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Soliva sessilis

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Datasheet

Soliva sessilis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Soliva sessilis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. sessilis spreads readily in areas of worn, poor quality turf. The seeds can cling to fabric such as tent floors and be transported long distances. In local areas, it may be moved on the soles of shoes, particu...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pav., 1794

Other Scientific Names

  • Soliva daucifolia Nutt., 1841
  • Solivia pterosperma (Juss.) Less., 1832

International Common Names

  • English: field burrweed; field soliva

Local Common Names

  • Australia: bindyi; jo jo; lawn burweed
  • Canada: carpet burweed
  • New Zealand: Onehunga weed

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. sessilis spreads readily in areas of worn, poor quality turf. The seeds can cling to fabric such as tent floors and be transported long distances. In local areas, it may be moved on the soles of shoes, particularly soft-soled shoes commonly worn around the beach and when camping. It was first found in California in 1836, probably coming in with shipments of hides from South America (Ray, 1987). Once established, the plant forms dense carpets that suppress most other lawn species and can out-compete rare species (Castro, 2006). It is considered one of the most hated turf weeds in New Zealand because it can make barefoot walking very painful (Harrington, 2009). It is low-growing and escapes the blades of most mowers. It has developed a resistance to synthetic auxin herbicides of the carboxylic acid family (Castro, 2006). A carpet burweed (S. sessilis) weed alert is listed by the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Canada (Anon., 2009).

 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Soliva
  •                                 Species: Soliva sessilis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This plant was first described from Chile in 1794. The genus was named after Dr. Salvador Soliva, an eighteenth century physician to the Spanish Court. The common name, Onehunga weed is thought to come from the port suburb of Auckland, New Zealand where this plant was first found. The name, burweed comes from the sharp spines on the achenes that remain upright in the dried head of the flower (Ray, 1987; WSWCB, 2007; CalFlora, 2009).

 

Description

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S. sessilis is a low-growing winter annual that germinates during the wet period in Mediterranean climate areas and grows throughout the winter when the weather is warm enough. It may also germinate in the spring and flower later that same spring, acting like an annual. In British Columbia, Canada, flowering occurs from March to July (Castro, 2006). Following flowering, the plants wither and dry up, leaving the sharply pointed seeds sitting upright in the head where they can easily attach to any passing shoe or to tent floors.

Flowers

The flowers of S. sessilis are small and inconspicuous. They are found in the axils of the leaves or in the branches of the stem. S. sessilis appears to continue to grow as long as conditions are favourable, with new stem branches and leaves and thus flowers appearing. This growth pattern can provide flowers at various stages of growth and development on a single plant. The heads consist of female florets lacking a corolla around the outside with functionally male florets with much reduced four-toothed whitish to pale-green translucent corollas on the inside (Castro, 2006). The involucre consists of seven to eight greenish bracts (Castro, 2006).

Fruit and Seeds

The seeds of S. sessilis are sharply pointed, flattened achenes with wings and/or barbs of various shapes (Ray, 1987). The seeds may also have stiff hairs that assist in attaching the seed to the hair of passing animals. The shape of the wings can vary substantially and appear to be indicative of different races of the species (Harrington, 2009). Seeds are borne in heads (composite flowers) that arise in the axils of leaves and stem branches. Single plants may have many (1 to 10 or more) seed heads with 5 to 10 seeds per head (Castro, 2006). Most plants in British Columbia, Canada produce 100 or more seeds. Seed weights range from 0.48g/1000 seeds to 0.94g/1000 seeds (Castro, 2006). Seeds range in length from 3.5 to 5.2 mm (Castro, 2006).

Germination and Growth

Germination of S. sessilis is epigeal with the first leaves forming above the cotyledons, being oblong lanceolate. Dissected leaves follow and a basal rosette of petioled dissected leaves forms. A single flower head forms in this rosette, and if conditions are poor, usually drying out is the primary cause of cessation of growth; this flower head is the only one formed. However, in most cases, growth continues with secondary stems and additional leaves forming from the main stem with additional flower heads forming in the axils of new leaves and the secondary stems. The roots of S. sessilis are fibrous and not very extensive. Plants can be easily plucked from moist soil as the rosette provides a good point of clasping the young plant.

Senescence

The growth of the plant ceases and flowering stops once the soils in which the plants are growing, dry, and possibly due to changes in photoperiod. The plant withers and dries and the achenes harden with the sharp spines pointing upwards. If the withered plant is not disturbed, the seeds drop around the site of the parent plant.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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S. sessilis is common on North Island, New Zealand, especially in the north half of New Zealand and is scattered on the South Island (J Boow, Auckland regional Council, Taiao, New Zealand, personal communication, 2009). It has not been recorded in the Republic of Ireland (C O’Flynn, National Biodiversity Data Centre, Ireland, personal communication, 2009). Recent information on the distribution of this species in Oceania, Europe and Asia is limited.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 20091 occurrence listed
JapanPresentIntroducedGBIF, 20091 occurrence listed
TaiwanPresentIntroducedGBIF, 20091 occurrence listed

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroducedGBIF, 20091 occurrence listed

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaLocalised2006Introduced1996 Invasive Castro, 2006
MexicoPresentIntroducedGBIF, 20093 occurrences listed
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaLocalised1990Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-ArkansasWidespread1988Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-CaliforniaWidespread2000Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009Coastal areas
-FloridaWidespread2002Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-GeorgiaWidespread1988Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009Only on Big Island (Hawaii)
-LouisianaWidespread1997Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-MississippiWidespread1990Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-North CarolinaLocalised1965Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-OklahomaPresentUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-OregonWidespread1961USDA-NRCS, 2009Coastal only
-South CarolinaLocalised1965Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-TennesseeLocalised1997Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-TexasLocalised1990IntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-VirginiaLocalised1977Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009
-WashingtonLocalised2002Introduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2009

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeGBIF, 2009; USDA-ARS, 2010
BoliviaPresentGBIF, 20091 occurrence listed
BrazilPresentNativeGBIF, 2009; USDA-ARS, 2010
ChilePresentNativeGBIF, 2009; USDA-ARS, 2010
ParaguayPresentNativeGBIF, 2009; USDA-ARS, 2010
PeruPresentNativeMacBride, 1981Also related species
UruguayPresentNativeCastro, 2006

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedGBIF, 20092 occurences listed
NorwayPresentIntroducedGBIF, 20091 occurrence listed
PortugalPresentIntroducedGBIF, 20093 occurences listed
SpainPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2009
UKPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2009

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent2009Introduced Invasive Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, 200970 records
-QueenslandPresent2009Introduced Invasive Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, 200929 records
-South AustraliaPresent2009Introduced Invasive Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, 200961 records (29 in Canberra area)
-VictoriaPresent2009Introduced Invasive Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, 2009127 records
-Western AustraliaPresent2009Introduced Invasive Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, 200916 records
New ZealandPresent2009Introduced Invasive Harrington, 2009
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedGBIF, 20091 occurrence listed

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. sessilis was first found in British Columbia, Canada in 1996 in Ruckle Provincial Park on Salt Spring Island (Castro, 2006). In 2006, a concerted effort was undertaken to identify other infested areas and a total of 22 infested sites were found on Vancouver Island and one site on the adjacent lower mainland of British Columbia (Polster, 2007).

 

Habitat

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S. sessilis occupies worn, bare areas of turf (Castro, 2006). It occurs in coastal bluff habitats with rare species (Castro, 2006). It is found in sunny locations or partial shade and is a poor competitor with healthy turf (WSWCB, 2007).

 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat
Littoral
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
50

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 4 30

Rainfall Regime

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Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There are no known biological control agents (Castro, 2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

S. sessilis does not spread far without the agency of animals (Polster, 2007). The seeds are not adapted for transport by wind and although they could be moved by water, this is not believed to be a significant contributor to spread of this species.
 
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
 
S. sessilis seeds are ideally adapted for movement on the feet of non-hoofed animals such as dogs and humans (Polster, 2007). Most short-distance transport of seeds is thought to be via the feet, including soft-soled shoes of humans. The seeds stick easily into the foam soles of beach sandals and leisure shoes. Short-distance transport has also been associated with the tyres of mowers used in recreational areas. The spines that attach the achene to the transport mechanism readily break off so that the seeds are generally only moved a few meters (Polster, 2007)
 
Accidental Introduction
 
The main mode of movement of S. sessilis is by attachment to the soft material of shoes, bags, tent floors and other fabric surfaces (Castro, 2006). Tent floors, backpacks, duffle bags and doorstep carpets are thought to be the primary vectors of movement in British Columbia, Canada. The seeds attach to the soft material of a tent floor or doorstep carpet and the item is packed up and moved, possibly over great distances, before being spread out again in a potentially suitable location. The most common location for finding S. sessilis in British Columbia is in areas where tenting and recreational vehicle use are prevalent (Polster, 2007). It may also be moved in the fur of animals as it is thought to have arrived in California, USA in hides shipped from Chile during the gold rush of the mid-1800s (Ray, 1987).
 
Intentional Introduction
 
No intentional movement of S. sessilis is suspected.
 

 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Hitchhiker Yes Yes Polster, 2007

Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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The economic impacts of S. sessilis centre on the costs associated with its control and the restoration of sites degraded by this species (R Cranston, Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia, Canada, unpublished data). Although this species is relatively easy to control using standard herbicides (although herbicide resistance exists; see the Control text section), costs associated with this method of control can be attributed to invasion by S. sessilis. In addition, costs associated with revegetation of bare turf areas that have been caused by this species need to be included in the economic impact of this species (R Cranston, Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia, Canada, unpublished data). Maintaining healthy turf can help prevent the establishment and spread of S. sessilis (Harrington, 2009).

 

Environmental Impact

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S. sessilis usually occurs in areas of degraded turf and may cause increased erosion by creating bare areas that are unprotected during winter storms. Also, without a healthy turf cover, rainfall may be prone to running off rather than soaking into the soil, reducing the recharge of groundwater supplies. It has established in natural coastal bluff ecosystems at Ruckle Provincial Park on Salt Spring Island, British Columbia, Canada where it is displacing Limnanthes macounii, an endemic species (Government of British Columbia, 2009) and one that is listed as threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC, 2009). Although S. sessilis is considered primarily a pest of degraded turf, the potential to move into Garryoak and associated ecosystems has caused concern (GOERT, 2009).

 

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Isoetes nuttalliiNational list(s) National list(s)British ColumbiaGovernment of British Columbia, 2009
Limnanthes macouniiNational list(s) National list(s)Competition - smotheringCOSEWIC, 2009

Social Impact

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The spines on the achenes of S. sessilis make walking on turf in bare feet unpleasant (Harrington, 2009). It is considered one of the most hated turf weeds in New Zealand as it grows below the blades of lawn mowers and makes walking on lawns in bare feet painful (Harrington, 2009). The tips of the spines can break off in the skin causing infections and painful slivers. The spines can cause lameness in dogs. The brown patches caused by this species on golf courses can impact the roll of the ball and degrade the quality of the golf course (R Cranston, Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia, Canada, unpublished data). Cranston suggests that the impacts of S. sessilis infestations could include reduced revenue at infested golf courses; reduced revenue in parks and recreation areas due to loss of aesthetic value and the nuisance of prickly seeds. In addition, it has been suggested that there would be a cost associated with government officials dealing with complaints from the public (R Cranston, Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia, Canada, unpublished data).

 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - smothering
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Diagnosis

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No specific laboratory techniques have been applied to S. sessilis, although Harrington (2009) has conducted detailed studies in conjunction with herbicide resistance assessments.

 

Detection and Inspection

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S. sessilis is hard to find as first year seedlings because the plants look like the seedlings of several other weedy species including: Matricaria discoidea; Geranium molle; Daucus carota; Aphanes spp.; and Achillea millefolium. In addition, the young plants are small and blend easily with turf and/or mosses. However, if the plants are not disturbed and if the seeds remain near the parent plant, then a clump of S. sessilis establishes that is much easier to find. Once a carpet forms, this species is easily identified by knowledgeable personnel.

 

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. sessilis looks like the following species that occupy similar habitats, but with some differences: Matricaria discoidea; Aphanes arvensis; and Daucus carota. M. discoidea is a common weedy species of compacted trails, parking lots, roadsides and other similar sites; it has dissected leaves, but lobes that extend far down the rachis. A. arvensis is similar, but with rounded dissected leaves. D. carota has more uniformly dissected leaves than S. sessilis and does not have the arching habit that S. sessilis leaves and stems have. In addition, young Achillea millefolium plants have much more finely divided leaves than S. sessilis, as does Lomatium utriculatum. Foliage colour and texture can aid in finding young S. sessilis plants among other similar species, although when the plants are very young, they can blend in with mosses and other seedlings (Castro, 2006).

 

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

SPS Measures
 
There are currently no known sanitary and phytosanitary measures applied to this species, although the construction and use of tent platforms was suggested as a means of reducing the spread of this species in British Columbia, Canada (Castro, 2006).
 
Early Warning Systems
 
No early warning systems were identified for this species in the literature.
 
Rapid Response
 
The Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia initiated an early detection and rapid response programme for this species in 2006, but the lack of funding in subsequent years resulted in no effective action being taken on a widespread basis (Polster, 2007). Some agencies such as the City of Victoria (BC), the Capital Regional District and the BC Provincial Parks have conducted ongoing treatments on property they are responsible for or that might impact their property. S. sessilis is listed as a Class A noxious weed in Washington State (USA) indicating that treatment is required (Castro, 2006).
 
Public Awareness
 
Efforts at public awareness have been conducted in British Columbia in conjunction with management treatments. No specific general awareness measures have been undertaken in British Columbia.
 
Eradication
 
Polster (2007) explored the topic of eradicating S. sessilis in British Columbia. No other literature on eradication of this species has been found.
 
Containment/zoning
 
Measures aimed at containing the spread of S. sessilis were suggested at specific sites in British Columba, Canada. Containment information from other jurisdictions is lacking.
 
Control
 
Cultural control and sanitary measures
 
Maintenance of healthy turf areas is the most effective means of preventing the establishment and spread of S. sessilis (Castro, 2006). Leaving grass uncut can help control S. sessilis (Maxwell et al., 1986), as can fertilizer applications that promote grass growth (Matthews, 1972). Tent platforms rather than camping on the grass (and creating wear) have been suggested as helpful in the control of S. sessilis (Castro, 2006).
 
Physical/mechanical control
 
Hand plucking individual young plants is used in ecologically sensitive areas. Hot foam/water (Waipuna system) was tested in British Columbia, Canada. Flaming just before seed set has been found to be the most effective means of treatment for large patches of S. sessilis in areas where herbicides cannot be used. Propane roofing torches can be used to burn the plants, taking care to burn the root crown.
 
Movement control
 
Identification of movement mechanisms such as on the floors of tents led to the suggestion that tent platforms should be installed in areas where S. sessilis was present (Castro, 2006).
 
Biological control
 
No biological control agents are known for S. sessilis (Castro, 2006).
 
Chemical control
 
See Castro (2006) for a table summarizing the herbicide treatments that are effective for control of S. sessilis.
 
It is tolerant of 2,4-D, MCPA and mecoprop, but susceptible to mixtures containing dicamba, bromofenoxim, bromoxynil or bentazon. Clopyralid and picloram are also favoured, but resistance to these has recently been observed in New Zealand (Harrington, 2009). In addition, where S. sessilis occurs in natural coastal bluff ecosystems, the application of herbicides may be restricted (Castro, 2006).
 
 
 
 
 

References

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Anon., 2009. Carpet Burweed (Soliva sessilis), Weed Alert. British Columbia, Canada: British Columbia Government. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/burweed.htm

Calflora, 2009. Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. California, USA: Calflora. http://www.calflora.org

Castro K, 2006. Weed Risk Assessment Carpet Burweed (Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pav.). Ottawa, Ontario: Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit, Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

COSEWIC, 2009. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: COSEWIC. http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/

Dutra IS, Hing Man Way M, Mello Filho AT, Machado PR, Silva SA, 1980. Tebuthiuron pellets to control weeds in pastures. (Tebutiuron peletizado no controle de plantas invasoras nas pastagens.) In: Resumos XIII Congresso Brasileiro de Herbicidas e Ervas Daninhas, Bahia, 1980, 70.

GBIF, 2009. GBIF Data Portal. Copenhagen, Denmark: Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://data.gbif.org

GOERT, 2009. Invasive Species. Victoria, Canada: Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team. http://www.goert.ca/pubs_invasive.php

Government of British Columbia, 2009. BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: BC Ministry of Environment. http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/atrisk/toolintro.html

Grant DL, Cooper RB, Webster HL, 1990. Isoxaben for broad-spectrum weed control in warm season turf. In: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, 145-153.

Harrington K, 2009. Onehunga weed. New Zealand: Massey University. http://weeds.massey.ac.nz/weeds.asp?pid=86

ITIS, 2009. The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). USA: ITIS Organisation and Partners. http://www.itis.gov

Johnson BJ, 1976. Research Report: Controlling winter weeds in dormant Bermudagrass with mixtures of pronamide with other herbicides. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 10.

Johnson BJ, 1977. Pre-emergence winter weed control in dormant Bermuda grass turf. Agronomy Journal, 69(4):573-576.

Johnson BJ, 1977. Research Report: Controlling winter annuals with herbicides. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 35.

Johnson BJ, 1977. Winter annual weed control in dormant Bermudagrass turf. Weed Science, 25(2):145-150.

Johnson BJ, 1978. Dates of glyphosate treatments on weeds and Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon. Weed Science., 523-526.

Johnson BJ, 1978. Research Report: Combinations of paraquat with other herbicides for weed control in dormant Bermudagrass turf. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 10.

Johnson BJ, 1979. Research Report: Annual bluegrass and broadleaf weed control in Bermudagrass turf. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 14.

Johnson BJ, 1979. Research Report: Influence of herbicide treatments on control and ecology of winter annuals. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 11.

Lawson RN, Unruh JB, Brecke BJ, 2002. Lawn burweed (Soliva pterosperma) control in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) and common centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides). Weed Technology, 16(1):84-87.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Author's edition. Nova Odessa, San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 400 pp.

MacBride JF, 1981. Flora of Peru. Fieldiana Botany. http://www.archive.org/stream/floraofperu07dill/floraofperu07dill_djvu.txt

Matthews LJ, 1972. Weed control - Onehunga weed. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 124(4):39.

Maxwell CD, Jacob N, Bollard S, Lovell P, 1986. Factors affecting establishment and survival of Soliva (Onehunga weed) at Auckland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 24:79-87.

McMaugh P, 1971. Control of encroachment of Agrostis spp. swards by warm season turf grasses. Journal of the Sports Turf Research Institute, 47:33-40.

Polster DF, 2007. Eradicating carpet burweed (Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pavón) in Canada. In: 'Invasive plants: inventories, strategies and action', a symposium held in Victoria, Canada, in November 2006 [ed. by Clements DR, Darbyshire SJ] Sainte-Anne-de Bellevue, Canada: Canadian Weed Science Society, 71-81.

Ray MF, 1987. Soliva (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) in California. Madrono, 34:228-239.

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, 2009. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Melbourne, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/cgi-bin/avhpublic/avh.cgi

USDA-ARS, 2010. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2008. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

USDA-NRCS, 2009. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Webb CJ, 1986. Variation in achene morphology and its implications for taxonomy in Soliva subgenus Soliva (Anthemideae, Asteraceae). New Zealand Journal of Botany, 24(4):665-669.

WSWCB, 2007. Lawnweed (Soliva sessilis). Washington, USA: Washington State Weed Control Board. http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/Written_findings/Soliva_sessilis.html

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
BC Ministry of Agriculturehttp://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/burweed.htm
Dr. Kerry Harrington, Massey University, NZhttp://weeds.massey.ac.nz/weeds.asp?pid=86
Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Teamhttp://www.goert.ca/
Invasive Plant Council of British Columbiahttp://www.invasiveplantcouncilbc.ca/

Contributors

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15/07/09 Original text by:

D Polster, Polster Environmental Services Ltd, 5953 Deuchars Drive, Duncan, BC V9L 1L5, Canada

Distribution Maps

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