Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Aronia x prunifolia



Aronia x prunifolia


  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aronia x prunifolia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The hybrid A. x prunifolia is a shrub with attractive white flowers and purple fruits that can spread vegetatively as well as by seed. It originated in North America and is now grown widely as an ornamental in ot...

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aronia x prunifolia (Marshall) Rehder (1938)

Other Scientific Names

  • Aronia atropurpurea Britton (1901)
  • Aronia floribunda (Lindl.) Sweet (1826)
  • Aronia prunifolia Marshall
  • Crataegus laetifica Sarg. (1910)
  • Crataegus persimillis Sarg. (1903)
  • Crataegus prunifolia (Poir.) Pers. (1807)
  • Mespilus prunifolia Marshall (1785)
  • Photinia floribunda (Lindl.) K.R. Robertson & J.B. Phipps (1991)
  • Pyrus floribunda Lindl. (1826)

Local Common Names

  • Canada: Aronie à feuilles de prunier; Aronie à fruits mauves
  • China: Zi guo xian lei hua qiu
  • Estonia: must aroonia
  • Finland: koristearonia
  • France: Amélanchier à fruits mauves; Aronie à feuilles de prunier; Aronie à fruits mauves
  • Korea, Republic of: tannamu
  • Netherlands: bastardappelbas; zwarte appelbes
  • Norway: svartsurbær
  • Sweden: slånaronia
  • UK: purple chokeberry
  • USA: hybrid chokeberry; plumleaf hawthorn; purple chokeberry; purple-fruited chokeberry

Summary of Invasiveness

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The hybrid A. x prunifolia is a shrub with attractive white flowers and purple fruits that can spread vegetatively as well as by seed. It originated in North America and is now grown widely as an ornamental in other parts of the world. It has not been widely reported as an invasive species, but Wiegers (1983; 1984) describes how it has spread rapidly in Phragmites australis reed beds in the Netherlands since 1900. Ozinga et al. (2007) record it among the small number of invasive plant species in the Netherlands. It shows invasive tendencies in Latvia (Rutkovska and Jursevska, 2008), is listed as an agricultural weed in Canada (Darbyshire, 2003), as a ‘garden thug’ in the UK (Clement and Foster, 1994) and as a threat to grasslands in Australia (Barker et al., 2006). It is a black-listed species for Norway (Gederaas et al., 2007). It appears in global lists of environmental or invasive weeds (e.g. by Cronk and Fuller, 1995), and clearly has the potential for invasive behaviour. Being widely grown as an ornamental is a further cause for concern.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Rosaceae
  •                             Genus: Aronia
  •                                 Species: Aronia x prunifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Aronia x prunifolia is a natural hybrid between Aronia melanocarpa and Aronia arbutifolia (Wiegers, 1983; USDA-ARS, 2009). It has been placed in various other genera, including Crataegus, Aronia, Mespilus, Sorbus and Pyrus (IOPI, 2009). USDA-NRCS (2009) and Phipps (1989) refer to it as Crataegus persimilis Sarg.; others, including Weakley (2007), as A. prunifolia. Not all sources equate C. persimilis or Crataegus prunifolia with A. x prunifolia. IOPI (2009) fails to suggest the synonymy and further equates only certain C. prunifolia (with authorities as in the Identity section of this datasheet) with C. persimilis. Weakley (2007) recognises that the taxon is a hybrid, but because of long establishment and ability to reproduce freely, suggests it be treated as a species – A. prunifolia (Marshall) Rehder. A number of horticultural variety names are listed by different horticultural suppliers.


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A. x prunifolia is a rounded shrub or small tree, 2 to 4 m high with erect stems. It can spread vegetatively by suckers from the base. The leaves are alternate, simple, oblanceolate to obovate, 8-10 cm long, bright green above, paler and moderately pubescent below, turning bright red at the end of the season. The inflorescence is a corymb of 10-25 flowers, each about 1 cm across with five sepals and five white petals. Stamens white, numerous. The ripe fruits are dark purple, 7-12 mm in diameter. There are one to five seeds per fruit of the parent species of A. x prunifolia, which are flattened, broadly crescent-shaped, and amount to about 600,000 seeds per kg (about 2-3 mm long) (Gill et al., 2008). Presumably the seeds of A. x prunifolia are similar.


Plant Type

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Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated


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USDA-ARS (2009) indicates quite wide distribution for A. x prunifolia in eastern USA and Canada. USDA-NRCS (2009) does not list A. x prunifolia and gives a much more restricted distribution for Crataegus persimilis in northeastern USA and just Ontario in Canada. These are generally regarded as synonymous, but there is perhaps some confusion of identity here.

Its distribution as an ornamental plant is certainly very much wider than is indicated in this datasheet. It is widely grown as an ornamental and almost certainly occurs in most, if not all, European countries and many of the states of USA and Canada not listed here, and in the more temperate countries of Asia (there are local names in Korea and China). However, information on its distribution is not readily confirmed.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

CanadaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-New BrunswickPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentNativeKemper Center for Home Gardening, 2009
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-OntarioPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-QuebecPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
USAPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-ConnecticutPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-IllinoisPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-IndianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-KentuckyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-MainePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-MassachusettsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-MichiganPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-New HampshirePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-New YorkPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-North CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-OhioPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-TennesseePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-VermontPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-VirginiaPresentNativeKemper Center for Home Gardening, 2009
-West VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
-WisconsinPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009


BelgiumPresentIntroduced Invasive Wilde Planten, 2009
Czech RepublicLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Pysek et al., 2002Lednice, district Breclav: escaping from cultivation in the chateau park
EstoniaPresentIntroducedVulla et al., 2009Eaten by brown bears
FinlandPresentIntroducedEnenonen, 2009
GermanyPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2009
LatviaLocalised Invasive Rutkovska and Jursevska, 2008In Daugavpils city
NetherlandsWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Wiegers, 1983; Wiegers, 1984
PolandPresentIntroducedSzkudlarz and Celka, 2005
UKPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Stace, 1991


AustraliaPresentIntroducedBarker et al., 2006Listed as a threat to Australia's grassland

History of Introduction and Spread

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It is believed to have been introduced to Europe from North America before 1700. Preston et al. (2002) recorded that it was introduced to the UK by 1791 and first noted in the wild in 1934. The first specimens recorded in the Netherlands are from 1875 (Wiegers, 1983) and it has spread rapidly in reed beds there since 1900. No other records have been located on the history of its spread outside the USA.



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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Europe North America <1700 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes
Netherlands 1875 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Wiegers (1983) first herbarium specimen
UK 1791 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Preston et al. (2002) first recorded in the wild in 1934

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction is clearly very high considering its widespread availability as an ornamental. However, it has probably already been introduced to most countries with a suitable climate and the main risks are from escape from cultivation and naturalization, as has apparently occurred in the Netherlands.


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In the Netherlands, A. x prunifolia forms a dense scrub in Sphagnum bogs, Phragmites reed beds and in species-poor marshy Betula woodland along with Alnus glutinosa (Wiegers, 1984; Sýkora, 2006; W Tamis, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University Leiden (CML), The Netherlands, personal communication, 2009). Apart from growing in bogs, it occurs along forest trails, in heather (often in the vicinity of estates), scrub and woodland edges. In the UK, it is recorded from woodlands, plantations, hedgerows, parks and roadsides (Preston et al., 2002).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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Although A. x prunifolia is listed an agricultural weed in Canada, it is not clear what crops are affected.

Biology and Ecology

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Chromosome number of both the parents of A. x prunifolia i.e. Aronia melanocarpa and Aronia arbutocarpus, is 2n=34. It is possible that the hybrid is an allotetraploid, but this has not yet been confirmed (W Tamis, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University Leiden (CML), The Netherlands, personal communication, 2009).
Reproductive Biology
It is not clear to what extent this hybrid arises in the wild. It seems likely that most, if not all, of the plants in cultivation originate from North America although new hybrids are known to have been created by horticulturists. The fact that plants can be grown from seed and that it breeds true and appears stable suggests that the original hybridization took place a long time ago (VanDusen Botanical Garden, 2009). In the wild, it spreads both by seed and also from suckers from the roots. In cultivation, it may also be propagated vegetatively from cuttings or grafting. The flowers are fragrant and attract bees and butterflies, and are presumably cross-pollinated, although at least one of the parents (A. melanocarpa) is described as self-pollinated. The seeds need stratification (exposure to low temperature (1-50C for 40-60 days) before they will germinate (Gill et al., 2008). Germination can occur at a range of pH values from 3 to 7 and the pH of ground water at sites in the Netherlands infested by the weed may vary from 3.3 to 6.3 (Wiegers, 1984).
Physiology and Phenology
A. x prunifolia is a typical temperate perennial, losing its leaves in winter, re-foliating and flowering in the early spring and flowering from April to July in the USA, fruiting from August to October. The fruits persist into mid-winter, but not much longer. Studies in the Netherlands showed plants up to at least 13 years old (Wiegers, 1984).
Wiegers (1984) recorded some correlation with high ammonium levels (1-4.5 mg/l).
In the Netherlands it is associated in the wild with Betula, Alnus, Phragmites and Sphagnum. Wiegers (1984) described a range of associations on infested sites in the Netherlands.
Environmental Requirements
A. x prunifolia is a typical deciduous temperate plant being frost-hardy, and requiring stratification for germination. Although it is recorded from very wet, acid Sphagnum bog situations in the wild, it is curiously also able to survive in quite dry, well-drained situations and is recorded as drought-tolerant and suitable for ‘xeriscaping’ as an ornamental (Dave’s Garden, 2009). It prefers full sun or only partial shade.
It tolerates a wide range of pH from highly acidic (pH 3.3) (Wiegers, 1984) to slightly alkaline (pH 7.8) (Dave’s Garden, 2009).
Wiegers (1984) recorded that it is found over a wide range of conditions from more or less oligotrophic to slightly brackish and moderately eutrophic conditions.
In the USA, it is regarded as hardy in USDA Hardiness Zones 4a (minimum temperature -300C) to 8b (minimum temperature - 90C) (Dave’s Garden, 2009).


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Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
65 40 0 0

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -30 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 10
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 0 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -15 0


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5001200mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • other

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A. x prunifolia has few serious natural enemies, but there is some susceptibility to leaf spots and twig/fruit blight (Kemper Center for Home Gardening, 2009). It can also be host to mistletoe Viscum album (Barney et al., 1998).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

It is spread mechanically when discarded from areas of cultivation.
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Spread to reed beds in the Netherlands is thought to be due to birds (Wiegers, 1983).
Intentional Introduction
It is widely sold as an ornamental shrub and is therefore repeatedly introduced and cultivated in new sites.

Pathway Causes

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Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aircraft Yes
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes
Mail Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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A. x prunifolia is listed as an agricultural weed in Canada, although it is not clear what crops are affected (Darbyshire, 2003). It is also listed as a threat to Australia’s grazing industries (Barker et al., 2006).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

In the Netherlands, A. x prunifolia has invaded Sphagnum bog and Phragmites reed beds, modified the habitat and threatened a variety of native species. Occurrence in reed beds interferes with normal mowing management and ‘under its rapidly spreading canopy nearly all other species become suppressed, and the characteristic reed marsh vegetation is in imminent danger of disappearing’ (Wiegers, 1983).
Impact on Biodiversity
In the Netherlands, A. x prunifolia has invaded Sphagnum bog and Phragmites reed beds, modified the habitat and threatened a variety of native species (Wiegers, 1983; W Tamis, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University Leiden (CML), The Netherlands, personal communication, 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control


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Economic Value

Apart from its value as an ornamental, the fruit of A. x prunifolia is high in vitamin C and exceptionally high in antioxidant phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins; all members of the flavonoid category of antioxidant phenolics. The berries can also be eaten fresh, but are very astringent and bitter and are mainly used in jams, jellies, wine and juice (Dave’s Garden, 2009; Fruit Bearing Trees, 2009).
The rich antioxidant content of Aronia spp. may be beneficial as a dietary preventative for reducing the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress. Preliminary results show benefits of Aronia anthocyanins in colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, gastric mucosal disorders (peptic ulcer), eye inflammation (uveitis) and liver failure (Wikipedia, 2009). These results probably refer to work with the parent Aronia species, but seem likely to apply also to A. x prunifolia.


Uses List

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  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical


  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Aronia arbutifolia (‘red chokeberry’), one of the parents of the hybrid A. x prunifolia, differs in having leaves densely pubescent beneath, sepals glandular, and red berries. The other parent, Aronia melanocarpa (‘black chokeberry’), is a smaller shrub, rarely exceeding 1 m, with smaller leaves, glabrous beneath, larger flowers that are 1.5 cm across, glabrous sepals, and black fruits.

Weakley (2007) noted that these three Aronia taxa are distinguished from other Crataegus by the dark trichomes on the upper midribs, especially towards the base of the leaves. Unlike Crataegus they do not have spines.

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical Control

In the Netherlands, mowing, burning and grazing have been used for control, but no detail is available.
Chemical Control
There are no reports of chemical control of this species, but Aronia melanocarpa is noted as susceptible to 2,4-D, dicamba and picloram (Benton District Soil and Water Conservation, 2009).


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Barker J; Radall R; Grice T, 2006. Weeds of the future? Threats to Australia's grazing industries by garden plants. Sydney, Australia: Meat & Livestock Australia Ltd., 137 pp.

Barney CW; Hawksworth FG; Geils BW, 1998. Hosts of Viscum album. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 28(3):187-208.

Benton District Soil and Water Conservation, 2009. Glossy Black Chokeberry Aronia melonocarpa. Minnesota, USA: Department of Transportation.,%20Glossy%20Black.pdf

Clement EJ; Foster MC, 1994. Alien plants of the British Isles: a provisional catalogue of vascular plants (excluding grasses). Oundle, UK; Botanical Society of the British Isles, 590 pp.

Cronk QCB; Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp.

Darbyshire SJ, 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Ottawa, Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 396 pp.

Dave's Garden, 2009. PlantFiles: Purple Chokeberry Aronia x prunifolia.

Enenonen, 2009. Photos of the wild plants of Finland.

Fruit Bearing Trees, 2009. Chokeberry - Aronia prunifolia.

Gederaas L; Salvesen I; Viken A, 2007. 2007 Norwegian black List - ecological risk analysis of alien species. Trondheim, Norway: Artsdatabanken, 111 pp.

Gill JD; Pogge FL; Bonner FT, 2008. Aronia Medik. Chokeberry. In: Woody Plant Seed Manual [ed. by Bonner FT, Karrfalt RP] Caldwell, USA: Blackburn Press, 271-273.

IOPI, 2009. Provisional Global Plant Checklist. Australia: International Organization for Plant Information.

Kemper Center for Home Gardening, 2009. Gardening Help. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanic Garden.

Ozinga WA; Bakkenes M; Schaminee JHJ, 2007. Sensitivity of Dutch vascular plants to climate change and habitat fragmentation : a preliminary assessment based on plant traits in relation to past trends and future projections. Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu Report 49. Wageningen, The Netherlands: WOT Natuur & Milieu.

Phipps JB, 1989. Crataegus persimilis Sarg. cv. Prunifolia, cv. nov. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 100(1):97.

Preston CD; Pearman DA; Dines TD, 2002. New atlas of the British and Irish flora. An atlas of the vascular plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, xi + 910 pp.

Pysek P; Sádlo J; Mandák B, 2002. Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia, 74(2):97-186.

Rutkovska S; Jursevska G, 2008. Invasive arboreal species of Rosaceae family in the Daugavpils city (Latvia). In: NEOBIOTA: Towards a Synthesis. 5th European Conference on Biological Invasions, Prague, Czech Republic, 23-26 September 2008 [ed. by Pyšek P, Pergl J] Prùhonice, Czech Republic: Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 107.

Stace C, 1991. New Flora of the British Isles [ed. by Cambridge University Press]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Sykora KV, 2006. Field Guide: Dutch Plant Communities; Species composition and Ecology.

Szkudlarz P; Celka Z, 2005. Aronia x prunifolia (Marshall) Rehder (Rosaceae) - a new species of synanthropic the Polish flora. In: Taxonomy, chorology and ecology of plants in the era of threats to biodiversity. Materials conference dedicated to Professor Dr. Hab.Hab. Waldemarowi Zukowskiemu z okazji 70-lecia urodzin, Poznan wrzesien 2005. Waldemar Zukowskiemu to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the birth, Poznan in September 2005 [ed. by Szkudlarz P, Celka Z].

USDA-ARS, 2009. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2009. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

VanDusen Botanical Garden, 2009. Aronia x prunifolia. British Columbia, Canada: VanDusen Botanical Garden.

Vulla E; Hobson KA; Korsten M; Leht M; Martin AJ; Lind A; Mannil P; Valdmann H; Saarma U, 2009. Carnivory is positively correlated with latitude among omnivorous animals: evidence from brown bears, badgers and pine martens. Annals of Zoology Fennici.

Weakly AS, 2007. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina Herbarium, 1015 pp.

Wiegers J, 1983. Aronia Medik. in The Netherlands. I: Distribution and taxonomy. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 32:481-488.

Wiegers J, 1984. Aronia Medik. in The Netherlands. Ecology of A. x prunifolia (Marsh) Rehd. in the Dutch Haf district. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 33:307-322.

Wikipedia, 2009. Aronia. USA: Wikipedia.

Wilde Planten, 2009. Plantendatabase met vrijwel alle wilde planten in Nederland en Belgie.


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01/11/09 Original text by:

Chris Parker, Consultant, UK

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