Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Soliva sessilis



Soliva sessilis


  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Soliva sessilis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. sessilis spreads readily in areas of worn, poor quality turf. The seeds can cling to fabric such as tent floors and be transported long distances. In local areas, it may be moved on the soles of shoes, particularly soft-soled shoes commo...

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Soliva sessilis (field burweed); Habit. New Zealand. January 2012.
CaptionSoliva sessilis (field burweed); Habit. New Zealand. January 2012.
Copyright©Kerry Harrington
Soliva sessilis (field burweed); Habit. New Zealand. January 2012.
HabitSoliva sessilis (field burweed); Habit. New Zealand. January 2012.©Kerry Harrington
Soliva sessilis (field burweed); Seeds stuck in foot.
CaptionSoliva sessilis (field burweed); Seeds stuck in foot.
Copyright©Kerry Harrington
Soliva sessilis (field burweed); Seeds stuck in foot.
SeedsSoliva sessilis (field burweed); Seeds stuck in foot.©Kerry Harrington


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pav., 1794

Other Scientific Names

  • Soliva daucifolia Nutt., 1841
  • Solivia pterosperma (Juss.) Less., 1832

International Common Names

  • English: field burrweed; field soliva

Local Common Names

  • Australia: bindyi; jo jo; lawn burweed
  • Canada: carpet burweed
  • New Zealand: Onehunga weed

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. sessilis spreads readily in areas of worn, poor quality turf. The seeds can cling to fabric such as tent floors and be transported long distances. In local areas, it may be moved on the soles of shoes, particularly soft-soled shoes commonly worn around the beach and when camping. It was first found in California in 1836, probably coming in with shipments of hides from South America (Ray, 1987). Once established, the plant forms dense carpets that suppress most other lawn species and can out-compete rare species (Castro, 2006). It is considered one of the most hated turf weeds in New Zealand because it can make barefoot walking very painful (Harrington, 2009). It is low-growing and escapes the blades of most mowers. It has developed a resistance to synthetic auxin herbicides of the carboxylic acid family (Castro, 2006). A carpet burweed (S. sessilis) weed alert is listed by the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Canada (Anon., 2009).


Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Soliva
  •                                 Species: Soliva sessilis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This plant was first described from Chile in 1794. The genus was named after Dr. Salvador Soliva, an eighteenth century physician to the Spanish Court. The common name, Onehunga weed is thought to come from the port suburb of Auckland, New Zealand where this plant was first found. The name, burweed comes from the sharp spines on the achenes that remain upright in the dried head of the flower (Ray, 1987; WSWCB, 2007; CalFlora, 2009).



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S. sessilis is a low-growing winter annual that germinates during the wet period in Mediterranean climate areas and grows throughout the winter when the weather is warm enough. It may also germinate in the spring and flower later that same spring, acting like an annual. In British Columbia, Canada, flowering occurs from March to July (Castro, 2006). Following flowering, the plants wither and dry up, leaving the sharply pointed seeds sitting upright in the head where they can easily attach to any passing shoe or to tent floors.


The flowers of S. sessilis are small and inconspicuous. They are found in the axils of the leaves or in the branches of the stem. S. sessilis appears to continue to grow as long as conditions are favourable, with new stem branches and leaves and thus flowers appearing. This growth pattern can provide flowers at various stages of growth and development on a single plant. The heads consist of female florets lacking a corolla around the outside with functionally male florets with much reduced four-toothed whitish to pale-green translucent corollas on the inside (Castro, 2006). The involucre consists of seven to eight greenish bracts (Castro, 2006).

Fruit and Seeds

The seeds of S. sessilis are sharply pointed, flattened achenes with wings and/or barbs of various shapes (Ray, 1987). The seeds may also have stiff hairs that assist in attaching the seed to the hair of passing animals. The shape of the wings can vary substantially and appear to be indicative of different races of the species (Harrington, 2009). Seeds are borne in heads (composite flowers) that arise in the axils of leaves and stem branches. Single plants may have many (1 to 10 or more) seed heads with 5 to 10 seeds per head (Castro, 2006). Most plants in British Columbia, Canada produce 100 or more seeds. Seed weights range from 0.48g/1000 seeds to 0.94g/1000 seeds (Castro, 2006). Seeds range in length from 3.5 to 5.2 mm (Castro, 2006).

Germination and Growth

Germination of S. sessilis is epigeal with the first leaves forming above the cotyledons, being oblong lanceolate. Dissected leaves follow and a basal rosette of petioled dissected leaves forms. A single flower head forms in this rosette, and if conditions are poor, usually drying out is the primary cause of cessation of growth; this flower head is the only one formed. However, in most cases, growth continues with secondary stems and additional leaves forming from the main stem with additional flower heads forming in the axils of new leaves and the secondary stems. The roots of S. sessilis are fibrous and not very extensive. Plants can be easily plucked from moist soil as the rosette provides a good point of clasping the young plant.


The growth of the plant ceases and flowering stops once the soils in which the plants are growing, dry, and possibly due to changes in photoperiod. The plant withers and dries and the achenes harden with the sharp spines pointing upwards. If the withered plant is not disturbed, the seeds drop around the site of the parent plant.

Plant Type

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Seed propagated


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S. sessilis is common on North Island, New Zealand, especially in the north half of New Zealand and is scattered on the South Island (J Boow, Auckland regional Council, Taiao, New Zealand, personal communication, 2009). It has not been recorded in the Republic of Ireland (C O’Flynn, National Biodiversity Data Centre, Ireland, personal communication, 2009). Recent information on the distribution of this species in Oceania, Europe and Asia is limited.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


South AfricaPresentIntroduced1 occurrence listed


ChinaPresentIntroduced1 occurrence listed
JapanPresentIntroduced1 occurrence listed
TaiwanPresentIntroduced1 occurrence listed


FrancePresentIntroduced2 occurences listed
NorwayPresentIntroduced1 occurrence listed
PortugalPresentIntroduced3 occurences listed
United KingdomPresentIntroduced

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresent, Localized2006Introduced1996Invasive
MexicoPresentIntroduced3 occurrences listed
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent, Localized1990IntroducedInvasive
-ArkansasPresent, Widespread1988IntroducedInvasive
-CaliforniaPresent, Widespread2000IntroducedInvasiveCoastal areas
-FloridaPresent, Widespread2002IntroducedInvasive
-GeorgiaPresent, Widespread1988IntroducedInvasive
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveOnly on Big Island (Hawaii)
-LouisianaPresent, Widespread1997IntroducedInvasive
-MississippiPresent, Widespread1990IntroducedInvasive
-North CarolinaPresent, Localized1965IntroducedInvasive
-OregonPresent, Widespread1961Coastal only
-South CarolinaPresent, Localized1965IntroducedInvasive
-TennesseePresent, Localized1997IntroducedInvasive
-TexasPresent, Localized1990Introduced
-VirginiaPresent, Localized1977IntroducedInvasive
-WashingtonPresent, Localized2002IntroducedInvasive


AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent2009IntroducedInvasive70 records
-QueenslandPresent2009IntroducedInvasive29 records
-South AustraliaPresent2009IntroducedInvasive61 records (29 in Canberra area)
-VictoriaPresent2009IntroducedInvasive127 records
-Western AustraliaPresent2009IntroducedInvasive16 records
New ZealandPresent2009IntroducedInvasive
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroduced1 occurrence listed

South America

BoliviaPresent1 occurrence listed
PeruPresentNativeAlso related species

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. sessilis was first found in British Columbia, Canada in 1996 in Ruckle Provincial Park on Salt Spring Island (Castro, 2006). In 2006, a concerted effort was undertaken to identify other infested areas and a total of 22 infested sites were found on Vancouver Island and one site on the adjacent lower mainland of British Columbia (Polster, 2007).



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S. sessilis occupies worn, bare areas of turf (Castro, 2006). It occurs in coastal bluff habitats with rare species (Castro, 2006). It is found in sunny locations or partial shade and is a poor competitor with healthy turf (WSWCB, 2007).


Habitat List

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Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat
LittoralCoastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat


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Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 4 30

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There are no known biological control agents (Castro, 2006).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

S. sessilis does not spread far without the agency of animals (Polster, 2007). The seeds are not adapted for transport by wind and although they could be moved by water, this is not believed to be a significant contributor to spread of this species.
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
S. sessilis seeds are ideally adapted for movement on the feet of non-hoofed animals such as dogs and humans (Polster, 2007). Most short-distance transport of seeds is thought to be via the feet, including soft-soled shoes of humans. The seeds stick easily into the foam soles of beach sandals and leisure shoes. Short-distance transport has also been associated with the tyres of mowers used in recreational areas. The spines that attach the achene to the transport mechanism readily break off so that the seeds are generally only moved a few meters (Polster, 2007)
Accidental Introduction
The main mode of movement of S. sessilis is by attachment to the soft material of shoes, bags, tent floors and other fabric surfaces (Castro, 2006). Tent floors, backpacks, duffle bags and doorstep carpets are thought to be the primary vectors of movement in British Columbia, Canada. The seeds attach to the soft material of a tent floor or doorstep carpet and the item is packed up and moved, possibly over great distances, before being spread out again in a potentially suitable location. The most common location for finding S. sessilis in British Columbia is in areas where tenting and recreational vehicle use are prevalent (Polster, 2007). It may also be moved in the fur of animals as it is thought to have arrived in California, USA in hides shipped from Chile during the gold rush of the mid-1800s (Ray, 1987).
Intentional Introduction
No intentional movement of S. sessilis is suspected.


Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Hitchhiker Yes Yes Polster (2007)

Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

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Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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The economic impacts of S. sessilis centre on the costs associated with its control and the restoration of sites degraded by this species (R Cranston, Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia, Canada, unpublished data). Although this species is relatively easy to control using standard herbicides (although herbicide resistance exists; see the Control text section), costs associated with this method of control can be attributed to invasion by S. sessilis. In addition, costs associated with revegetation of bare turf areas that have been caused by this species need to be included in the economic impact of this species (R Cranston, Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia, Canada, unpublished data). Maintaining healthy turf can help prevent the establishment and spread of S. sessilis (Harrington, 2009).


Environmental Impact

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S. sessilis usually occurs in areas of degraded turf and may cause increased erosion by creating bare areas that are unprotected during winter storms. Also, without a healthy turf cover, rainfall may be prone to running off rather than soaking into the soil, reducing the recharge of groundwater supplies. It has established in natural coastal bluff ecosystems at Ruckle Provincial Park on Salt Spring Island, British Columbia, Canada where it is displacing Limnanthes macounii, an endemic species (Government of British Columbia, 2009) and one that is listed as threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC, 2009). Although S. sessilis is considered primarily a pest of degraded turf, the potential to move into Garryoak and associated ecosystems has caused concern (GOERT, 2009).


Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Isoetes nuttalliiNational list(s)British ColumbiaGovernment of British Columbia (2009)
Limnanthes macouniiNational list(s)CanadaCompetition - smotheringCOSEWIC (2009)

Social Impact

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The spines on the achenes of S. sessilis make walking on turf in bare feet unpleasant (Harrington, 2009). It is considered one of the most hated turf weeds in New Zealand as it grows below the blades of lawn mowers and makes walking on lawns in bare feet painful (Harrington, 2009). The tips of the spines can break off in the skin causing infections and painful slivers. The spines can cause lameness in dogs. The brown patches caused by this species on golf courses can impact the roll of the ball and degrade the quality of the golf course (R Cranston, Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia, Canada, unpublished data). Cranston suggests that the impacts of S. sessilis infestations could include reduced revenue at infested golf courses; reduced revenue in parks and recreation areas due to loss of aesthetic value and the nuisance of prickly seeds. In addition, it has been suggested that there would be a cost associated with government officials dealing with complaints from the public (R Cranston, Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia, Canada, unpublished data).


Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - smothering
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control


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No specific laboratory techniques have been applied to S. sessilis, although Harrington (2009) has conducted detailed studies in conjunction with herbicide resistance assessments.


Detection and Inspection

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S. sessilis is hard to find as first year seedlings because the plants look like the seedlings of several other weedy species including: Matricaria discoidea; Geranium molle; Daucus carota; Aphanes spp.; and Achillea millefolium. In addition, the young plants are small and blend easily with turf and/or mosses. However, if the plants are not disturbed and if the seeds remain near the parent plant, then a clump of S. sessilis establishes that is much easier to find. Once a carpet forms, this species is easily identified by knowledgeable personnel.


Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. sessilis looks like the following species that occupy similar habitats, but with some differences: Matricaria discoidea; Aphanes arvensis; and Daucus carota. M. discoidea is a common weedy species of compacted trails, parking lots, roadsides and other similar sites; it has dissected leaves, but lobes that extend far down the rachis. A. arvensis is similar, but with rounded dissected leaves. D. carota has more uniformly dissected leaves than S. sessilis and does not have the arching habit that S. sessilis leaves and stems have. In addition, young Achillea millefolium plants have much more finely divided leaves than S. sessilis, as does Lomatium utriculatum. Foliage colour and texture can aid in finding young S. sessilis plants among other similar species, although when the plants are very young, they can blend in with mosses and other seedlings (Castro, 2006).


Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.


SPS Measures
There are currently no known sanitary and phytosanitary measures applied to this species, although the construction and use of tent platforms was suggested as a means of reducing the spread of this species in British Columbia, Canada (Castro, 2006).
Early Warning Systems
No early warning systems were identified for this species in the literature.
Rapid Response
The Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia initiated an early detection and rapid response programme for this species in 2006, but the lack of funding in subsequent years resulted in no effective action being taken on a widespread basis (Polster, 2007). Some agencies such as the City of Victoria (BC), the Capital Regional District and the BC Provincial Parks have conducted ongoing treatments on property they are responsible for or that might impact their property. S. sessilis is listed as a Class A noxious weed in Washington State (USA) indicating that treatment is required (Castro, 2006).
Public Awareness
Efforts at public awareness have been conducted in British Columbia in conjunction with management treatments. No specific general awareness measures have been undertaken in British Columbia.
Polster (2007) explored the topic of eradicating S. sessilis in British Columbia. No other literature on eradication of this species has been found.
Measures aimed at containing the spread of S. sessilis were suggested at specific sites in British Columba, Canada. Containment information from other jurisdictions is lacking.
Cultural control and sanitary measures
Maintenance of healthy turf areas is the most effective means of preventing the establishment and spread of S. sessilis (Castro, 2006). Leaving grass uncut can help control S. sessilis (Maxwell et al., 1986), as can fertilizer applications that promote grass growth (Matthews, 1972). Tent platforms rather than camping on the grass (and creating wear) have been suggested as helpful in the control of S. sessilis (Castro, 2006).
Physical/mechanical control
Hand plucking individual young plants is used in ecologically sensitive areas. Hot foam/water (Waipuna system) was tested in British Columbia, Canada. Flaming just before seed set has been found to be the most effective means of treatment for large patches of S. sessilis in areas where herbicides cannot be used. Propane roofing torches can be used to burn the plants, taking care to burn the root crown.
Movement control
Identification of movement mechanisms such as on the floors of tents led to the suggestion that tent platforms should be installed in areas where S. sessilis was present (Castro, 2006).
Biological control
No biological control agents are known for S. sessilis (Castro, 2006).
Chemical control
See Castro (2006) for a table summarizing the herbicide treatments that are effective for control of S. sessilis.
It is tolerant of 2,4-D, MCPA and mecoprop, but susceptible to mixtures containing dicamba, bromofenoxim, bromoxynil or bentazon. Clopyralid and picloram are also favoured, but resistance to these has recently been observed in New Zealand (Harrington, 2009). In addition, where S. sessilis occurs in natural coastal bluff ecosystems, the application of herbicides may be restricted (Castro, 2006).


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Anon., 2009. Carpet Burweed (Soliva sessilis), Weed Alert. British Columbia, Canada: British Columbia Government.

Calflora, 2009. Information on California plants for education, research and conservation. California, USA: Calflora.

Castro K, 2006. Weed Risk Assessment Carpet Burweed (Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pav.). Ottawa, Ontario: Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit, Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

COSEWIC, 2009. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: COSEWIC.

Dutra IS, Hing Man Way M, Mello Filho AT, Machado PR, Silva SA, 1980. Tebuthiuron pellets to control weeds in pastures. (Tebutiuron peletizado no controle de plantas invasoras nas pastagens.) In: Resumos XIII Congresso Brasileiro de Herbicidas e Ervas Daninhas, Bahia, 1980, 70.

GBIF, 2009. GBIF Data Portal. Copenhagen, Denmark: Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

GOERT, 2009. Invasive Species. Victoria, Canada: Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team.

Government of British Columbia, 2009. BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: BC Ministry of Environment.

Grant DL, Cooper RB, Webster HL, 1990. Isoxaben for broad-spectrum weed control in warm season turf. In: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, 145-153.

Harrington K, 2009. Onehunga weed. New Zealand: Massey University.

ITIS, 2009. The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). USA: ITIS Organisation and Partners.

Johnson BJ, 1976. Research Report: Controlling winter weeds in dormant Bermudagrass with mixtures of pronamide with other herbicides. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 10.

Johnson BJ, 1977. Pre-emergence winter weed control in dormant Bermuda grass turf. Agronomy Journal, 69(4):573-576.

Johnson BJ, 1977. Research Report: Controlling winter annuals with herbicides. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 35.

Johnson BJ, 1977. Winter annual weed control in dormant Bermudagrass turf. Weed Science, 25(2):145-150.

Johnson BJ, 1978. Dates of glyphosate treatments on weeds and Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon. Weed Science., 523-526.

Johnson BJ, 1978. Research Report: Combinations of paraquat with other herbicides for weed control in dormant Bermudagrass turf. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 10.

Johnson BJ, 1979. Research Report: Annual bluegrass and broadleaf weed control in Bermudagrass turf. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 14.

Johnson BJ, 1979. Research Report: Influence of herbicide treatments on control and ecology of winter annuals. Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station., 11.

Lawson RN, Unruh JB, Brecke BJ, 2002. Lawn burweed (Soliva pterosperma) control in hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) and common centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides). Weed Technology, 16(1):84-87.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Author's edition. Nova Odessa, San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 400 pp.

MacBride JF, 1981. Flora of Peru. Fieldiana Botany.

Matthews LJ, 1972. Weed control - Onehunga weed. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 124(4):39.

Maxwell CD, Jacob N, Bollard S, Lovell P, 1986. Factors affecting establishment and survival of Soliva (Onehunga weed) at Auckland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 24:79-87.

McMaugh P, 1971. Control of encroachment of Agrostis spp. swards by warm season turf grasses. Journal of the Sports Turf Research Institute, 47:33-40.

Polster DF, 2007. Eradicating carpet burweed (Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pavón) in Canada. In: 'Invasive plants: inventories, strategies and action', a symposium held in Victoria, Canada, in November 2006 [ed. by Clements DR, Darbyshire SJ] Sainte-Anne-de Bellevue, Canada: Canadian Weed Science Society, 71-81.

Ray MF, 1987. Soliva (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) in California. Madrono, 34:228-239.

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, 2009. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Melbourne, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens.

USDA-ARS, 2010. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2008. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

USDA-NRCS, 2009. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

Webb CJ, 1986. Variation in achene morphology and its implications for taxonomy in Soliva subgenus Soliva (Anthemideae, Asteraceae). New Zealand Journal of Botany, 24(4):665-669.

WSWCB, 2007. Lawnweed (Soliva sessilis). Washington, USA: Washington State Weed Control Board.

Distribution References

Australia, Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, 2009. Soliva sessilis. In: Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Melbourne, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Castro K, 2006. Weed Risk Assessment Carpet Burweed (Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pav.). In: Weed Risk Assessment Carpet Burweed (Soliva sessilis Ruiz & Pav.), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit, Canadian Food Inspection Agency.

GBIF, 2009. Pistia stratiotes. In: GBIF Data Portal, Copenhagen, Denmark: Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

Harrington K, 2009. Onehunga weed. In: Onehunga weed, New Zealand: Massey University.

MacBride J F, 1981. Flora of Peru. In: Fieldiana Botany, 7 (1319)

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435.

USA, USDA-ARS, 2010. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2009. Cornus sericea. In: The PLANTS Database, Baton Rouge, LA, USA: National Plant Data Center.

Links to Websites

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BC Ministry of Agriculture
Dr. Kerry Harrington, Massey University, NZ
Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team
Invasive Plant Council of British Columbia


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15/07/09 Original text by:

D Polster, Polster Environmental Services Ltd, 5953 Deuchars Drive, Duncan, BC V9L 1L5, Canada

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