Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Eichhornia azurea
(anchored water hyacinth)



Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth)


Top of page
Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); flowering habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); flowering habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); flowering habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.
Flowering habitEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); flowering habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); flowering habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); flowering habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); flowering habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.
Flowering habitEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); flowering habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.
CaptionEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Eichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.
HabitEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth); habit. Campo Grande, Transpantaneira, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. June 2016.©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, 1843

Preferred Common Name

  • anchored water hyacinth

Other Scientific Names

  • Eichhornia aquatica (Vell.) Schltdl.
  • Eichhornia azurea var. rhizantha Seub.
  • Piaropus azureus (Sw.) Raf.
  • Piaropus tricolor Raf., Fl., Tellur.
  • Piaropus undulatus Raf., Fl., Tellur.
  • Pontederia aquatica Vell., Fl. Flumin.
  • Pontederia azurea Sw.
  • Pontederia tumida Willd ex Kunth.

International Common Names

  • English: rooted water hyacinth; saw-petal water hyacinth
  • Spanish: cola de pato; pico de pato

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: aguapé; aguapé-de-canudo; aguapé-de-cordao; jacinto d’agua; rainha dos lagos
  • Cuba: jacinta de agua
  • Sweden: azurblå vattenhyacint

EPPO code


Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

E. azurea is a rooted perennial aquatic plant with submersed and emersed leaves. Several taxa of this family have spread, as weeds or ornamentals (Barrett, 1978), outside the limits of their native range (Eckenwalder and Barrett, 1986). Eichhornia crassipes is the species best known for its invasiveness; it is one of the most troublesome weeds in the world (Gopal, 1987) and is declared a noxious weed in many countries, including in the USA and in two states in Australia. The status of E. crassipes (water hyacinth) as a weed has led to the subsequent designation of E. azurea and several species of Eichhornia as prohibited imports in various countries (USDA-NRCS, 2016; The State of New South Wales, 2009).

E. azurea was introduced into the USA from South America as an aquatic ornamental in the 1980s. It has occasionally escaped into local environments in the USA (Gopal, 1987) but has not become established as a weed there. According to historical records, E. azurea has been reported in southern Florida and more recently in Texas (, 2016). It has also been reported in Japan but possibly as a temporary occurrence only (Kadono, 2004).

E. azurea is a weed with a widespread distribution in Brazil, where it often creates large floating mats which obstruct navigation and many other uses of aquatic resources. Reproduction is by seed and vegetatively. Dispersal is by whole plants, by water or by birds.


Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Pontederiales
  •                         Family: Pontederiaceae
  •                             Genus: Eichhornia
  •                                 Species: Eichhornia azurea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Eichhornia is a small genus in the Pontederiaceae. The species are exclusively palustrial and aquatic herbaceous monocotyledons, native to the New World, predominantly neotropical; only E. natans (P. Beauv.) is native to tropical Africa (Eckenwalder and Barrett, 1986; Gopal, 1987; Barrett, 1988). It is important to note that there has been taxonomic confusion within the genus, which comprises between seven (Eckenwalder and Barrett, 1986) and eight species (Barrett, 1978; Cook, 1998). Eichhornia azurea was first named as Pontederia azurea by Swartz in 1788, and it is a basionym of the current name E. azurea, the genus for which was changed by Kunth in 1843 (IPNI, 2009). This name is accepted by Berry et al. (2004) and Walderley et al. (2005). There are no described subspecies or varieties for this species.



Top of page

Floating perennial aquatic plant, typically rooted in mud. Plant height up to 100 cm tall. Vegetative stems elongate, developing to and growing at water surface. Flowering stems erect, 8–12 cm, glabrous, distal internode 2–10 cm. Leaves submerged, floating or emergent (or a combination of any two). Sessile leaves submersed, no petiole, alternate on elongate stem. Petiolate leaves emersed; stipule 7–13 cm, apex truncate; petiole never inflated, 11–25 cm; blade round, 7–16 × 2.3–16 cm. Inflorescence a spike or panicle, subtended by 2 reduced, dissimilar leaves. Spikes 7–50-flowered sometimes carrying more than 60 flowers (Gopal, 1987). Flower zygomorphic, spathes obovate, 3–6 cm; peduncle 1.9–15 cm, pubescent with orange hairs. Perianth blue or white, limb lobes obovate, 13–25 mm, margins erose, central distal lobe dark blue at base with yellow distal spot (Haynes, 1988); proximal stamens 15–29 mm, distal 6–20 mm; anthers 1.2–2.3 mm; style 3-lobed. Seeds develop from an anatropous ovule. The fruit contains 10–13-winged seeds (Flora of North America, 2009) 1.5-2.6 mm long, 0.3-0.9 mm wide (Sher, 2009). The roots extend into the substrate, which length varies greatly; 5 cm in the younger portions of the stems but can reach up to 1 m in the older portions (Padial et al., 2009).

Plant Type

Top of page
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated


Top of page

E. azurea is a widespread species of Pontederiaceae, largely restricted to the Neotropics (Horn, 1987). It is well distributed in northern Argentina and southern Brazil (Instituto de Botanica Darwinion, 2009). It is also present in Mesoamerica, the Caribbean and northern South America (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2009; USDA-ARS, 2009; USDA-NRCS, 2009; World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, 2009). Liogier and Martorell (1982) cited E. azurea as being present in Puerto Rico. It was subsequently listed in various databases as native (USDA-ARS, 2009; World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, 2009) or introduced (USDA-NRCS, 2009). E. azurea was excluded as being present in Puerto Rico by Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005). Axelrod (2011) reports two herbarium specimens collected from Puerto Rico, however these are both E. crassipes.

Outside its native range, E. azurea has been reported present in the US state of Florida, located in ponds (USDA-NRCS, 2016) and in Texas in a lake and along a slough (, 2016). Outside the New World, it has been observed in Japan but this may be a temporal occurrence (Kadono, 2004). It has also been reported as being introduced into India and Iran (Sher, 2009). Barrett (1978) mentions its introduction into Africa, although no reports of its presence have been made from any countries on that continent. In some cases its presence could be a misidentification.


Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


IndiaPresent, Localized
JapanPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced

North America

Costa RicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.


New ZealandPresentIntroducedPresent in the aquarium trade, but not currently offered for sale

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent, WidespreadNativeOriginal citation: Instituto Botanica Darwinion de (2009)
-Minas GeraisPresentNative
-ParanaPresent, WidespreadNativeOriginal citation: Instituto Botanica Darwinion de (2009)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresent, WidespreadNativeOriginal citation: Instituto Botanica Darwinion de (2009)
-Santa CatarinaPresent, WidespreadNativeOriginal citation: Instituto Botanica Darwinion de (2009)
-Sao PauloPresentNative
French GuianaPresentNative
VenezuelaPresent, LocalizedNative

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

E. azurea was reported in Texas (Shinners, 1962), but this record was based on a misidentified specimen that was actually E. crassipes (Flora of North America, 2009). More recent reports in 2013 and 2014 of E. azurea in Texas, one in a lake and one along a slough, have been verified (, 2016). In 1987, it was found in several locations in Florida (Westbrooks, 1990); the report specifically noted a population growing in a residential estate pool in Palm Beach that was then eradicated in 1988. Another collection from Columbia County in Florida was also eradicated (Flora of North America, 2009). Currently, E. azurea is present at one site in Florida (University of Florida Herbarium, 2009) where all of the plants are located in ponds. It is present in the aquarium / pond plant trade in New Zealand, but it is not currently offered for sale (Champion and Clayton, 2001).


Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Florida South America 1987 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Gopal (1987)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

E. azurea can be introduced intentionally as an ornamental plant, and it is offered for sale in the USA by aquarium or water-garden dealerships; it is also advertised on commercial websites (Stratford and Steve, 2001) and can be obtained by mail-order from aquatic plant nurseries (Schmitz et al., 1998). It could also be introduced as seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2009). The traits of this species would limit its ability to spread widely and, while it may become a problem on a local scale, doubt has been expressed about its potential to become a weed (S Barrett, personal communication, 2008 in Julien, 2008).

E. azurea has been declared a federal noxious weed by the USA government (USDA-APHIS, 2006), and declared an aquatic noxious weed in parts of the USA. Class A noxious weed: Alabama, Vermont. Prohibited noxious weed: Arizona, Arkansas, Indiana, Oklahoma. Quarantined: California, Oregon. Prohibited aquatic plant, Class 1: Florida. Prohibited: Massachusetts. Class A noxious weed: North Carolina. Invasive aquatic plant pest: South Carolina. Noxious weed: Texas (USDA-ARS, 2009; USDA-NRCS, 2009; Indiana Invasive Species Council, 2013).

In Australia, E. azurea is declared as follows: New South Wales: noxious weed (Class 1) (The State of New South Wales, 2009). Queensland: pest plant (Class 1) (The State of Queensland, 2009). It is included on noxious plant lists in South Africa (Global Compendium of Weeds, 2007). It has also failed risk assessments for the management of potential weeds in the ornamental trade in New Zealand (Champion and Clayton, 2001), where E. azurea’sseeds are Regulated Weed Seeds and prohibited from all consignments (MAF Bisosecurity, 2009). Further introductions into New Zealand are therefore unlikely.



Top of page

E. azurea is a large, long-lived, mat-forming perennial which most commonly occurs in permanent water bodies. Predominant in mud along rivers, lakes, marshes, canals, the channel between rivers and lakes and in the littoral zone of lakes (Barrett, 1988). It prefers open and slow-moving water environments.

E. azurea is found in the neotropical zone of South America from sea level to 1000 m (Instituto de Botanica Darwinion, 2009). It is the most common species of emergent macrophytes in tropical areas subjected to flooding (Howard-Williams, 1985), being the predominant species in wetlands and lakes associated with flood plains (Pinto et al., 1999; Nunes, 2003) which are generally shallow (depths are usually lower than 1.5 m) (Padial et al., 2009). E. azurea together with E. crassipes has been found near the coast in a river delta in Brazil (Tavares et al., 2005); the two have also been found together in reservoirs (Brazil) (Martins et al., 2008; Pitelli et al., 2008).


Habitat List

Top of page
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Principal habitat Natural
FreshwaterIrrigation channels Present, no further details
FreshwaterLakes Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
FreshwaterReservoirs Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterReservoirs Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
FreshwaterRivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
FreshwaterPonds Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

Top of page


E. azurea is 2n=32, the same as E. crassipes, which is usually 2n=32 (Cook, 1998).
Reproductive Biology

E. azurea is pollinated by a variety of insects depending on the flower form. Tristylous flowers of E. azurea are almost exclusively visited by one bee species, Ancyloscelis gigas (Anthophoridae). The latter’s proboscis morphology make this bee species narrowly adapted (Alves dos Santos and Wittmann, 2000). The absence of the specialized pollinator may cause the breakdown of the tristylous system (Barrett, 1979; 1988; Alves dos Santos, 2002). The breeding system of E. azurea has been described as heteromorphic self-incompatible in the Amazon, southern Brazil and northern Argentina (Barrett, 1978; Alves dos Santos and Wittmann, 2000; Bianchi et al., 2000). In addition, there are populations with semi-homostylous floral morphs (breakdown of tristyly) in southeastern Brazil (Barrett, 1978; Alves dos Santos, 2002). Under natural conditions in Brazil’s Pantanal wetlands, the species is a partially self- and heteromorphic compatible system (Cunha and Fischer, 2009). Alves dos Santos (1999) reports that non-tristylous flowers are pollinated by long-tongued bees and butterflies and Cunha and Fisher (2009) report observing honeybees, Trigona sp. bees, butterflies, hemipterans and dipterans visiting flowers in the southern Pantanal of Brazil.

Self- and illegitimate pollinations produced significantly less fruit and seed than legitimate pollinations in all 3 style morphs (Bianchi et al., 2000; Alves dos Santos, 2002). It flowers from June to October in its native range (Hederson and Cilliers, 2002; Flora of North America, 2009); in its southern area of distribution it starts flowering in May; and in the northern area it finishes in November. Flowers of E. azurea open for just one day. At the end of flowering, the inflorescence bends down and sinks into the water, where the capsules and seeds develop (Alves dos Santos, 2002). Vegetative reproduction occurs by fragmentation and sprouting of the robustly branching stems (Barrett, 1978).
Physiology and Phenology
E. azurea is characterized by great morphological plasticity and its ability to adapt to different growth conditions, and overall by its secondary submerged roots, which change morphologically depending on the water nutrient concentrations, particularly phosphorus (e.g., Gopal, 1987; Camargo and Esteves, 1996). Other traits increase linearly with water depth and with water clarity (Milne et al., 2006). Water is the most significant source of nutrients (Nogueira et al., 1996) and the plant size is proportional to the level of available nutrients (Pott and Pott, 2004). The biomass of roots in E. azurea is 83.62 g/m2 and of leaves is 154.47 g/m2, the total biomass of 237.09 is higher than that of E. crassipes (Sanchez-Botero et al., 2003); biomasses of up to 900 g DW/m2 can be reached (Bini, 1996). It demonstrates a low leaf area index, a long time interval for the emergence of new leaves, a long leaf life-span and a low capacity for branching (Ikusima and Gentil, 1993).
In its native range, E. azurea grows all year round. It is dominant in relatively deep water owing to its potential for great elongation of its main stem. The oldest ramets of E. azurea occur anchored at the shoreline, and the most recent grow in the direction of the limnetic zone (Nogueira et al., 1996); it forms floating vegetation banks that extend themselves for some metres from the coastal region, as well at the lowest-lying sites, and only dies off during the driest years. If dry conditions occur in sequence, it does not return rapidly (Heckman, 1998). Long-term droughts cause massive E. azurea death leading to detritus accumulation in the margin of several lagoons, where decomposition occurs and concentrations of the detritus are significantly affected by flooding regimes (Padial and Thomaz, 2006). E. azurea has a good absorption capacity for copper and iron and can be used to identify metal contamination in the study area (Laybauer and Ortiz, 1999).
The high abundance of E. azurea has been coupled with either abundant free-floating plants (usually Salvinia spp., E. crassipes or Pistia stratiotes) or emergents such as aquatic grasses, or Polygonum spp. (Murphy et al., 2003). It is the most characteristic species in the Pantanal wetlands (Pott and Pott, 2004) together with Pontederia lanceolata, and both species block the spread of E. crassipes’ drift (Heckman, 1998).
In its natural habitats, E. azurea presents higher invertebrate species richness than other floating plants (Poi de Neiff and Neiff, 2006; Silva and Henry, 2013). E. azurea provides a high level of structural heterogeneity due to its submerged roots (Dibble and Thomaz, 2006) providing an important biotope for fishes (Agostinho et al., 2007; Padial et al., 2009), many invertebrates (Lima et al., 2003; Monkolski et al., 2005) and mainly insects (Raizer and Amaral, 2001; Moretti, 2003; De Melo et al., 2004; Fulan and Henry, 2007; Higuti et al., 2007); it is also the preferred substratum for molluscs (Pfeifer and Pitoni, 2003). It is noted that E. azurea has associated dark septate fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (de Marins, 2009).
Environmental Requirements
Nutrient enrichment is observed to aid in the establishment and spread in reservoirs (Bini et al., 2005).



Top of page
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
20 30

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 24 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 27 32
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 13 21


Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Water Tolerances

Top of page
ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Alkalinity (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 500 Optimum (mEq/l). Upper Rio Parana, southern Brazil
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) 132.0-181.9 Optimum (mS/cm). Upper Rio Parana, southern Brazil
Depth (m b.s.l.) 0.54-1.28 Optimum Upper Rio Parana, southern Brazil
Water pH (pH) Optimum Neutral. Upper Rio Parana, southern Brazil

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cornops aquaticum Herbivore Plants|Whole plant not specific Silva et al. (2010)
Drosophila aguape Herbivore Plants|Inflorescence Val and Marques (1996)
Orthogalumna terebrantis Herbivore Plants|Leaves not specific Center et al. (2002) North America, Australia, Asia, Africa Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata, Reussia subovata
Thrypticus sp. Herbivore Plants|Whole plant Cordo et al. (2000)

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

E. azurea has a specific host herbivore of the genus Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) (Cordo et al., 2000) and Drosophila aguape is associated with flowers (Val and Marques, 1996) although the effect of its damage to the demography of E. crassipes is unknown. Other specific and non-specific herbivores of E. azurea are listed in Poi de Neiff and Casco (2003) and Center et al. (2002). Cornops aquaticum is a grasshopper that feeds on E. azurea, E. crassipes and Pontederia cordata and has been investigated as a potential biocontrol agent of E. crassipes (Silva et al., 2010). E. azurea has a specific pathogen - the galls found in the rhizomes induced by a new species of cecidomyiid (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera) and larval development cause enlargement of the infected area and a small change of natural colour in the rhizome (Pelaez-Rodriguez et al., 2003).The marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) and the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) feed on E. azurea (Heckman, 1998).


Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Reproduction is both by seed and vegetative propagation, and the propagules can be carried out by the drift from the upper stream to downstream (Bini et al., 2005). Vegetative reproduction is not as extensive as in E. crassipes (EPPO, 2008).
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
The seeds may be carried by birds (Barrett, 1988).
Accidental Introduction
It could be introduced as a seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2009) in shipments (University of Florida Herbarium, 2009).
Intentional Introduction
E. azurea can be introduced intentionally as an ornamental plant; it is offered for sale in the USA by aquarium or water garden dealerships; it is also advertised on commercial websites (Stratford and Steve, 2001) and can be obtained by mail-order from aquatic plant nurseries (Schmitz et al., 1998).


Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Mail Yes Schmitz et al. (1998)

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants seeds Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Impact Summary

Top of page
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

E. azurea is one the most problematic species in the reservoirs in Brazil in sub-tropical and tropical regions (Carauta et al., 1991; Fernández et al., 1993) in particular because these environments are frequently subject to eutrophication, which may enhance the growth of free-floating nuisance species (Thomaz and Bini, 1998). This affects the multiple utilization of the water body, including fish production, irrigation, transportation and hydroelectric production (Martins et al., 2003), causing damage to turbines and necessitating expensive cleaning processes (Pitelli, 2000; Pitelli et al., 2008). In its native range, it has been reported in Cuba as agricultural weed (Acuna, 1974 cited in Global Compendium of Weeds, 2007) and it can be found invading channels of the polder in French Guyana (CIRAD, 2008). However, there is insufficient information with which to evaluate these impacts.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on Habitats

E. azurea has the potential to form thick mats over the water surface, shading out native vegetation and altering water chemistry (Martins et al., 2003).


Social Impact

Top of page

E. azurea is often considered a nuisance species in many Brazilian reservoirs with impacts on tourism, and recreation, navigation and fishing activities (Pitelli, 2000; Pitelli et al., 2008).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Soil accretion
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
  • Trampling
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant


Top of page

Economic Value

E. azurea is only slightly palatable and is digested with difficulty (Henry-Silva and Camargo, 2000).
Environmental Services
In its natural habitats, E. azurea presents higher invertebrate richness than other species of floating plants (Poi de Neiff and Neiff, 2006).  It is eaten by capybara, pigs, and other herbivores and creates habitat for fish, insect larvae, and snails among other organisms (Dahroug et al., 2016). 


Uses List

Top of page


  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Research model


  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

E. azurea and E. crassipes are superficially similar in appearance and are confused with one another in botanical collections and in systematic literature (Barrett, 1978). E. azurea can be distinguished from other Eichhornia by its elongate, fan-like submersed leaves and long floating stems with large obovate, erect leaves with slender petioles and secondary submerged roots (coming from stem nodes). The petiole of the emergent leaf is never swollen. Flowers are similar to floating water hyacinth but are often less robust and more blue in colour. The inner petals have a fringed margin. E. crassipes can float freely, unlike its congener E. azurea, which must root to the substrate and is therefore confined to shallow ponds and the edges of lakes and rivers (Barrett, 1989; Q-Bank, 2016).


Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.


Anchored water hyacinth is not known to be invasive out of its native range, so prevention of its establishment is the best form of control. In New Zealand, for example, E. azurea’s seeds are Regulated Weed Seeds; this means that they are prohibited and that all consignments must be managed according to the phytosanitary requirements specified in the specific schedules for entry the MAF Biosecurity protocol (MAF Bisosecurity, 2009). The aquatic weed risk assessment model used to manage potential weeds in the ornamental trade in New Zealand produced a high-risk result for E. azurea (Champion and Clayton, 2001). The introduction of E. azurea into New Zealand is therefore unlikely.
Rapid response
The US Southern Regional Forest Service (USDA Forest Service Southern Regional, 2008) recognizes E. azurea as posing a severe potential threat to southern forests and grassland ecosystems. E. azurea is therefore included in the early detection watch list of non-native invasive species of southern forest and grassland ecosystems.
Public awareness
Texas (USA) has declared possession of E. azurea to be illegal; penalties range from $200 to $2,000 for the possession of individual plants (Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 2009). Queensland in Australia has declared it a serious offence to introduce, keep or supply a Class 1 pest, imposing fines of up to $60,000 (The State of Queensland, 2009).
E. azurea was eradicated in various locations in Florida in 1988 (Flora of North America, 2009). The methods used to remove the plants are unknown.
Throughout New South Wales in Australia, E. azurea is a Class 1 noxious weed which must be eradicated and the land kept free of the plant. As a notifiable weed, all outbreaks must be reported to the local council(The State of New South Wales, 2009). E. azurea has been declared a Class 1 pest plant in Queensland (The State of Queensland, 2009), which means that it is subject to eradication by the state. Landowners must take reasonable steps to keep their land free of Class 1 pests.
Cultural control and sanitary measures
E. azurea could be controlled in the same ways as E. crassipes. Chemical and mechanical removal of this species is often ineffective and too expensive; biological control agents have been used with limited success. The most effective control method remains the control of excessive nutrients and prevention of the spread of this species.
Physical/mechanical control
Control programmes and/or the management of aquatic macrophytes at local scales (generally in the reservoir main body) will rarely be successful due to continuous colonization by propagules originating in upper tributary segments, where aquatic vegetation is uncontrolled. Thus, despite evident difficulties, aquatic vegetation management should be undertaken at the regional scale (Bini et al., 2005).
Biological control
There are no reports of any biological control methods using host-specific herbivores or parasites. Carauta et al. (1991) suggests the use of grazing as a method of control, using fishes, birds and, in particular, mammals (capybaras) to control E. azurea in Brazil’s reservoirs.
Chemical control
There are several herbicides available for the control of E. crassipes e.g.2,4-D and glyphosate, which are only effective on small populations - but none are currently registered for E. azurea.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

A great deal is known about the biology of E. crassipes but this is not the case for E. azurea. Further work is needed, particularly with regard to the potential risk zone of the species, and on the best way to manage the control of the species in the event that it becomes invasive.


Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp.

Acuna GJ, 1974. [English title not available]. (Plantas Indeseables en Los Cultivos Cubanos. Academia de Ciencias, Insitituto de Investigaciones de Cuba, Havana, in GCW, 2007.) Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) Global Compendium of Weeds.

Agostinho AA; Thomaz SM; Gomes LC; Baltar LS; MA, 2007. Influence of the macrophyte Eichhornia azurea on fish assemblage of the Upper Parana´ River Floodplain (Brazil). Aquatic Ecology, 41:611-619.

Alves Santos Idos, 1999. [English title not available]. (Polinização de macrófitas aquáticas da família Pontederiaceae.) In: Perspectivas na Limnologia do Brasil [ed. by Pompêo, M. L. M.]. São Luís, Brazil: Gráfica e Editora União, 198 pp.

Axelrod FS, 2011. A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 34. 428 pp.

Barrett SCH, 1978. Floral biology of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Pontederiaceae). Aquatic Botany, 5(3):217-228.

Barrett SCH, 1979. The evolutionary breakdown of tristyly in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (water hyacinth). Evolution, 33(1):499-510.

Barrett SCH, 1988. Evolution of breeding systems in Eichhornia (Pontederiaceae): a review. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75(3):741-760.

Barrett SCH, 1989. Waterweed invasions. Scientific American, 264(4):90-97.

Bianchi M; Vesprini J; Barrett SCH, 2000. Trimorphic incompatibility in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae). Sexual Plant Reproduction, 12(4):203-208.

Bini LM, 1996. [English title not available]. (Influencia do Pulso de Inundacao nos Valores de Fitomassa de Tres Especies de Macrofitas na Planicie do Alto Rio Parana.) Arquivos de Biologia e tecnología, 39(3):715-721.

Bini LM; Oliveira LG; Souza DC; Carvalho P; Pinto MP, 2005. Patterns of the aquatic macrophyte cover in Cachoeira Dourada Reservoir (GO-MG). Brazilian Journal of Biology, 65(1):19-24.

Biosecurity MAF, 2009. New Zealand import health standard bnz.gcfp.phr importation of grains/seeds for consumption, feed or processing plant health requirements. Wellington, New Zealand: MAF Biosecurity.

Camargo AFM; Esteves FA, 1996. Influence of water level variation on biomass and chemical composition of the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) in an oxbow lake of the Rio Mogi-Guaçu (São Paulo, Brazil). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 135(3):423-432.

Carauta JPP; Romero SHF; Frigoletto MF; Bosísio BM, 1991. Flora conservation around the Santana and Vigario reservoirs, Rio de Janeiro. (Conservação da flora na região dos reservatórios de Santana e Vigário, Rio de Janeiro.) Albertoa, 3(8):61-77.

Center TD; Hill MP; Cordo H; Julien MH, 2002. .

Champion PD; Clayton JS, 2001. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Stage 2. Weed risk assessment. Science for Conservation, 185:30 pp.

CIRAD, 2008. Eichhornia azurea. Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement.

Cook CDK, 1998. Pontederiaceae. In: Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons: Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae) (The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants), IV [ed. by Kubitzkik, K.]. Berlin Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 395-404.

Cordo HA; Sosa AJ; Hernández MC, 2000. The petiole mining fly, Thrypticus sp. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), a new agent for the biological control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). In: Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Bozeman, Montana, USA, 4-14 July, 1999 [ed. by Spencer, N. R.]. Bozeman, USA: Montana State University, 315-323.

Cunha NLda; Fischer E, 2009. Breeding system of tristylous Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 280(1/2):53-58.

Dahroug Z; Fernanda Santana N; Aurelio Pagioro T, 2016. Eichhornia azurea decomposition and the bacterial dynamic: an experimental research. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 47(2):279-286.

Dibble ED; Thomaz SM, 2006. A simple method to estimate spatial complexity in aquatic plants. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 49(3):421-428.

Eckenwalder JE; Barrett SCH, 1986. Phylogenetic systematics of Pontederiaceae. Systematic Botany, 11:373-391.

EPPO, 2008. EPPO Datasheet on invasive plants. Eichhornia crassipes and Eichhornia azurea.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Fernández OA; Sutton DL; Lallana VH; Sabbatini MR; Irigoyen J, 1993. Aquatic weed problems and management in South and Central America. In: Aquatic weeds: the ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation [ed. by Pieterse, A. H. \Murphy, K. J.]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Flora of North America, 2009. Eichhornia azurea. Flora of North America. FNA, 26. 39-41.

Forest Service Southern Regional USDA, 2008. Early Detection Watch List of Nonnative Invasive Species of Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Southern Regional Task Force for the Assessment of Nonnative Invasive Species. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health, University of Georgia.

Fulan JA; Henry R, 2007. Temporal distribution of immature Odonata (Insecta) on Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) stands in the Camargo Lake, Paranapanema River, Sao Paulo. Revista Brasileira De Entomologia, 51(2):224-227.

Global Compendium of Weeds, 2007. Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae). Global Compendium of Weeds.

Gopal B, 1987. Water hyacinth. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 471pp.

Haynes RR, 1988. Reproductive biology of selected aquatic plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75(3):805-810.

Heckman CW, 1998. The Pantanal of Poconé: Biota and Ecology in the Northern Section of the World's Largest Pristine Wetland (Monographiae Biologicae). The Netherlands: Kluver Academic Publishers.

Henderson L; Cilliers CJ, 2002. Invasive Aquatic Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa, Handbook, No. 16. 88 pp.

Henry-Silva GG; Camargo AFM, 2000. Chemical composition of four aquatic macrophyte species and use potential of your biomass. (Composição química de quatro espécies de macrófitas aquáticas e possibilidades de uso de suas biomassas.) Naturalia (São Paulo), 25:111-125.

Higuti J; Velho LFM; Lansac-Tôha FA; Martens K, 2007. Pleuston communities are buffered from regional flood pulses: the example of ostracods in the Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Freshwater Biology, 52(10):1930-1943.

Horn CN, 1987. Pontederiaceae. In: Flora of Ecuador, No. 29 [ed. by Harling, G. \Andersson, I.]. 3-19.

Howard-Williams C, 1985. Cycling and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in wetlands: a theoretical and applied perspective. Freshwat. Biol, 15:391-431.

Ikusima I; Gentil JG, 1993. Vegetative growth and productivity of Eichhornia azurea with special emphasis on leaf dynamics. Ecological Research, 8(3):287-295.

Indiana Invasive Species Council, 2013. Indiana invasive plant list.

Instituto Botanica Darwinion de, 2009. Flora del Cono Sur. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina.

IPNI, 2009. The International Plant Names Index.

Julien M, 2008. Plant biology and other issues that relate to the management of water hyacinth: a global perspective with focus on Europe. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin [Papers from the EPPO/CoE Workshop - How to manage invasive alien plants? The case study of Eichhornia crassipes.], 38(3):477-486.

Kadono Y, 2004. Alien Aquatic Plants Naturalized in Japan: History and Present Status. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):163-169.

Kartesz JT, 2016. Biota of North America. BONAP's North American Plant Atlas (NAPA).

Laybauer L; Ortiz LS, 1999. Heavy metals absorption by Eichhornia azurea in the Minas do Camaquã, Southern Brazil. (Absorção de metais pesados por Eichhornia azurea nas Minas do Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.) Iheringia, Série Botânica, No. 52:35-53.

Lima AF; Lansac-Tôha FA; Velho LFM; Bini LM; Takeda AM, 2003. Composition and abundance of Cladocera (Crustacea) assemblages associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth stands in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Acta Scientiarum- Biological Sciences, 25(1):41-48.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 1982. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Nova Odessa, San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi.

Marins JFde; Carrenho R; Thomaz SM, 2009. Occurrence and coexistence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate fungi in aquatic macrophytes in a tropical river-floodplain system. Aquatic Botany, 91(1):13-19.

Martins D; Costa NV; Terra MA; Marchi SR, 2008. Characterization of the aquatic plant communities of 18 reservoirs of five watersheds in Sao Paulo, Brazil. (Caracterização da comunidade de plantas aquáticas de dezoito reservatórios pertencentes a cinco bacias hidrográficas do estado de São Paulo.) Planta Daninha, 26(1):17-32.

Martins D; Velini ED; Piteli RA; Tomazella MS; Negrisoli E, 2003. Occurrence of aquatic plants in the Light-RJ reservoirs. (Ocorrência de plantas aquáticas nos reservatórios da Light-RJ.) Planta Daninha, 21(Especial):105-108.

Melo SMDe; Takeda AM; Grzybkowska M; Monkolski A, 2004. Distribution of ephemeropteran nymphs associated with different stolon sections of Eichhornia azurea (Schwartz) in two floodplain lakes of the Upper Parana River (Brazil). Polish Journal of Ecology, 52(3):369-376.

Milne JM; Murphy KJ; Thomaz SM, 2006. Morphological variation in Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms in relation to aquatic vegetation type and the environment in the floodplain of the Rio Paraná, Brazil. Hydrobiologia [11th International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds 'Macrophytes in Aquatic Ecosystems: From Biology to Management', Moliets et Maâ, France, 2002.], 570:19-25.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2009. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Monkolski A; Takeda AM; Melo SMde, 2005. Fauna structure of water mites associated with Eichhornia azurea in two lakes of the upper Paraná floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Acta Scientiarum - Biological Sciences, 27(4):329-337.

Moretti Mda S; Goulart MDC; Callisto M, 2003. Rapid assessment of the macrofauna associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth, 1843 and Pontederia lanceolata Nutt., 1818 (Pontederiaceae) in Coqueiro Bay, Pantanal de Poconé (MT/Brazil). (Avaliação rápida da macrofauna associada a Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth, 1843 e Pontederia lanceolata Nutt., 1818 (Pontederiaceae) na Baía do Coqueiro, Pantanal de Poconé (MT/Brasil).) Revista Brasileira de Zoociências, 5(1):7-21.

Murphy KJ; Dickinson G; Thomaz SM; Bini LM; Dick K; Greaves K; Kennedy MP; Livingstone S; McFerran H; Milne JM; Oldroyd J; Wingfield RA, 2003. Aquatic plant communities and predictors of diversity in a sub-tropical river floodplain: the upper Rio Paraná, Brazil. Aquatic Botany, 77(4):257-276.

National Parks Board, 2016. Flora and fauna web., Singapore: National Parks Board (online).

Nogueira F; Esteves FAde; Prast AE, 1996. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of different structures of the aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea Kunth and Scirpus cubensis Poepp & Kunth in relation to water level variation in Lagoa Infernão (São Paulo, Brazil). Hydrobiologia, 328(3):199-205.

Nunes JRS, 2003. Dinâmica temporal e espacial de nutrientes na biomassa de Eicchornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms no sistema de baías Chacororé-Sinhá Mariana, Pantanal Mato-grossense Barão de Melgaço, MT. Cuiabá ([English title not available]). Mato Grosso: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 144 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Padial AA; Thomaz SM, 2006. Effects of flooding regime upon the decomposition of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth measured on a tropical, flow-regulated floodplain (Paraná River, Brazil). River Research and Applications, 22(7):791-801.

Padial AA; Thomaz SM; Agostinho AA, 2009. Effects of structural heterogeneity provided by the floating macrophyte Eichhornia azurea on the predation efficiency and habitat use of the small Neotropical fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. Hydrobiologia, 624:161-170.

Peláez-Rodríguez M; Trivinho-Strixino S; Urso-Guimarães MV, 2003. Galls in rhizome of an aquatic macrophyte, Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Pontederiaceae), in Jataí Ecological Station, Luiz Antônio, SP, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 63(4):723-726.

Pfeifer NTS; Pitoni VLL, 2003. Seasonal qualitative analysis of limnical mollusc fauna in delta do Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (Análise qualitativa estacional da fauna de moluscos límnicos no Delta do Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.) Biociências, 11(2):145-158.

Pinto AA; Silva CJDa; Girard P; Souza MD; Nogueira F, 1999. [English title not available]. (El pulso de inundación y la limnología de la laguna Sinhá Mariana en el Pantanal de Mato Grosso, Brasil.) Rev. Bol. De Ecol, 6:19-26.

Pitelli RA, 2000. Aquatic weeds problems in hydropower systems. In: Third International Weed Science Congress, Foz do Iguassu. International Weed Science Society.

Pitelli RLC; Dolabella RM; Pitelli RA, 2008. Aquatic Macrophytes Associations and Its Relevance in the Weed Management in the Aimorés Reservoir, Brazil. In: 48th Annual Meeting of the Aquatic Plant Management Society and 30th Annual Meeting of the South Carolina July 13-16, 2008. Aquatic Plant Management Society.

Pitelli RLCM; Toffaneli CM; Vieira EA; Pitelli RA; Velini ED, 2008. Dynamics of the aquatic macrophytecommunity in the Santana reservoir in Pirai-RJ. (Dinâmica da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas no reservatório de Santana, RJ.) Planta Daninha, 26(3):473-480.

Poi de Neiff A; Neiff JJ, 2006. Species richness and similarity between invertebrates living on floating plants in the Paraná River floodplain. (Riqueza de especies y similaridad de los invertebrados que viven en plantas flotantes de la planicie de inundación del río Paraná (Argentina).) Interciencia, 31(3):220-225.

Poi Neiff ASde; Casco SL, 2003. Capítulo 5. Biological agents that accelerate winter decay of Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms. in northeastern Argentina. Ecologia e manejo de macrófitas aquáticas [ed. by Ecologia manejo macrófitas aquática, de]. Maringá, Brasil: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, 127-144.

Pott A; Pott VJ, 2004. Features and conservation of the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Wetlands Ecology and Management [Neotropical wetlands: building links among wetland scientists. Special symposium as part of the Millennium Wetland Conference, Quebec City, Canada, 2000.], 12(6):547-552.

Q-Bank, 2016. Factsheet, Eichhornia azurea.

Raizer J; Amaral MEC, 2001. Does the structural complexity of aquatic macrophytes explain the diversity of associated spider assemblages? Journal of Arachnology, 29(2):227-237.

Sánchez-Botero JI; Farias MLde; Piedade MT; Garcez DS, 2003. Fish fauna associated to aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea (SW.) Kunth. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. at Camaleão lake, Central Amazonia, Brazil. (Ictiofauna associada às macrófitas aquáticas Eichhornia azurea (SW.) Kunth. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. no lago Camaleão, Amazônia Central, Brasil.) Acta Scientiarum - Biological Sciences, 25(2):369-375.

Santos IAdos, 2002. Flower-visiting bees and the breakdown of the tristylous breeding system of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Pontederiaceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 77(4):499-507.

Santos IAdos; Wittmann D, 2000. Legitimate pollination of the tristylous flowers of Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) by Ancyloscelis gigas bees (Anthophoridae, Apoidea). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 223(3/4):127-137.

Schmitz; DC; Nelson BV; Nall LE; Schardt JD, 1998. Exotic Aquatic Plants in Florida: A Historical Perspective and Review of the Present Aquatic Plant Regulation Program. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Exotic Pest Plants, November 2-4, 1988, University of Miami, Miami, Florida. Technical Report NPS/NREVER/NRTR -91/06. 303-326.

Sher J, 2009. Eichhornia azurea. Federal Noxious Weed Disseminules of the US Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). United States Department of Agriculture.

Shinners LH, 1962. Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the Texas coastal bend: new to the United States. Sida Contr Bot, 1. Dallas, Texas, USA: S. Methodist Univ.

Silva CV; Henry R, 2013. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Biology, 73(1):149-162.

Silva FRJda; Marques MI; Battirola LD; Lhano MG, 2010. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. (Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) em Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) no norte do Pantanal de Mato Grosso.) Neotropical Entomology, 39(4):535-542.

Steyermark JA; Berry PE; Yatskievych K; Holst BK, 2004. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Volume 8: Poaceae-Rubiaceae [ed. by Steyermark, J. A.\Berry, P. E.\Yatskievych, K.\Holst, B. K.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, xiv + 874 pp.

Stratford HK; Steve TH, 2001. Mail Order, the Internet, and Invasive Aquatic Weeds. J. Aquat. Plant Management, 39:88-91.

Tavares MDM; Volkmer-Ribeiro C; Hermany G, 2005. Seasonal abundance in a sponge assembly at a southern neotropical inner delta. Journal of Coastal Research, 42:335-342.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 2009. Invasive, Prohibited and Exotic Species. Austin, Texas, USA: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department., 2016. Eichhornia azurea.

The State of New South Wales, 2009. Noxious weed declarations: Anchored water hyacinth. New South Wales, Australia: Department of Primary Industries.

The State of Queensland, 2009. Website of Primary Industries and Fisheries within the Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Queensland Government. Australia.

Thomaz SM; Bini LM, 1998. [English title not available]. (Ecologia e manejo de macrófitas aquáticas em reservatórios.) Acta Limnol. Brasil, 10:103-116.

University of Florida Herbarium, 2009. University of Florida Herbarium Collections Catalog. Florida Museum of Natural History.

USDA-APHIS, 2006. Federal noxious weed list. USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

USDA-ARS, 2009. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Plant Germplasm System. Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2009. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

USGS, 2005. Eichhornia azurea. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida: USGS United States Geological Survey.

Val FCdo; Marques MD, 1996. Drosophilidae (Diptera) from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (Brazil), with the description of a new species belonging to the bromeliae group of the genus Drosophila. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (Sâo Paulo), 39(11):223-230.

Walderley MGL; Shepherd GJ; Melhem TS; Giulietti AM, 2005. Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo ([English title not available]), 4. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo, 1-392.

Westbrooks RG, 1990. Interstate sale of aquatic Federal Noxious Weeds as ornamentals in the United States. Aquatics, 12(2):16-18,24.

World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, 2009. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Distribution References

Anon, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. In: Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, [ed. by Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T]. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany National Museum of Natural History. 415 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Champion P D, Clayton J S, 2001. Science for Conservation, 185, 30 pp.

CIRAD, 2008. Eichhornia azurea. In: Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement,

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Kadono Y, 2004. Alien Aquatic Plants Naturalized in Japan: History and Present Status. Global Environmental Research. 8 (2), 163-169.

Kartesz JT, 2016. Biota of North America. In: BONAP's North American Plant Atlas (NAPA),

Lorenzi H, 1982. (Plantas Daninhas do Brasil)., Nova Odessa San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi.

National Parks Board, 2016. Flora and fauna web., Singapore, National Parks Board.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

UK, Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew), 2009. Eichhornia azurea. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, London, UK: The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

USA, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2009. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database, St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

USA, United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2005. Eichhornia azurea. In: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, USA: United States Geological Survey.

USA, University of Florida Herbarium, 2009. Eichhornia azurea. In: University of Florida Herbarium Collections Catalog, Florida, USA: Florida Museum of Natural History.

USDA-ARS, 2009. Cornus sericea. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2009. Cornus sericea. In: The PLANTS Database, Baton Rouge, LA, USA: National Plant Data Center.

Westbrooks R G, 1990. Interstate sale of aquatic Federal Noxious Weeds as ornamentals in the United States. Aquatics. 12 (2), 16-18, 24.


Top of page

25/11/09 Original text by:

Manuel A. Duenas, Universidad de Cordoba, Dept. de Botanica, Ecologia y Fisiología Vegetal. Edificio C-4, Celestino Mutis, Campus de Rabanales, 4071-Cordoba, Spain

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Third party data sources: