Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Breeding and propagation (pathway cause)



Breeding and propagation (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Breeding and propagation (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Breeding and propagation (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Reported as cultivated for medicinal purposes and fibres. Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)In vitro propagation, for reintroduction to areas in India where is over-harvested Yes Rout et al., 2009
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle)Cultivated locally as an ornamental and for wood products Yes EFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2015
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Propagation as ornamental and medicinal purposes Yes Yes Sanecki et al., 2003
Aculops fuchsiae (Fuchsia gall mite)To France, Germany, Channel Islands and England Yes Yes Koehler et al., 1985; Ostojá-Starzewski et al., 2007; Streito et al., 2004
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
African cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)Cassava breeding programmes routinely screen their materials for virus presence. However, viruses present in very low concentrations undetectable using traditional diagnostic assays may escape detection Yes
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Sold as a flower bed plant. Yes Yes
Annona glabra (pond apple)As a rootstock Yes Anonymous, 2003
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)Has been subject of much propagation breeding Yes Yes Janick and Paull, 2008
Apis mellifera scutellata (africanized bee)From South Africa & Tanzania to Brazil Yes Yes Piereira and Chaud-Netto, 2005
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Yes
Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush) Yes
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Yes
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Captive breeding of salamanders with possible infection Yes Yes Sabino-Pinto et al., 2015
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes
Bixa orellana (annatto) Yes Yes Morton, 1960
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Hull AC Jr, 1974; Rosenthal et al., 2008
Brassica juncea (mustard)Breeding programme for enhancement of crop traits for fodder and oil production Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, 2008
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Breeding for cultivation and research Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life, 2018; PROTA, 2018; Achigan-Dako, 2010
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Seeds, cuttings and suckers are used for its propagation at various nurseries Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Yes Mackey, 1996
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma phoeniciumGrafting activities (probably) Yes Yes Abou-Jawdah et al., 2003
Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (witches'-broom phytoplasma disease) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)Widely cultivated as an ornamental in urban and garden areas Yes Yes Bosch, 2007; Duke, 1983; Hanelt et al., 2001; PIER, 2014
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Often commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2015
Cenchrus biflorus (Indian sandbur) Yes Yes
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes Marshall et al., 2012
Cervus canadensis (wapiti)Embryo and semen import/export Yes
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Embryo and semen import/export Yes
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Species is a popular ornamental and has been introduced beyond its native range for this purpose Yes Yes
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004
Chilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer) Yes Yes
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Potato ring rot) Yes Franc, 1999
Clerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower) Yes Yes
Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (cadang cadang disease)Unrestricted movement of coconut germplasm from affected areas in the Philippines. Yes Yes
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton) Yes Hettiarachchi et al., 2003
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood) Yes
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)Attractive garden plant Yes Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Crepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet) Yes
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Hybrid of horticultural origin Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)Imported long-distance for breeding projects Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010; Rimmer et al., 2004; Sadovy et al., 2007
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Yes Yes
Cuphea hyssopifolia (false heather) Yes Scheper, 2003
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress)Grown as an ornamental Yes Yes Dirr, 2009
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not)Sharing and sale of seeds Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Yes Croat, 2004
Digitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)Cultivated in Argentina and Sierra Leone Yes Vega and Rugólo de Agrasar, 2007
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)sexual and in vitro propagation for crop production and to create new cultivars Yes Yes PROTA, 2017
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes Yes
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc)Sylviculture nurseries Yes Herbert, 2010
Echinochloa pyramidalis Yes
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm) Yes Duke, 1983
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)Import of plant or plant material such as budwood for the purpose of breeding or propagation can lea Yes Yes Bonn and Zwet, 2000
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Numerous cultivars have been bred and propagated for commercial sale Yes Yes Dirr, 1998
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)cultivars still sold Yes
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes Mabberly, 2008; Starr et al., 2003; USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Trials for its breeding and propagation made in various countries Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Fusicladium effusum (pecan scab) Yes Yes
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Potato breeding material from South America to Ireland Yes Yes Turner and Evans, 1998
Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus)The careless selection of infected grape propagation material results in long-distance or local spread of GRBV Yes Yes Sudarshana et al., 2015; Bahder et al., 2016a; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Achigan-Dako, 2010
Haplaxius crudus (American palm cixiid) Yes
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Main aim of breeding to produce a varienty with high biomass yield and low furanocoumarin content Yes Yes Boodiak et al., 1981; Demidov and Satsyperova, 1989
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Yes Sano, 2003c
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
Iris domestica (blackberry lily) Yes
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Some vendors in the USA have the species Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Deliberately for wetland restoration or ornamental use Yes Yes
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Cultivated for research and for use in sewage treatment Yes Yes Yu et al., 2014
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid) Yes Yes
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al., 1999
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Horticultural plants Yes
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Stocks from native countries used to establish domesticated strains Yes Briggs et al., 2004; Oceanic Institute, 2007
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Used as an ornamental plant Yes Langeland et al., 2008
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Possible on vegetatively propagated material. Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Commercially cultivated for ornamental purposes. Yes Yes DAISIE, 2016
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, rare pathway Yes Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Yes Palada et al., 2017
Myriophyllum pinnatum (cutleaf watermilfoil)species farm-raised for aquarium trade Yes Yes Live Aquaria, 2017
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Many cultivars being developed Yes Yes Knox and Wilson, 2012
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) Yes Yes Hartana and Vermeulen, 2000
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)As an ornamental Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Opogona sacchari (banana moth) Yes
Oracella acuta (loblolly pine mealybug) Yes Sun et al., 1996
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)Wide spread intentional introduction Yes Yes Canonico et al., 2005
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes
Pantherophis guttatus (corn snake)This species is imported for the pet trade, but some snakes escape locally within their native range Yes Yes Kraus, 2009
Pear blister canker viroid Yes Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Introduced from native range to Europe in 19th century for experimentation and breeding of hybrids Yes Yes Dasuki, 2002
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species exported from South Africa in 1700s for ornamental cultivation. Yes Yes Miller, 1996; Achigan-Dako, 2010
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Species is a parent of many ornamental hybrids today Yes Yes Miller, 1996; SANBI, 2014
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)Hawaii and main culture countries worldwide brought broodstock from native countries Yes Yes FAO, 2007; Shrimp News, 2007
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Ornamental plant sales Yes Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Propagated at botanical gardens, nurseries and at USDA-ARS Yes Yes Bigazzi, 1989; Achigan-Dako, 2010; PROTA, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019
Petricolaria pholadiformis (false angel wing) Yes Yes Rosenthal, 1980
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)Propagated as an ornamental in Taiwan Yes Yes Cheng et al., 2012
Pinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster) Yes
Plum pox virus (sharka)Budwood exchange. Yes
Poa nemoralis (wood bluegrass)Used for lawns Yes Yes
Procyon lotor (raccoon) Yes Aliev and Sanderson, 1966; Lutz, 1995
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)Explants are produced and tissue culture propagated for the horticulture industry Yes Zhang et al., 2015b; Chen et al., 2016
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On nursery stock Yes Yes
Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive) Yes Yes
Psittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet) Yes Low, 2003
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)In nurseries for ornamental purposes Yes Yes Palmpedia, 2017
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)For ornamental purposes. Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Python bivittatus (Burmese python)Bred for pet trade in many countries, primarily USA/Europe; sold domestically and internationally. Yes Yes Bellosa et al., 2007; Reed and Rodda, 2009
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes Yes
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk) Yes Yes ICES, 2004
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Deliberate, presumed infrequent Yes Yes Campbell, 1977
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Yes Bruun, 2005
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)Bred for commercial use as a herb Yes Yes
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)E.g. in contaminated rice for research purposes at IRRI Yes Yes Huelma et al., 1996
Rubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry) Yes Gardner, 1999
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry) Yes Yes ISSG, 2014
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes Yes
Salvinia minima Yes Yes ISSG, 2006
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes Yes McFarland et al., 2004
Schizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)Propagated to be used for plantations, regeneration and ornamental uses. Yes Yes Reforestation Southern Bahia, 2016; Trianoski et al., 2011
Senna alata (candle bush)In vitro propagation protocols developed in India Yes Yes Anis et al., 2012
Solanum tuberosum (potato)Has a long history of cultivation Yes Yes
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes Yes
Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar) Yes
Sporisorium pulverulentum (Sporisorium smut of wild Saccharum) Yes Yes
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree)Propagated in some nurseries for ornamental purposes Yes
Strawberry necrotic shock virus (Strawberry necrotic shock virus) Yes Yes
Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane) Yes Yes
sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane) Yes Yes
Syzygium grande (sea apple)Species has been actively utilized in plantation and reforestation programmes Yes Yes Islam, 2003; Shono et al., 2007
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui) Yes Yes
Tamias sibiricus (Siberian chipmunk)One population escaped from breeding farm in France Yes Jaouen and Léger, 2005
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Widely cultivated as garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Tuberose mild mottle virus (tuberose mild mottle virus)Accidental, through infected bulbs Yes Yes Lin et al., 2004; Kulshrestha et al., 2005; Dey et al., 2018
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Intentional introductions for forage; spread from cultivation Yes Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries, 2015
Varroa destructor (Varroa mite) Yes Yes Fera, 2010
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena)Widely cultivated and available for sale as seeds and plants from numerous sources Yes Yes BGCI, 2014; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Royal Horticultural Society, 2015
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Hybrids may be more invasive Yes Yes Trusty et al., 2008
Xylophilus ampelinus (canker of grapevine) Yes Yes
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet)Seed and cuttings Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger) Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010; Chirangini and Sharma, 2005; Ravindran and Babu, 2005; Wolff et al., 1999