Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Cut flower trade (pathway cause)



Cut flower trade (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cut flower trade (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cut flower trade (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) Yes Yes Armitage (1992)
Adiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)deliberate introduction Yes Jones (1987)
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Taller varieties are used for cut flowers Yes Yes Cornell Garden-Based Learning (2016)
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Yes
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern) Yes Yes
Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Accidental movement on infected plant material Yes Yes Carnegie and Cooper (2011); Loope (2010); Loope et al. (2007)
Bromus secalinus (rye brome)Used in flower arrangements. In Finland, found in an area used for the disposal of florists’ waste Yes Yes Carlsson et al. (2014); Oakes (1990)
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Centaurea macrocephala (giant knapweed) Yes
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)If wooden structures are used for storage and transportation
Cordyline fruticosa (ti plant)Leaves; pantropical Yes
Coriandrum sativum (coriander)Used in British Victorian bouquets Yes Yes Lawton (2007)
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)Attractive garden plant Yes Yes
Cosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos) Yes
Cuscuta campestris (field dodder) Yes Yes
Cynara cardunculus (cardoon)Careless disposal results in seeds being spread Yes Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001)
Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) Yes Yes
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize) Yes Yes
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc)Not explicitly mentioned in literature, but likely based on the species’ biology Yes
Drosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila) Yes
Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth) Yes
Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)Widely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Ibrahim and Setyowati (1999)
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)stems used Yes
Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug)Accidental introduction on plants Yes Yes
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)accidental Yes Yes Weems and Skelley (2010)
Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips) Yes Yes
Harmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Found on imported flowers from the Netherlands to UK Yes Yes Majerus et al. (2006)
Hedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily) Yes Yes Branney (2005)
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Helicoverpa zea (bollworm) Yes Yes
Iris domestica (blackberry lily)Branches with flowers and seeds used in arrangements Yes
Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)Cultivated for its fragrant white flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2016)
Lepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed) Yes Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board (1999)
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid) Yes Yes
Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy) Yes
Lilioceris lilii (lily leaf beetle) Yes Yes
Limax maximus (leopard slug)Accidental transport with vegetation and soil Yes Yes
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug) Yes Yes Harman (in press)
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed) Yes Yes
Passiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)Although cut flowers are used in some places, this is not a major reason for the dispersal of the sp Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)Removal of waste containing old but green stalks can disperse plant Yes
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug)Accidental introduction on imported plant material Yes Yes
Plantago asiatica mosaic virusInternational movement in infected cut flowers has been reported Yes Yes Anderson et al. (2013)
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)Flowers used to make garlands Yes Yes Criley (2005)
Podosphaera spiraeae (Japanese spiraea powdery mildew) Yes
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On cut flowers Yes
Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive) Yes Yes
Puccinia buxiFoliage used as greenery in bouquets Yes Yes Preece (2000)
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Raoiella indica (red palm mite)Phytosanitary certificates required when transported between Caribbean islands Yes
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)used in lei making Yes Yes Staples and Herbst (2005)
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)Movement of plants, interceptions Yes Yes Karsholt (1994)
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) Yes Yes
Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar) Yes
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster) Yes Yes
Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)Cut flowers sold in markets Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Tapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)May have been transported to Texas on cut flowers Yes Yes Cook et al. (1994)
Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt) Yes Yes
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)Virus insect vector (whitefly) on ornamental plants. Yes Cohen et al. (1995)
Tomato yellow ring orthotospovirus (Tomato yellow ring virus) Yes Ghotbi et al. (2005)
Xyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)Dried heads sold in dry bouquets in Hawaii Yes Yes Erickson and Puttock (2006)
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia) Yes Yes