Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Breeding and propagation (pathway cause)



Breeding and propagation (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Breeding and propagation (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Breeding and propagation (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)Reported as cultivated for medicinal purposes and fibres. Yes Achigan-Dako (2010)
Abutilon indicum (country mallow)In vitro propagation, for reintroduction to areas in India where is over-harvested Yes Rout et al. (2009)
Acacia longifolia (golden wattle)Cultivated locally as an ornamental and for wood products Yes EFSA Panel on Plant Health (2015)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)Propagation as ornamental and medicinal purposes Yes Yes Sanecki et al. (2003)
Aculops fuchsiae (Fuchsia gall mite)To France, Germany, Channel Islands and England Yes Yes Koehler et al. (1985); Ostojá-Starzewski et al. (2007); Streito et al. (2004)
Aegilops cylindrica Yes
African cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)Cassava breeding programmes routinely screen their materials for virus presence. However, viruses present in very low concentrations undetectable using traditional diagnostic assays may escape detection Yes
Ageratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)Sold as a flower bed plant. Yes Yes
Annona glabra (pond apple)As a rootstock Yes Anonymous (2003)
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)Has been subject of much propagation breeding Yes Yes Janick and Paull (2008)
Apis mellifera scutellata (africanized bee)From South Africa & Tanzania to Brazil Yes Yes Piereira and Chaud-Netto (2005)
Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper) Yes Yes
Asparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)Propagated to be used as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2020)
Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush) Yes
Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly) Yes Yes
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Yes
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Captive breeding of salamanders with possible infection Yes Yes Sabino-Pinto et al. (2015)
Bipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats) Yes
Bixa orellana (annatto) Yes Yes Morton (1960)
Brachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome) Yes Hull AC Jr (1974); Rosenthal et al. (2008)
Brassica juncea (mustard)Breeding programme for enhancement of crop traits for fodder and oil production Yes Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (2008)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)Breeding for cultivation and research Yes Yes Encyclopedia of Life (2018); PROTA (2018); Wisconsin Fast Plants (2018)
Breynia disticha (snowbush)Seeds, cuttings and suckers are used for its propagation at various nurseries Yes Yes
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) Yes Yes
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Yes Mackey (1996)
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma phoeniciumGrafting activities (probably) Yes Yes Abou-Jawdah et al. (2003)
Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (witches'-broom phytoplasma disease) Yes Yes
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma) Yes Yes
Carpobrotus chilensis (sea fig)For use as an ornamental Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2020)
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)Widely cultivated as an ornamental in urban and garden areas Yes Yes Bosch (2007); Duke (1983); Hanelt et al. (2001); PIER (2014)
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)Often commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2015)
Cenchrus biflorus (Indian sandbur) Yes Yes
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass) Yes Marshall et al. (2012)
Ceratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)Propagated for use as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2020)
Cervus canadensis (wapiti)Embryo and semen import/export Yes
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Embryo and semen import/export Yes
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Species is a popular ornamental and has been introduced beyond its native range for this purpose Yes Yes
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Chilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer) Yes Yes
Clavibacter insidiosus (bacterial lucerne wilt) Yes
Clavibacter nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight) Yes Yes
Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot) Yes Yes Franc (1999)
Clavibacter tessellarius (bacterial mosaic of wheat) Yes Yes
Clerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower) Yes Yes
Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (cadang cadang disease)Unrestricted movement of coconut germplasm from affected areas in the Philippines. Yes Yes
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton) Yes Hettiarachchi et al. (2003)
Coptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)If wooden structures are used for storage and transportation Yes Yes
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood) Yes
Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)Attractive garden plant Yes Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Crepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet) Yes
Crescentia cujete (calabash tree)Used as an ornamental, in crafts and for medicinal purposes Yes Yes Morton (1968); Gilman and Watson (1993)
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)Hybrid of horticultural origin Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)Imported long-distance for breeding projects Yes Yes Ou et al. (1999); Rimmer et al. (2004); Sadovy et al. (2007)
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Yes Yes
Cuphea hyssopifolia (false heather) Yes Scheper (2003)
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress)Grown as an ornamental Yes Yes Dirr (2009)
Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans) Yes Yes
Cynoglossum amabile (Chinese forget-me-not)Sharing and sale of seeds Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Desmodium cajanifolium (tropical tick trefoil)As cultivated and propagated from seeds and cuttings. Yes Dave’s Garden (2020)
Diaporthe gulyae (Phomopsis stem canker of sunflower)Seed infection Yes Yes Thompson et al.. 2011; Brumpton (2020); Thompson et al. (in press)
Dichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)Varieties have been developed and propagated to be used for pasture and as fodder Yes Yes Cook et al. (2005); Encyclopedia of Life (2020)
Dieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane) Yes Yes Croat (2004)
Digitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)Cultivated in Argentina and Sierra Leone Yes Vega and Rugólo de Agrasar (2007); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
Dioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)sexual and in vitro propagation for crop production and to create new cultivars Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Diplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)Available for sale at nurseries and over the internet as an ornamental Yes Yes Huttleston (1962); PIER (2020)
Diplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease) Yes Yes
Discus rotundatus (rotund disc)Sylviculture nurseries Yes Herbert (2010)
Echinochloa pyramidalis Yes
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm) Yes Duke (1983)
Epidendrum radicans (crucifix orchid) Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Erwinia amylovora (fireblight)Import of plant or plant material such as budwood for the purpose of breeding or propagation can lea Yes Yes Bonn and Zwet (2000)
Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)Numerous cultivars have been bred and propagated for commercial sale Yes Yes Dirr (1998)
Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)cultivars still sold Yes
Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree) Yes Yes Mabberly (2008); Starr et al. (2003); USDA-ARS (2014); Whistler (2000)
Funtumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Trials for its breeding and propagation made in various countries Yes Yes Howard and Powell (1963)
Fusicladium effusum (pecan scab) Yes Yes
Globodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Potato breeding material from South America to Ireland Yes Yes Turner and Evans (1998)
Gossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton) Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus)The careless selection of infected grape propagation material results in long-distance or local spread of GRBV Yes Yes Sudarshana et al. (2015); Bahder et al. (2016a); Cieniewicz et al. (2017a; b; 2018a; 2019a);
Haplaxius crudus (American palm cixiid) Yes
Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily) Yes
Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger) Yes
Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger) Yes Yes
Heracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Main aim of breeding to produce a varienty with high biomass yield and low furanocoumarin content Yes Yes Boodiak et al. (1981); Demidov and Satsyperova (1989)
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) Yes Yes
Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid) Yes Yes Sano (2003c)
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
Iris domestica (blackberry lily) Yes
Jasminum simplicifolium (Australian wax jasmine)Some vendors in the USA have the species Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2018)
Jatropha integerrima (peregrina)Propagated for its use as an ornamental in various nurseries, mainly from cuttings Yes Dave’s Garden (2020)
Juncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Deliberately for wetland restoration or ornamental use Yes Yes
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)Cultivated for research and for use in sewage treatment Yes Yes Yu et al. (2014)
Leptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid) Yes Yes
Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) Yes Yes
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) Yes
Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)Propagated for its cultivation and to produce various cultivars Yes Yes Gilman and Watson (1993); Fetouh et al. (2016)
Ligustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)Widely used as ornamental and hedge plants Yes Swarbrick et al. (1999)
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)Horticultural plants Yes
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Stocks from native countries used to establish domesticated strains Yes Briggs et al. (2004); Oceanic Institute (2007)
Melinis repens (natal redtop)Used as an ornamental plant Yes Langeland et al. (2008)
Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Possible on vegetatively propagated material. Yes Yes
Mirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Commercially cultivated for ornamental purposes. Yes Yes DAISIE (2016)
Mononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)Accidental introduction, rare pathway Yes Yes
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree) Yes Yes Palada et al. (2017)
Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)For its use as an ornamental and landscape plant Yes Yes Gilman (1999)
Myriophyllum pinnatum (cutleaf watermilfoil)species farm-raised for aquarium trade Yes Yes Live Aquaria (2017)
Nandina domestica (Nandina)Many cultivars being developed Yes Yes Knox and Wilson (2012)
Nerium oleander (oleander)For use as an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2020)
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) Yes Yes Hartana and Vermeulen (2000)
Nopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)As an ornamental Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2017)
Opogona sacchari (banana moth) Yes
Oracella acuta (loblolly pine mealybug) Yes Sun et al. (1996)
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)Wide spread intentional introduction Yes Yes Canonico et al. (2005)
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Pandanus tectorius (screw pine) Yes
Pantherophis guttatus (corn snake)This species is imported for the pet trade, but some snakes escape locally within their native range Yes Yes Kraus (2009)
Paspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)For pasture grass Yes Yes Hitchcock (1936); FAO (2012b); Hanelt (2018)
Pear blister canker viroid Yes Yes
Pectobacterium brasiliense (soft rot and blackleg of ornamentals and potato) Yes Yes
Pelargonium odoratissimum (apple geranium)Introduced from native range to Europe in 19th century for experimentation and breeding of hybrids Yes Yes Dasuki (2002)
Pelargonium peltatum (ivy geranium)Species exported from South Africa in 1700s for ornamental cultivation. Yes Yes Miller (1996); Walt JJAvan der (1977)
Pelargonium zonale (horseshoe pelargonium)Species is a parent of many ornamental hybrids today Yes Yes Miller (1996); SANBI (2014)
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)Hawaii and main culture countries worldwide brought broodstock from native countries Yes Yes FAO (2007); Shrimp News (2007)
Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass)Ornamental plant sales Yes Yes
Petrea volubilis (queen's wreath)Propagated at botanical gardens, nurseries and at USDA-ARS Yes Yes Bigazzi (1989); Dave's Garden (2019); PROTA (2019); USDA-ARS (2019)
Petricolaria pholadiformis (false angel wing) Yes Yes Rosenthal (1980)
Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)Propagated as an ornamental in Taiwan Yes Yes Cheng et al. (2012)
Pinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster) Yes
Plum pox virus (sharka)Budwood exchange. Yes
Plumbago auriculata (cape leadwort) Yes Yes Long and Lakela (1976)
Poa nemoralis (wood bluegrass)Used for lawns Yes Yes
Procyon lotor (raccoon) Yes Aliev and Sanderson (1966); Lutz (1995)
Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry)Explants are produced and tissue culture propagated for the horticulture industry Yes Zhang et al. (2015b); Chen et al. (2016)
Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)On nursery stock Yes Yes
Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive) Yes Yes
Psittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet) Yes Low (2003)
Pteris multifida (spider brake)Used as an ornamental; available for sale Yes Yes Keener et al. (2020)
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)Possibly for use as an ornamental Yes Yes
Ptychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)In nurseries for ornamental purposes Yes Yes Palmpedia (2017)
Pyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)For ornamental purposes. Yes Yes Dave’s Garden (2017)
Python bivittatus (Burmese python)Bred for pet trade in many countries, primarily USA/Europe; sold domestically and internationally. Yes Yes Bellosa et al. (2007); Reed and Rodda (2009)
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato) Yes Yes
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes Yes
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk) Yes Yes ICES (2004)
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Deliberate, presumed infrequent Yes Yes Campbell (1977)
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose) Yes Yes Bruun (2005)
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)Bred for commercial use as a herb Yes Yes
Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)E.g. in contaminated rice for research purposes at IRRI Yes Yes Huelma et al. (1996)
Rubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry) Yes Gardner (1999)
Rubus niveus (Mysore raspberry) Yes Yes ISSG (2014)
Saccharum ravennae (ravenna grass) Yes Yes
Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)The species is used locally as an ornamental Yes San Pedro Naturaleza (2020)
Salvinia minima Yes Yes ISSG (2006)
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed) Yes Yes McFarland et al. (2004)
Schizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)Propagated to be used for plantations, regeneration and ornamental uses. Yes Yes Reforestation Southern Bahia (2016); Trianoski et al. (2011)
Senna alata (candle bush)In vitro propagation protocols developed in India Yes Yes Anis et al. (2012)
Solanum tuberosum (potato)Has a long history of cultivation Yes Yes
Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) Yes Yes
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)Crawford and Landolt (1993) Yes Yes Les (2020)
Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar) Yes
Sporisorium pulverulentum (Sporisorium smut of wild Saccharum) Yes Yes
Sporobolus junceus (pineywoods dropseed)In a few local native plant nurseries in Florida, USA Yes Institute for Regional Conservation (2020)
Sporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass) Yes Yes
Sterculia apetala (Panama tree)Propagated in some nurseries for ornamental purposes Yes
Stictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)Possible as it is regarded as an ornamental, although not advertised online or nurseries Yes Yes PIER (2019)
Strawberry necrotic shock virus (Strawberry necrotic shock virus) Yes Yes
Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma (grassy shoot of sugarcane) Yes Yes
sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane) Yes Yes
Syzygium grande (sea apple)Species has been actively utilized in plantation and reforestation programmes Yes Yes Islam (2003); Shono et al. (2007)
Tabebuia rosea (pink poui) Yes Yes
Tamias sibiricus (Siberian chipmunk)One population escaped from breeding farm in France Yes Jaouen and Léger (2005)
Thymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Seeds are sold at internet sites worldwide Yes Yes
Tithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)Widely cultivated as garden ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2018)
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus) Yes Yes
Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt) Yes Yes
Tuberose mild mottle virus (tuberose mild mottle virus)Accidental, through infected bulbs Yes Yes Lin et al. (2004); Kulshrestha et al. (2005); Dey et al. (2018)
Urochloa distachya (signal grass)Intentional introductions for forage; spread from cultivation Yes Yes New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries (2015)
Varroa destructor (Varroa mite) Yes Yes Fera (2010)
Verbena officinalis (vervain)Mainly for its use as a herbal medicine Yes Yes PFAF (2020); PROTA (2020)
Verbena rigida (stiff verbena)Widely cultivated and available for sale as seeds and plants from numerous sources Yes Yes BGCI (2014); Daves Garden (2015); Royal Horticultural Society (2015)
Vitex parviflora (molave)Propagated for its reintroduction into natural habitats Yes Rainforestation Portal (2020)
Wisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)Hybrids may be more invasive Yes Yes Trusty et al. (2008)
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. perforans (bacterial spot of tomato) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas hortorum pv. gardneri (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis (bacterial leaf streak of grasses) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley) Yes Yes
Xanthomonas vesicatoria (bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) Yes Yes
Xylophilus ampelinus (bacterial blight of grapevine) Yes Yes
Yucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet)Seed and cuttings Yes Yes Dave's Garden (2016)
Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger) Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2005); Chirangini and Sharma (2005); Ravindran and Babu (2005); Wolff et al. (1999)