Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Aquaculture (pathway cause)



Aquaculture (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aquaculture (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aquaculture (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Alexandrium minutumcysts in shellfish, possible but not documented Yes Yes
Alitta succinea (pile worm)On oysters Yes Smith and Carlton, 1975
Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass) Yes Yes
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Ameiurus natalis Yes FAO, 1997
Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead) Yes
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle)On commercial bivalve shells Yes Yes Gruet et al., 1976
Anguillicoloides crassus Yes Yes Fries et al., 1996; Kennedy and Fitch, 1990
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Yes Oidtmann et al., 2005
Arcuatula senhousia (Asian date mussel) Yes NIMPIS, 2002
Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp) Yes
Ascidiella aspersa (European sea squirt) Yes
Aspius aspius (asp) Yes Yes
Austrominius modestusAfter initial introduction, subsequently spread in UK, Ireland and France due to aquaculture Yes
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Yes Mazzoni et al., 2003; Schloegel et al., 2010
Botrylloides perspicuus Yes Yes
Brachidontes pharaonisRecorded in the north Aegean Sea, in most cases connected with anthropogenic activites i.e. shipping Yes Yes Zenetos et al., 2005
Bugula neritina (brown bryozoan) Yes
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Yes Les and Mehrhoff, 1999
Caprella muticaStock movements of oysters and movements of service boats between aquaculture sites Yes Yes Ashton et al., 2007b; Carlton, 1987; Cook et al., 2007a
Carassius gibelio (Prussian carp) Yes Yes
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab) Yes Smith and Carlton, 1975
Celtodoryx ciocalyptoidesAccidentally from the North West Pacific through aquaculture of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Yes Pérez et al., 2006; Henkel and Janussen, 2011
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams, 2004; Froese and Pauly, 2009
Channa micropeltes (giant snakehead)Wild fishing and/or cultured in cages Yes Yes Pantulu, 1976; Wee, 1982; Lee and Ng, 1991; Dudley, 2000; Courtenay and Williams, 2004
Cherax destructor (yabby) Yes Yes Horwitz, 1990; Lynas et al., 2007
Cherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish) Yes Yes Lynas et al., 2007
Cichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)Cultured as a food fish in Mexico since the 1980s Yes Yes Smith and Carlton, 1975
Ciona intestinalis (sea vase) Yes Yes
Ciona savignyi Yes Yes
Clarias batrachus (walking catfish) Yes Yes Welcomme, 1988
Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoidesEast Asia to Europe, Europe to NW Atlantic Coast and Southern Hemisphere Yes Yes Bouck and Morgan, 1957; Carlton and Scanlon, 1985; Dromgoole, 1975; Silva, 1955; Silva, 1957; Silva, 1979
Coregonus albula (vendace) Yes Yes
Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster) Yes Yes Minchin and Gollasch, 2008; Nehring, 2011
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Crepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet)Transported as a parasite of Ostrea edulis Yes Yes
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)Kept in cages for growout locally, also exported for live fish markets Yes Yes Smith and Carlton, 1975; Sadovy et al., 2007
Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) Yes
Cyprinella lutrensis (red shiner)Establishment in the lower Colorado River basin (1953) attributed to Arizona FishFarm escapees Yes Hubbs, 1954
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Yes Costa et al., 1993; Roberts and Ebner, 1997
Diplosoma listerianum Yes Yes Dijkstra et al., 2007a
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) Yes Yes
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)Accidental through the translocation of mussel or oysters from one catchment to another Yes Yes
Esox lucius (pike)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Eucheuma spp. Yes Yes
Faxonius limosus (Spiny-cheek crayfish)Main cause in Europe Yes Holdich et al., 2006
Gammarus tigrinusEscapes from aquaculture facilities Yes Nijssen and Stock, 1966
Gracilaria salicorniaHawaii to Oahu and Molokai Yes Smith et al., 2004
Gracilaria tikvahiae (graceful red weed) Yes Yes University of Hawaii, 2008
Grateloupia turuturuChina, Japan, Korea and the far-eastern seas of Russia Yes Lee, 2008; Lee and Kang, 2001; Perestenko, 1996; Xia, 2004; Yoshida, 1998; Yoshida et al., 1990
Heterotis niloticus (African bonytongue)Deliberate Yes Yes Micha, 1973
Homarus americanus (American lobster)USA Yes Smith and Carlton, 1975; Kittaka, 1990
Hypnea musciformisFlorida to Hawaiian Islands Yes Russell and Balazs, 1994
Hypostomus plecostomus (suckermouth catfish)Cultured in ponds in Florida Yes Yes Grier, 1980
Ictalurus furcatus (blue catfish)Deliberate Yes Yes Ma et al., 2003
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
KappaphycusCommercial aquaculture for both food and other human products containing carrageenan Yes Yes
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Cronk and Fuller, 1995
Lates niloticus (Nile perch) Yes Froese and Pauly, 2009; Welcomme, 1988
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch, 2004
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)Introduced to the Congo, Zambia, Japan and the Philippines for aquaculture Yes Welcomme, 1988
Lepomis gulosus (warmouth)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) Yes Yes
Leucaspius delineatus (sunbleak) Yes
Leuciscus idus (ide) Yes
Leuciscus leuciscus (common dace) Yes Yes
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant) Yes Yes Akers, 2010; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016
Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel)L. fortunei arrived in Japan before 1987 possibly with the Asian clam imported as food from China Yes Magara et al., 2001
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Imported into non-native countries in the Americas. Asian importers sourced from stocks from Hawaii Yes Yes Briggs et al., 2004
Littorina littorea (common periwinkle)Accidently introduced with oysters Yes Carlton, 2007
Lucania parva (rainwater killifish)Accidental with culturing of oysters (presumably) Yes Hubbs and Miller, 1965
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al., 2005; Okada et al., 2009
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al., 2005
Maliarpha separatella (African white rice borer) Yes Heinrichs and Barrion, 2004
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Associated with aquatic plants Yes Yes
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) Yes
Melanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania) Yes
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) Yes
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (oriental weatherloach) Yes Yes
Myicola ostreaeThrough anthropogenic movements of infected hosts. Yes Yes Batista et al., 2009; Comps, 1972; Faasse, 2003; Gollasch et al., 2009; His, 1979; Ho and Kim, 1991; Holmes and Minchin, 1995; Hoshina and Sugiura, 1953; Kim, 2004; Villalba et al., 1993; Wolff, 2005; Smith and Carlton, 1975
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes Yes
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes Yes
Mytilicola intestinalis (mussel red worm) Yes Yes Bol, 2002; Dare, 1982
Mytilicola orientalis (oyster redworm) Yes Lauckner, 1983; Minchin et al., 1993
Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) Yes Yes
Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease agent) Yes Yes Bartholomew and Reno, 2002
Nasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress) Yes Yes Howard and Lyon, 1952b
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes Yes NOBANIS, 2005
Odontesthes bonariensis (pejerrey)Important in fish culture Yes Reartes, 1995
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon)Reared for production in USA, Canada, New Zeland and Chile Yes Yes Smith and Carlton, 1975; Smith and Carlton, 1975; Smith and Carlton, 1975
Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)Deliberate introduction Yes Yes USGS NAS, 2007
Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) Yes Yes
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) Yes Nico and Schofield, 2011
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Paraergasilus longidigitus Yes Yes
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)To non-native countries in North, South and Central America, West Africa, Europe and Oceania Yes Yes Dall, 1957; Dore and Frimodt, 1987; FAO, 2007; Holthuis, 1980; Shrimp News, 2007
Petricolaria pholadiformis (false angel wing) Yes Yes Naylor, 1957
Pinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)Greece, Italy Yes Serbetis, 1963
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Yes Rivers, 2002
Polyandrocarpa zorritensis Yes Mastrototaro et al., 2008
Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)Introduced as human food. Most impotant long distance pathway Yes Yes
Pomacea maculataPossible food source Yes Yes
Pomoxis annularis (white crappie)Intentionally introduced Yes Welcomme, 1988
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie) Yes Welcomme, 1988
Pontogammarus robustoidesIntroduced in the middle of XX century as fish-food resource in Baltic region Yes Yes Arbaciauskas et al., 2010; Grabowski, 2011; Panov et al., 2009
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch, 2004
Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mudsnail)Transport of aquaculture products (trout eggs, live fish); in the guts of introduced fish farm fish Yes Zaranko et al., 1997
Procambarus acutus acutus Yes Yes Taylor et al., 2007
Procambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish) Yes
Pseudodiaptomus marinusAccidental Yes Yes Fleminger and Kramer, 1988
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes Yes
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk) Yes Yes ICES, 2004
Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Harris mud crab)From Chesapeake Bay (Atlantic USA) to San Francisco Bay (Pacific USA) Yes Cohen and Carlton, 1995; Ruiz et al., 1997; Wasson et al., 2001
Ruditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell)The clam is a high value seafood crop Yes FAO, 2009
Rugosa rugosa (wrinkled frog)Accidental introduction on Hokkaido, Japan via carp production Yes Sarashina and Yoshida, 2015
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) Yes Yes FAO, 2019
Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) Yes Yes
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG, 2009
Salvinia minima Yes Yes ISSG, 2006
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed)Native to Brazil Yes Yes McFarland et al., 2004
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch) Yes Yes
Sander vitreus (walleye)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Sargassum muticum (wire weed) Yes
Scardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd) Yes
Schilbe mystus (African butter catfish)Intentionallt introduced for acquaculture in China from Sudan in 1976 Yes FAO, 1997
Schizoporella errata (branching bryozoan) Yes
Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum)USA Yes
Silurus glanis (wels catfish) Yes Yes
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Associated trade industries - accidental Yes ISSG, 2014
Styela clava (Asian tunicate) Yes Yes
Thorichthys meeki (firemouth cichlid)Some populations in Florida may have resulted from escapes from fish farms Yes Nico et al., 2014
Tilapia mariae (spotted tilapia)From West Africa to former USSR (for warm water aquaculture) & USA (as aquarium species) Yes Yes ACTFR, 2007; FAO, 2009
Tilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)Deliberate introduction Yes Yes Grabowski et al., 1984
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes O'Neill, 2006
Tricellaria inopinata Yes Occhipinti-Ambrogi, 2000a
Trichopodus trichopterus (three spot gourami)Has escaped from aquaculture facilities Yes Welcomme, 1988
Tridentiger trigonocephalus (chameleon goby) Yes Yes NIMPIS, 2014
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Champion et al., 2007
Ulva pertusa Yes Yes Baamonde et al., 2007; Verlaque, 2001; Verlaque et al., 2002
Ulva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)Can be transferred with introductions of Kappaphycus alvarezii Yes Yes Ask et al., 2003
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)Imported as food for aquaculture of North American salmonids Yes Wolter, 2009; Wolter and Röhr, 2010
Undaria pinnatifida (Asian kelp)
Urosalpinx cinerea (American oyster drill) Yes Yes
Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr) Yes Yes PIER, 2013