, e.g. in ditch construction Yes
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush) Yes US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992
Juncus tenuis (slender rush) Yes Yes Hilty, 2011
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Naturalized in disturbed and waste places Yes Yes Flora de Nicaragua, 2016
Kalanchoe integra (Never die)Found on roadsides Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Lactuca floridana (woodland lettuce) Yes Yes
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Naturalized in ruderal areas Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)Naturalized in disturbed sites and near villages Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Commonly found at disturbed and waste places. Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2016
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Lindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)Weed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1979
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Naturalized along roadsides and disturbed forests Yes Yes ISSG, 2016
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin)Weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes
Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro) Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Common in disturbed sites Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Mangifera indica (mango) Yes Yes Bally, 2006
Martynia annua (tiger's claw)Weed of wastelands and roadsides Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes PIER, 2007
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass)Escape from cultivation Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)Accidental, frequent Yes Yes
Microstegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop) Yes Warren et al., 2010
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mikania scandens Yes Moon et al., 1993
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Escaped form cultivation into disturbed areas. Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Along road verges in USA Yes Meyer, 2003
Moorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass) Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Morella faya (firetree) Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)Naturalized in disturbed areas near villages Yes Yes Nelson, 2006
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Common weed in open and disturbed places Yes Yes Daniel, 2001
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris) Yes Yes
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes Rasha, 2005
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)Reported on waste land Yes Flora of Pakistan, 2017
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)Cladode movement and establishment Yes
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Yes
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)Naturalized along roadsides and open waste areas Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Paspalum densum (dense crowngrass)Weed of open and moist disturbed sites Yes Quattrocchi, 2006
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass) Yes PIER, 2017
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Accidental dispersal through landscaping and soil movement activities Yes Yes Cain et al., 2010
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Roadsides, railways, mining Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)Found in disturbed areas in Hawaii Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Accidental movement of rhizome contaminated soil Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Accidental movement of rhizome contaminated soil Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)Spread in soil during road building and mining Yes Batini, 1977; Colquhoun and Petersen, 1994
Pittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood) Yes Goodland and Healey, 1996
Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush)Common in disturbed areas Yes Francis, 2004
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) Yes Yes Holm et al., 1997
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes
Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite)Aids establishment Yes Pasiecznik et al., 2001
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)Aids establishment, e.g. overgrazing Yes Pasiecznik et al., 2001
Rubus parviflorus (thimbleberry)Rapidly invades disturbed areas Yes Oleskevich et al., 1996
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Grows as a weed Yes Yes ISSG, 2010
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)Weed Yes Yes Hammer, 2002
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Established at disturbed sites Yes Floridata, 2016
Rytidostylis carthagenensisFound at disturbed sites and margins of forests and rivers Yes Sasaki et al., 2008
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Salsola kali (common saltwort) Yes
Salsola paulsenii (barbwire Russian thistle) Yes
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) Yes
Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)Soil disturbance promotes spread Yes Brooks, 1999
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Reported in disturbed areas at native and introduced counties Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna)Humans and animals Yes
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)Seeds germinate on disturbed areas Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) Yes
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Holm et al., 1977
Sida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)At roadsides and ruderal areas Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Sida repens (Javanese fanpetals)Weed of disturbed sites Yes Yes Fryxell, 2007
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)Weed of waste areas Yes Yes Zhang et al., 1994
Solanum erianthum (potato tree) Yes Yes
Solanum quitoense (naranjilla) Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Grown as a weed Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Worker ant could move queen ant/s to another location with brood - accidental Yes Morrison et al., 2004
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Very common in disturbed sites, described as a pioneer species Yes Yes Hutchinson et al., 1984
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Environmental weed Yes Yes Holm et al., 1977
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet)Often naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)Reported as growing in open areas, waste places, clearings Yes Quattrocchi, 2006
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Kuo, 2003
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)Species occurs in disturbed areas Yes Morton, 1987; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Whistler and Elevitch, 2006
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) Yes
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Colonies will relocate if disturbed, and they are associated with disturbed environments Yes Yes Deyrup et al., 2000; Passera, 1994
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Occur in secondary forests and along drainage lines Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Often naturalized along roadsides, disturbed littoral habitats Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Weed in disturbed sites and secondary forests Yes Yes Smith, 1995
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)This species frequently invades disturbed areas in wet climates Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Pioneer species Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Naturalized in disturbed areas Yes Yes NZPCN, 2016
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed) Yes
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Naturalized in open, waste places Yes Yes Smith, 1981
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Seedlings establish in disturbed vegetation. Yes Finlayson et al., 1983
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Seedlings establish in disturbed vegetation Yes Grace and Harrison, 1986
Urena lobata (caesar weed)Seeds are able to germinate in disturbed areas Yes Francis, 2000
Urena sinuata (bur mallow)Seeds can germinate in disturbed areas Yes Liogier, 1988
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Weed along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2015
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Along roads, railways or streams Yes Yes CSIRO, 2010
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Naturalized in disturbed sites, roadsides, open grounds Yes Yes Hammel et al., 2003
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) Yes
Vachellia macracantha (porknut)often naturalized along roadside and disturbed sites Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)Transportation corridors, when seeds are present Yes Yes
Viguiera dentata (sunflower goldeneye)Ruderal weed Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Vulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue) Yes
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes