Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Aquaculture (pathway cause)



Aquaculture (pathway cause)


  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pathway Cause
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aquaculture (pathway cause)
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aquaculture (pathway cause)

Species Transported by Cause

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SpeciesNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Alexandrium minutumcysts in shellfish, possible but not documented Yes Yes
Alitta succinea (pile worm)On oysters Yes Smith and Carlton (1975)
Ambloplites rupestris (rock bass) Yes Yes
Ameiurus melas (black bullhead) Yes Yes
Ameiurus natalis Yes FAO (1997)
Ameiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead) Yes
Amphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle)On commercial bivalve shells Yes Yes Gruet et al. (1976)
Anguillicoloides crassus Yes Yes Fries et al. (1996); Kennedy and Fitch (1990)
Aphanomyces astaci Yes Yes Oidtmann et al. (2005)
Arcuatula senhousia (Asian date mussel) Yes NIMPIS (2002)
Aristichthys nobilis (bighead carp) Yes
Ascidiella aspersa (European sea squirt) Yes
Aspius aspius (asp) Yes Yes
Austrominius modestusAfter initial introduction, subsequently spread in UK, Ireland and France due to aquaculture Yes
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) Yes Mazzoni et al. (2003); Schloegel et al. (2010)
Botrylloides perspicuus Yes Yes
Brachidontes pharaonisRecorded in the north Aegean Sea, in most cases connected with anthropogenic activites i.e. shipping Yes Yes Zenetos et al. (2005)
Bugula neritina (brown bryozoan) Yes
Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) Yes Yes Les and Mehrhoff (1999)
Caprella muticaStock movements of oysters and movements of service boats between aquaculture sites Yes Yes Ashton et al. (2007b); Carlton (1987); Cook et al. (2007a)
Carassius gibelio (Prussian carp) Yes Yes
Carcinus maenas (European shore crab) Yes ISSG (2008)
Celtodoryx ciocalyptoidesAccidentally from the North West Pacific through aquaculture of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Yes Pérez et al. (2006); Henkel and Janussen (2011)
Channa argus argus (northern snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Channa marulius (bullseye snakehead) Yes Yes Courtenay and Williams (2004); Froese and Pauly (2009)
Channa micropeltes (giant snakehead)Wild fishing and/or cultured in cages Yes Yes Pantulu (1976); Wee (1982); Lee and Ng (1991); Dudley (2000); Courtenay and Williams (2004)
Cherax destructor (yabby) Yes Yes Horwitz (1990); Lynas et al. (2007)
Cherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish) Yes Yes Lynas et al. (2007)
Cichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)Cultured as a food fish in Mexico since the 1980s Yes Yes Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) (2016)
Ciona intestinalis (sea vase) Yes Yes
Ciona savignyi Yes Yes
Clarias batrachus (walking catfish) Yes Yes Welcomme (1988)
Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoidesEast Asia to Europe, Europe to NW Atlantic Coast and Southern Hemisphere Yes Yes Bouck and Morgan (1957); Carlton and Scanlon (1985); Dromgoole (1975); Silva (1955); Silva (1957); Silva (1979)
Coregonus albula (vendace) Yes Yes
Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) Yes Yes
Crepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet)Transported as a parasite of Ostrea edulis Yes Yes
Cromileptes altivelis (humpback grouper)Kept in cages for growout locally, also exported for live fish markets Yes Yes Sadovy (2000); Sadovy et al. (2007)
Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp) Yes
Cyprinella lutrensis (red shiner)Establishment in the lower Colorado River basin (1953) attributed to Arizona FishFarm escapees Yes Hubbs (1954)
Cyprinus carpio (common carp) Yes Yes Costa et al. (1993); Roberts and Ebner (1997)
Diplosoma listerianum Yes Yes Dijkstra et al. (2007a)
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) Yes Yes
Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)Accidental through the translocation of mussel or oysters from one catchment to another Yes Yes
Esox lucius (pike)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Eucheuma spp. Yes Yes
Faxonius limosus (Spiny-cheek crayfish)Main cause in Europe Yes Holdich et al. (2006)
Gammarus tigrinusEscapes from aquaculture facilities Yes Nijssen and Stock (1966)
Gracilaria salicorniaHawaii to Oahu and Molokai Yes Smith et al. (2004)
Gracilaria tikvahiae (graceful red weed) Yes Yes University of Hawaii (2008)
Grateloupia turuturuChina, Japan, Korea and the far-eastern seas of Russia Yes Lee (2008); Lee and Kang (2001); Perestenko (1996); Xia (2004); Yoshida (1998); Yoshida et al. (1990)
Heterotis niloticus (African bonytongue)Deliberate Yes Yes Micha (1973)
Homarus americanus (American lobster)USA Yes Kittaka (1984); Kittaka (1990)
Hypnea musciformisFlorida to Hawaiian Islands Yes Russell and Balazs (1994)
Hypostomus plecostomus (suckermouth catfish)Cultured in ponds in Florida Yes Yes Grier (1980)
Ictalurus furcatus (blue catfish)Deliberate Yes Yes Ma et al. (2003)
Ictalurus punctatus (channel catfish) Yes Yes
KappaphycusCommercial aquaculture for both food and other human products containing carrageenan Yes Yes
Lagarosiphon major (African elodea) Yes Cronk and Fuller (1995)
Lates niloticus (Nile perch) Yes Froese and Pauly (2009); Welcomme (1988)
Lemna perpusilla (duckweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch (2004)
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)Introduced to the Congo, Zambia, Japan and the Philippines for aquaculture Yes Welcomme (1988)
Lepomis gulosus (warmouth)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill) Yes Yes
Leucaspius delineatus (sunbleak) Yes
Leuciscus idus (ide) Yes
Leuciscus leuciscus (common dace) Yes Yes
Limnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant) Yes Yes Akers (2010); Encyclopedia of Life (2016)
Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel)L. fortunei arrived in Japan before 1987 possibly with the Asian clam imported as food from China Yes Magara et al. (2001)
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Imported into non-native countries in the Americas. Asian importers sourced from stocks from Hawaii Yes Yes Briggs et al. (2004)
Littorina littorea (common periwinkle)Accidently introduced with oysters Yes Carlton (2007)
Lucania parva (rainwater killifish)Accidental with culturing of oysters (presumably) Yes Hubbs and Miller (1965)
Ludwigia grandiflora (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al. (2005); Okada et al. (2009)
Ludwigia peploides (water primrose) Yes Yes Dandelot et al. (2005)
Magallana gigas (Pacific oyster) Yes Yes Minchin and Gollasch (2008); Nehring (2011)
Maliarpha separatella (African white rice borer) Yes Heinrichs and Barrion (2004)
Marisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Associated with aquatic plants Yes Yes
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) Yes
Melanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania) Yes
Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) Yes
Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (oriental weatherloach) Yes Yes
Myicola ostreaeThrough anthropogenic movements of infected hosts. Yes Yes Batista et al. (2009); Comps (1972); Faasse (2003); Gollasch et al. (2009); His (1979); Ho and Kim (1991); Holmes and Minchin (1995); Hoshina and Sugiura (1953); Kim (2004); Villalba et al. (1993); Wolff (2005); Zenetos (2005)
Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather) Yes Yes
Myriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil) Yes Yes
Mytilicola intestinalis (mussel red worm) Yes Yes Bol (2002); Dare (1982)
Mytilicola orientalis (oyster redworm) Yes Lauckner (1983); Minchin et al. (1993)
Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) Yes Yes
Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease agent) Yes Yes Bartholomew and Reno (2002)
Nasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress) Yes Yes Howard and Lyon (1952b)
Nymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart) Yes Yes NOBANIS (2005)
Odontesthes bonariensis (pejerrey)Important in fish culture Yes Reartes (1995)
Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) Yes Yes
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon)Reared for production in USA, Canada, New Zeland and Chile Yes Yes Heen et al. (1993); Leitritz and Lewis (1976); Thorpe (1989)
Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)Deliberate introduction Yes Yes USGS NAS (2007)
Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) Yes Yes
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) Yes Nico and Schofield (2011)
Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp) Yes
Paraergasilus longidigitus Yes Yes
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)To non-native countries in North, South and Central America, West Africa, Europe and Oceania Yes Yes Dall (1957); Dore and Frimodt (1987); FAO (2007); Holthuis (1980); Shrimp News (2007)
Petricolaria pholadiformis (false angel wing) Yes Yes Naylor (1957)
Pinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)Greece, Italy Yes Serbetis (1963)
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Yes Yes Rivers (2002)
Polyandrocarpa zorritensis Yes Mastrototaro et al. (2008)
Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)Introduced as human food. Most impotant long distance pathway Yes Yes
Pomacea maculataPossible food source Yes Yes
Pomoxis annularis (white crappie)Intentionally introduced Yes Welcomme (1988)
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie) Yes Welcomme (1988)
Pontogammarus robustoidesIntroduced in the middle of XX century as fish-food resource in Baltic region Yes Yes Arbaciauskas et al. (2010); Grabowski (2011); Panov et al. (2009)
Potamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed) Yes Yes Maki and Galatowitsch (2004)
Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mudsnail)Transport of aquaculture products (trout eggs, live fish); in the guts of introduced fish farm fish Yes Zaranko et al. (1997)
Procambarus acutus acutus Yes Yes Taylor et al. (2007)
Procambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish) Yes
Pseudodiaptomus marinusAccidental Yes Yes Fleminger and Kramer (1988)
Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) Yes Yes
Rapana venosa (veined rapana whelk) Yes Yes ICES (2004)
Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Harris mud crab)From Chesapeake Bay (Atlantic USA) to San Francisco Bay (Pacific USA) Yes Cohen and Carlton (1995); Ruiz et al. (1997); Wasson et al. (2001)
Ruditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell)The clam is a high value seafood crop Yes FAO (2009)
Rugosa rugosa (wrinkled frog)Accidental introduction on Hokkaido, Japan via carp production Yes Sarashina and Yoshida (2015)
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) Yes Yes FAO (2019)
Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) Yes Yes
Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia) Yes Yes ISSG (2009)
Salvinia minima Yes Yes ISSG (2006)
Salvinia molesta (kariba weed)Native to Brazil Yes Yes McFarland et al. (2004)
Sander lucioperca (pike-perch) Yes Yes
Sander vitreus (walleye)See distribution table and list Yes Yes
Sargassum muticum (wire weed) Yes
Scardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd) Yes
Schilbe mystus (African butter catfish)Intentionallt introduced for acquaculture in China from Sudan in 1976 Yes FAO (1997)
Schizoporella errata (branching bryozoan) Yes
Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum)USA Yes
Silurus glanis (wels catfish) Yes Yes
Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Associated trade industries - accidental Yes ISSG (2014)
Spirodela polyrrhiza (giant duckweed)Used as an ornamental aquatic plant and as food for fish Yes Yes Aquagreen (2020); Les (2020)
Styela clava (Asian tunicate) Yes Yes
Thorichthys meeki (firemouth cichlid)Some populations in Florida may have resulted from escapes from fish farms Yes Nico et al. (2014)
Tilapia mariae (spotted tilapia)From West Africa to former USSR (for warm water aquaculture) & USA (as aquarium species) Yes Yes ACTFR (2007); FAO (2009)
Tilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)Deliberate introduction Yes Yes Grabowski et al. (1984)
Trapa natans (waterchestnut) Yes Yes O'Neill (2006)
Tricellaria inopinata Yes Occhipinti-Ambrogi (2000a)
Trichopodus trichopterus (three spot gourami)Has escaped from aquaculture facilities Yes Welcomme (1988)
Tridentiger trigonocephalus (chameleon goby) Yes Yes NIMPIS (2014)
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) Yes Champion et al. (2007)
Ulva pertusa Yes Yes Baamonde et al. (2007); Verlaque (2001); Verlaque et al. (2002)
Ulva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)Can be transferred with introductions of Kappaphycus alvarezii Yes Yes Ask et al. (2003)
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)Imported as food for aquaculture of North American salmonids Yes Wolter (2009); Wolter and Röhr (2010)
Undaria pinnatifida (Asian kelp)
Urosalpinx cinerea (American oyster drill) Yes Yes
Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr) Yes Yes PIER (2013)