Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Disturbance (pathway cause)

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Datasheet

Disturbance (pathway cause)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Disturbance (pathway cause)
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Disturbance (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)Often naturalized in ruderal areas, roadsides, fallow lands Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Reported for disturbed habitats: as a weed of irrigated fields, roadsides and overgrazed grasslands. Yes Achigan-Dako (2010)
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)Common weed in disturbed sites Yes PROTA (2015)
Acacia angustissima (prairie acacia)Naturalized in open disturbed areas such as roadsides. Yes Csurhes and Naive (2009)
Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)A fast grower in open areas Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2016)
Acacia crassicarpa (northern wattle) Yes
Acacia glauca (wild dividivi) Yes
Acacia mellifera (blackthorn) Yes
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) Yes Johnston and Pickering (2005)
Acmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)Weed Yes Yes Chung et al. (2007)
Adenostoma fasciculatum (chamise) Yes
Adiantum hispidulum (rosy maidenhair fern)In Singapore, A. hispidulum occurs on bare but shaded earth banks around the suburbs of towns. Yes Holttum (1954)
Aeschynomene americana (shyleaf)Naturalized along roadsides Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Agave vivipara (Caribbean agave)Planted along roadsides Yes Yes The Mansfeld’s World Database (2015)
Agdestis clematidea (rockroot)Grows in waste ground Yes Yes Nienaber and Thieret (2003)
Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Weed of disturbed sites Yes PROTA (2016)
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Reported to be a colonizer in disturbed sites Yes Johnson (1921)
Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass) Yes Yes Zlatnik (1999)
Agrostis capillaris (common bent) Yes
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)Frequent, both accidental and deliberate Yes Constán-Nava (2012); Kowarik and Säumel (2007)
Albizia niopoides (silk tree)Pioneer species Yes Yes Vozzo (2002)
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)Naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes Morales (2014)
Alocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)Often in forest gaps, disturbed moist areas Yes Yes Nauheimer et al. (2012)
Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass)From Washington to Idaho, USA along road verges Yes Lass and Prather (2007)
Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)Naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2019)
Alternanthera halimifolia (hairy joyweed)Weeds in ruderal areas Yes Yes Correa et al. (2004)
Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Weed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Alyssum desertorum (desert madwort) Yes Evangelista et al. (2011)
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth) Yes Yes
Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Often found in agricultural plots and disturbed sites Yes Ward et al. (2013)
Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth) Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) Yes
Ambrosia confertiflora Yes
Ambrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)Grows as a weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Ambrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)Common weed in disturbed areas associated with human activities Yes Yes Montagnani et al. (2017)
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) Yes
Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge) Yes
Annona glabra (pond apple) Yes Land Protection (2005)
Anredera baselloides (Madeira vine) Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Ardisia humilis (low shoebutton)Weed Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy) Yes PROTA (2016)
Argyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Reported at roadsides and disturbed areas Yes Padhi et al. (2013)
Aristida ternipes (spidergrass)Grows on disturbed soils Yes Yes Allred (2003)
Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)Species is known to grow in disturbed areas Yes Yes PIER (2015); Wunderlin and Hansen (2003)
Artemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)Accidental Yes Yes Kegode and Darbyshire (2013)
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)Naturalized in disturbed areas Yes Yes Little and Skolmen (2003)
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Escaped from cultivation Yes NSW Weedwise (2018)
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Along roadsides, in disturbed sites, and in parks and gardens Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (cane cactus) Yes
Austrocylindropuntia subulata (Eve’s needle cactus) Yes
Avena barbata (slender oat)Seed can propagate on freshly disturbed ground Yes
Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush) Yes
Bambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)Monospecific stands in disturbed sites Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019)
Bambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)Disturbed sites, roadsides, secondary forest Yes Yes O'Connor et al. (2000)
Barleria cristata (Philippine violet)Cultivated and naturalized in secondary shrublands Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Barleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)Escaped and naturalized in secondary bushland and thickets Yes Yes Aguilar (2001)
Barleria prionitis (porcupine flower)Grows in roadsides, thickets, and secondary shrublands Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Basella alba (malabar spinach) Yes PROTA (2017)
Bassia hyssopifolia (fivehook bassia) Yes
Batis maritima (saltwort) Yes
Bauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Escaped from gardens and often naturalised in disturbed areas Yes Yes PIER (2014)
Bauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)Naturalized along roadsides Yes Yes MacKee (1994)
Bauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)Naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Bauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Escaped and naturalized in disturbed areas Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011); Smith (2010)
Bidens pilosa (blackjack)Often naturalizes along roadsides, ruderal areas and waste grounds Yes Yes ISSG (2018)
Boerhavia diffusa (red spiderling) Yes Yes Muzila (2006)
Bothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)Naturalized in open disturbed sites Yes Yes MacKee (1994)
Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)Naturalized in disturbed sites, along roadsides, forest margins Yes Yes Fern (2014)
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Abeyakoon and Pigott (1975); Ninot et al. (2000); Palo et al. (2008)
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Disturbed areas near where cultivated Yes PIER (2017); Wildlife of Hawaii (2017)
Bromus hordeaceus (soft brome)Weed fields, disturbed areas & waste space Yes HITCHCOCK (1935)
Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome)Found in open disturbed areas Yes Romo and Eddleman (1987)
Bromus secalinus (rye brome)Often found in open disturbed areas. Yes Yes Afonin et al. (2016)
Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet) Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)Aggressive invader of heavily disturbed sites Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage) Yes Yes Brandes (1991); Jehlik and Slavik (1968)
Caesalpinia violacea (brasiletto)Rehabilitation of disturbed areas Yes Yes Barreto (1998)
Calliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra) Yes
Callisia fragrans (basketplant)Individuals break off and root Yes Graveson (2012)
Canavalia gladiata (sword bean)Naturalized in ruderal areas Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Canis latrans (Coyote)Range increase due to human modification of landscape, and possibly elimination of wolves Yes Yes IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group (2008)
Caprella muticaNatural or artificial dispersal following disturbance Yes Yes Ashton (2006)
Cardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)Weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes Flora of China (2019)
Cardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)Seed and root fragments Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Cardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)Often common along roadsides and disturbed areas Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Carex kobomugi (Asiatic sand sedge)Dispersed to New York from New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Louise Wootton, Georgian Court Yes Yes Lamont and Young (2014)
Carpobrotus chilensis (sea fig)Established in disturbed dunes Yes Brindock and Colwel (2011); California Invasive Plant Council (2020)
Cascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)Often naturalized in wastelands Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Cassia javanica (pink shower)Naturalized in disturbed places near cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Castilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree)Prefers disturbed areas. Therefore forest disturbances increase the possibility of invasion Yes Cokeley et al. (2000); Dawson et al. (2008)
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Escaped and naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree) Yes Binggelli (1999)
Cedrela odorata (Spanish cedar) Yes Cintron (1990)
Cenchrus biflorus (Indian sandbur) Yes
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes
Centaurea iberica (Iberian starthistle) Yes
Centaurea melitensis (Maltese starthistle) Yes Hubbert (2007)
Cheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )Naturalized along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Chloris gayana (Rhodes grass)Often escaped from cultivation and naturalized in disturbed sites, open grasslands, and along roadsides Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2020)
Chloris virgata (feather finger grass)Weed on disturbed open areas Yes Yes Barkworth (2003)
Christella dentata (soft fern)Colonizes disturbed gullies, trailsides and areas frequented by pigs. For references, please see te Yes
Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)Often planted in degraded lands Yes Yes Joy (2009)
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)Naturalized along roadsides, open forests and wastelands Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Cissus verticillata (possum grape vine)Common in disturbed areas, pastures, roadsides Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)
Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)Common in grassy slopes, wasteland and along roadsides Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
Clerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)Naturalized in open sites and disturbed areas Yes Yes Méndez Santos (2013)
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)Naturalized in open areas, waste fields, roadsides, etc Yes Yes Flora of Panama (2020)
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse)Landslides etc. Yes Peters (2001)
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (chaya)Possible, if cuttings are able to root Yes
Cocos nucifera (coconut)Planted in disturbed areas Yes Yes Chan and Elevitch (2006)
Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) Yes Panov et al. (2007)
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)North America Yes Middleton (2002); USDA-FS (2009)
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass) Yes Pausas et al. (2006)
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos) Yes
Crotalaria maypurensis (rattlebox weed)Common along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Avendaño (2011)
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)Escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)Weed on disturbed sites and along roadsides Yes Yes Francis (2004)
Croton argenteus (silver July croton)Weed in disturbed areas and sunny open fields Yes Yes González (2000)
Cucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)Naturalized in wastelands, open areas and along roadsides Yes Yes Wilkins-Ellert (2004)
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress)Along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes Belov (2009)
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)Common weed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)Naturalized in disturbed sites and along roads Yes Yes PROTA (2019)
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Commonly colonises disturbed fields associated with overgrazing Yes Thomsen et al. (1986)
Cynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)Plants escaped from cultivation often colonize disturbed areas Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Cynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Naturalized along roadsides and in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Cyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)Grows as a weed in disturbed areas Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Cyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)Seeds and stem segments are commonly dispersed in dumped garden waste. Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Often common along roadsides and in disturbed sites Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2016)
Dalea scandens (low prairie clover)Pioneer species on disturbed sites Yes Groom (2012)
Datura ferox (fierce thornapple) Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Datura innoxia (downy thorn apple) Yes
Datura metel (Hindu datura)Species is often found growing sporadically in disturbed areas Yes Yes
Delonix regia (flamboyant) Yes PIER (2009)
Deparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)Spread facilitated by feral pigs/goats Yes US Fish and Wildlife Service (1996)
Derris elliptica (tuba root)Naturalized in disturbed sites, along roadsides, forest edges Yes Yes De Padua et al. (1999)
Desmodium cajanifolium (tropical tick trefoil)Reported from disturbed sites Yes Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
Dichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)Common grass in degraded areas Yes Perkins (2014)
Dichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)Found in disturbed and heavily grazed areas Yes PIER (2018); Texas Invasives (2020)
Dichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass)Common on disturbed sites and along roadsides Yes Yes PIER (2015)
Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)A weed in disturbed areas Yes Quattrocchi (2006)
Digitaria eriantha (pangola grass)At disturbed sites in Australia. Yes Weeds of Australia (2016)
Digitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)Weed in disturbed sites Yes Quattrocchi (2006)
Dimorphotheca sinuata (Cape marigold)Naturalized along roads, in disturbed sites and along washes Yes Yes Halvorson and Guertin (2003)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)At disturbed sites Yes HEAR (2020)
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc)Not explicitly mentioned in literature, but likely based on the species’ biology Yes
Dracaena fragrans (corn plant)Often naturalized along roadsides and disturbed areas Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Drymaria arenarioides (alfombrilla)Possible, as it is spreading across open areas through the north of Mexico Yes Allison (1977)
Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Common weed in disturbed areas Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)This species grows as a weed Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass) Yes Bossard et al. (2000)
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) Yes Katz and Shafroth (2003)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) Yes Munger (2003)
Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Tolerant of disturbed sites, may use disturbed sites as stepping stones to natural areas from urban Yes Meshaka et al. (2009)
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)Often naturalized in disturbed areas, open ground and roadsides Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
Emilia praetermissa (yellow thistle)Weed in disturbed sites, roadsides, open areas Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020)
Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)Weed of disturbed sites Yes Flora of China (2018)
Epilobium ciliatum (northern willowherb) Yes
Eragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)Grows along railways and roadsides Yes Yes Barkworth et al. (2004)
Eragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)Grows along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes Barkworth et al. (2004)
Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass)Spreads by seed and stolons Yes Uchytil (1992)
Eragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass) Yes Alien plants of Belgium (2018)
Eragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)Especially along roads and trails, on compacted soils Yes Yes Reis (1993)
Erechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed) Yes Yes
Eremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)Naturalized along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes Coile (1993)
Erigeron bellioides (bellorita)Weed of disturbed areas, roadsides, lawns etc Yes Yes Mears (2009)
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)Naturalized along roadsides and in disturbed sites Yes Yes PIER (2016)
Erodium cicutarium (common storksbill) Yes
Euphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)Naturalized and spreading on disturbed and waste sties Yes Yes Little et al. (1974)
Euphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)Escaped from cultivation and naturalized in disturbed sites, open areas, dry thickets Yes Yes Hyde et al. (2020)
Euphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)Naturalized in disturbed sites near cultivation Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020)
Euphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)Protects bare soil in dry areas from wind and water Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Euphorbia trigona (African milk weed)Often growing in disturbed sites Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Falcataria moluccana (batai wood) Yes
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed) Yes
Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) Yes
Ficus benghalensis (banyan)Escaped from cultivation and often naturalized in disturbed areas Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)Common weed in roads, open slopes, muddy places near water, grasslands, and paddy fields Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
Flemingia strobilifera (wild hops)Weed Yes Yes ISSG (2014)
Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash) Yes
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)At disturbed sites, abandoned agricultural lands and borders of forests Yes Netterling (2008); Fleriag (2010)
Galphimia glauca (goldshower)Naturalized along roadsides Yes Yes Anderson (2007)
Galphimia gracilis (goldshower)Naturalized along roadsides and in ruderal areas near cultivation Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2020)
Gmelina arborea (candahar)Naturalized in disturbed sites and along roadsides Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)Seeds Yes Yes Motooka et al. (2003)
Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth) Yes Flora of Pakistan (2015)
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton) Yes
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Association with distrurbed habitat and population hot spots. Yes
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Helianthus debilis (beach sunflower)Adapted to disturbed sites and solid waste reclamation sites Yes Yes Maura and Sanders (2002)
Heliocarpus donnellsmithii (majagua)Pioneer tree species Yes Yes Macía (1999)
Heliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)Common weed of ruderal areas, roadsides, open sites, etc. Yes Yes ISSG (2018)
Hemigraphis alternata (red ivy)Naturalized along roads and trails Yes Yes PIER (2016)
Heterotheca grandiflora (telegraph weed)Common on roadsides and other disturbed places Yes DiTomaso and Healy (2007)
Heterotis rotundifolia (pink lady) Yes Yes Prota4U (2013)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood) Yes
Holcus lanatus (common velvet grass) Yes Yes
Humulus scandens (Japanese hop) Yes
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Ditching, dyking and diversion of natural stream and river systems affecting both substrate and flow Yes Yes Australian Weeds Committee (2012); Silva et al. (2012)
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)anthropogenic disturbance is a major vector in North America Yes LaFantasie (2008)
Hyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)This species easily colonizes disturbed areas Yes Yes Williams and Baruch (2000)
Hyptis alata (clustered bushmint)Weed on disturbed sites Yes USDA-NRCS (2016)
Hyptis suaveolens (pignut) Yes Cullen et al. (2012)
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam) Yes Yes Flora Mesoamericana (2018)
Impatiens parviflora (small balsam) Yes Trepl (1984)
Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)Often naturalized along roadsides and disturbed forests Yes Yes Christenhusz (2009)
Indigofera trita (Asian indigo)Common weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Indigofera trita subsp. scabra (Asian Indigo)Common weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA (2014)
Ipomoea alba (white moonflower )Common in parks, along roadsides, and along railway lines Yes Yes Queensland Government (2016)
Ipomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)Naturalized along roadsides, open areas, ruderal areas Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020)
Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)Common in disturbed, open sites, roadsides and forest edges Yes Yes Queensland Government (2017)
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)Common in disturbed, open sites, roadsides and forest edges Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
Ipomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)It grows as a weed Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2014)
Ischaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Naturalized on heavily grazed areas Yes Yes PROTA (2015)
Jatropha curcas (jatropha) Yes Pitt (1999)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush) Yes
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)Naturalising at disturbed sites Yes HEAR (2017)
Juncus effusus (common rush) Yes
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Dominant means of local accidental spread is by disturbance of wet soil, e.g. in ditch construction Yes
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush) Yes US Fish and Wildlife Service (1992)
Juncus tenuis (slender rush) Yes Yes Hilty (2011)
Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Naturalized in disturbed and waste places Yes Yes Flora de Nicaragua (2016)
Kalanchoe integra (Never die)Found on roadsides Yes Sharma et al. (2011)
Lactuca floridana (woodland lettuce) Yes Yes
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)Naturalized in disturbed sites, roadsides, etc Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)Naturalized in ruderal areas Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
Launaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)Common weed on disturbed and waste sites Yes Yes Pruski and Robinson (2018)
Lawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)Naturalized in disturbed sites and near villages Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Lepidagathis alopecuroidea (pata de gallina)The species is reported at disturbed forest sites Yes Wasshausen and Wood (2004)
Lepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)Commonly found at disturbed and waste places. Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2016)
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop)Often naturalized in open grounds and disturbed places Yes Yes PIER (2018)
Lespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza)Introduced for rapid greening of disturbed sites Yes Carter and Ungar (2002)
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas barometer bush)Grows along roadsides and highways Yes Yes Kahle et al. (2020)
Lindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)Weed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1979)
Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)Naturalized along roadsides and disturbed forests Yes Yes ISSG (2016)
Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)Common in disturbed exposed muds Yes Yes Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora (2020)
Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin)Weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2017)
Lygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern) Yes
Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro) Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Macrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)Common in disturbed sites Yes Yes NZPCN (2017)
Malvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)Naturalized in disturbed sites, waste areas Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Mangifera indica (mango) Yes Yes Bally (2006)
Maranta arundinacea (arrowroot)Naturalized in disturbed sites, roadsides, waste grounds Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Martynia annua (tiger's claw)Weed of wastelands and roadsides Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree) Yes PIER (2007)
Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass)Escape from cultivation Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005)
Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)Accidental, frequent Yes Yes
Microstegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop) Yes Warren et al. (2010)
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine) Yes
Mikania scandens Yes Moon et al. (1993)
Mimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)Common in disturbed sites, roadsides, abandoned pastures, etc. Yes Yes Francis (2004)
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Escaped form cultivation into disturbed areas. Yes Dave’s Garden (2016)
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)Along road verges in USA Yes Meyer (2003)
Moorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass) Yes Blanca et al. (2009)
Morella faya (firetree) Yes
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)Naturalized in disturbed areas near villages Yes Yes Nelson (2006)
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Csurhes and Navie (2016)
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)Naturalized in ruderal areas, secondary forests and along roadsides Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Mussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)Often grown along roadsides, forest edges and ruderal sites Yes Yes Alejandro et al. (2016)
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)Common weed in open and disturbed places Yes Yes Daniel (2001)
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris) Yes Yes
Neyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed) Yes Rasha (2005)
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)Reported on waste land Yes Flora of Pakistan (2017)
Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)Weed of open sites, disturbed areas, roadsides, etc Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)Common weed in ruderal sites, roadsides, forest edges Yes Yes Terrell and Robinson (2006)
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)Often naturalized along roadsides, disturbed forests, etc Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Opuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia engelmannii (cactus apple) Yes
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) Yes
Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)Cladode movement and establishment Yes
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Yes
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)Naturalized along roadsides and open waste areas Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2017)
Paspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Weed in disturbed sites, roadsides, ruderal areas, etc Yes Yes PIER (2018)
Paspalum densum (dense crowngrass)Weed of open and moist disturbed sites Yes Quattrocchi (2006)
Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass) Yes PIER (2017)
Paspalum millegrana (yerba brava)Weed of wet disturbed sites and flooded areas Yes Yes Ortiz et al. (2015)
Paspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)Weed in disturbed sites Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) Yes
Paspalum virgatum (sword grass)Weed of ruderal sites, roadsides, pastures Yes Yes De la Cruz et al. (1994)
Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)Accidental dispersal through landscaping and soil movement activities Yes Yes Cain et al. (2010)
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Roadsides, railways, mining Yes Florabase (2012)
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)Naturalized in ruderal areas, roadsides, old farms Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)Found in disturbed areas in Hawaii Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)Seeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) Yes
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Accidental movement of rhizome contaminated soil Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Phyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)Accidental movement of rhizome contaminated soil Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
Phytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)Spread in soil during road building and mining Yes Batini (1977); Colquhoun and Petersen (1994)
Pittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood) Yes Goodland and Healey (1996)
Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush)Common in disturbed areas Yes Francis (2004)
Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
Polyscias guilfoylei (geranium aralia)Naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes Duvauchelle (2007)
Portulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick) Yes
Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite)Aids establishment Yes Pasiecznik et al. (2001)
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)Aids establishment, e.g. overgrazing Yes Pasiecznik et al. (2001)
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Naturalized in disturbed sites, roadsides and open grounds Yes Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
Pteris multifida (spider brake)Found at disturbed sites in urban areas Yes HEAR (2017); Keener et al. (2020)
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Present at disturbed sites, urban areas and cleared areas Yes PIER (2018); I3N-Brasil (2019); Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)In forest openings Yes Horvitz et al. (1998)
Rubus parviflorus (thimbleberry)Rapidly invades disturbed areas Yes Oleskevich et al. (1996)
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)Grows as a weed Yes Yes ISSG (2010)
Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)Weed Yes Yes Hammer (2002)
Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Established at disturbed sites Yes Floridata (2016)
Rytidostylis carthagenensisFound at disturbed sites and margins of forests and rivers Yes Sasaki et al. (2008)
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes
Salsola kali (common saltwort) Yes
Salsola paulsenii (barbwire Russian thistle) Yes
Sambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)Common in disturbed areas Yes Yes Stevens (2001)
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) Yes
Schismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)Soil disturbance promotes spread Yes Brooks (1999)
Sechium edule (chayote)Naturalized in disturbed sites, roadsides, pastures, etc. Yes Yes I3N-Brasil (2018)
Securigera varia (crown vetch)Reported in disturbed areas at native and introduced counties Yes GISD (2016); Gucker (2009)
Senna hirsuta (hairy senna)Humans and animals Yes
Senna italica (Senegal senna)Common weed in disturbed habitats Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)Seeds germinate on disturbed areas Yes Yes Francis (2000)
Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) Yes
Sida acuta (sida) Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Sida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)At roadsides and ruderal areas Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Sida repens (Javanese fanpetals)Weed of disturbed sites Yes Yes Fryxell (2007)
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)Weed of waste areas Yes Yes Zhang et al. (1994)
Solanum erianthum (potato tree) Yes Yes
Solanum quitoense (naranjilla) Yes Yes Heiser (1972)
Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)Grown as a weed Yes Yes Randall (2012)
Solanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)Common weed in wastelands and ruderal areas Yes ISSG (2020)
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Worker ant could move queen ant/s to another location with brood - accidental Yes Morrison et al. (2004)
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)Blowouts caused by disturbance Yes Yes Lonard et al. (2015)
Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)Very common in disturbed sites, described as a pioneer species Yes Yes Hutchinson et al. (1984)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)Environmental weed Yes Yes Holm et al. (1977)
Spiraea chamaedryfolia (germander meadowsweet)Often naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes
Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)Reported as growing in open areas, waste places, clearings Yes Quattrocchi (2006)
Stachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail) Yes Kuo (2003)
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree) Yes CONABIO (2017)
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart) Yes
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)Species occurs in disturbed areas Yes Morton (1987); Peru Checklist (2015); Whistler and Elevitch (2006)
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Naturalized in ruderal sites, roadsides, open ground etc. Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
Tamarindus indica (tamarind)Sometimes naturalized in ruderal areas near villages Yes Yes PIER (2017)
Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) Yes
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Colonies will relocate if disturbed, and they are associated with disturbed environments Yes Yes Deyrup et al. (2000); Passera (1994)
Tecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)Occur in secondary forests and along drainage lines Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Often naturalized along roadsides, disturbed littoral habitats Yes Yes Thomson and Evans (2006)
Thelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)Weed in disturbed sites and secondary forests Yes Yes Smith (1995)
Thunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)Often naturalized along roadsides and in disturbed sites Yes Yes Durkee (1986); Daniel (1995); Flora of Panama (2020)
Thunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)This species frequently invades disturbed areas in wet climates Yes Yes Starr et al. (2003)
Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Weed, often naturalized in disturbed sites and roadsides Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Pioneer species Yes Yes ISSA (2018)
Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)Naturalized in disturbed areas Yes Yes NZPCN (2016)
Trachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)Naturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes
Triumfetta bogotensis (parquet bur)A weedy species of disturbed sites Yes Lay (1950)
Triumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)A weed of disturbed sites Yes Lay (1950)
Triumfetta semitriloba (burweed) Yes
Turnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)Naturalized in open, waste places Yes Yes Smith (1981)
Typha domingensis (southern cattail)Seedlings establish in disturbed vegetation. Yes Finlayson et al. (1983)
Typha x glauca (hybrid cattail)Seedlings establish in disturbed vegetation Yes Grace and Harrison (1986)
Urena lobata (caesar weed)Seeds are able to germinate in disturbed areas Yes Francis (2000)
Urena sinuata (bur mallow)Seeds can germinate in disturbed areas Yes Liogier (1988)
Urochloa decumbens (signal grass)Weed along roadsides and disturbed sites Yes Yes Weeds of Australia (2015)
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Along roads, railways or streams Yes Yes CSIRO (2010)
Urochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)Naturalized in disturbed sites, roadsides, open grounds Yes Yes Hammel et al. (2003)
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) Yes
Vachellia macracantha (porknut)often naturalized along roadside and disturbed sites Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
Ventenata dubia (North Africa grass)Transportation corridors, when seeds are present Yes Yes
Viguiera dentata (sunflower goldeneye)Ruderal weed Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
Vulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue) Yes
Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)Environmental weed. Often naturalized along roadsides, waste sites, open grounds, etc. Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2018)
Zeuxine strateumatica (soldier’s orchid) Yes Ames (1938)
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes