Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide







  • Population, total
  • 11,925 (2021)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 6,760 (2021)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 80.67 (2021)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 63.10 (2021)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 15.92 (2015)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant)Present, LocalizedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); IPPC (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1983)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentAPPPC (1987); Carver (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)Present, LocalizedIPPC (2005); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera passiflorae (Fijian fruit fly)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera xanthodes (Pacific fruit fly)Present, LocalizedIPPC (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)PresentBarro et al. (1998); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1988); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, WidespreadIntroducedBelkin (1962)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCylas formicarius (sweet potato weevil)PresentUK, CAB International (1970); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentBen-Dov (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentBen-Dov (1994); Williams and Watson (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentWilliams and Watson (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)PresentIntroducedWilliams and Watson (1988); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug)PresentCABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus elisae (banana mealybug)PresentWilliams and Watson (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSimosyrphus grandicornis (common hover fly)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)PresentInvasiveDharmaraju (1980); UK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaWasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant)PresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBos taurus (cattle)Absent, Formerly presentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLutjanus kasmira (blueline snapper)Present, WidespreadNativeAllen (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMus musculus (house mouse)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus norvegicus (brown rat)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus rattus (black rat)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRhinella marina (cane toad)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAchatina fulica (giant African land snail)Absent, EradicatedSouth Pacific Commission (1979); Cowie (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Present, WidespreadBridge (1988); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris tripartita (giant brake)PresentNativeNational Museum of Natural History (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)PresentSwarbrick (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)PresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)PresentPIER (2014); Woodroffe (1985)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)PresentInvasiveSwarbrick (1997); PIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)PresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna indica (canna lilly)PresentIntroducedPIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina glauca (scaly oak (Australia))Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)PresentPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)PresentIntroducedGovaerts et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentIntroducedPIER (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)PresentIntroducedSwarbrick (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus carica (common fig)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)PresentIntroducedPIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)PresentIntroducedSwarbrick (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)PresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedPIER (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)PresentPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick (1997); Waterhouse (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWoodroffe (1985); Swarbrick (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)PresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)PresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)PresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRivina humilis (bloodberry)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSwarbrick (1997); PIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRusselia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna obtusifolia (sicklepod)PresentSwarbrick (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)PresentIntroducedSwarbrick (1997); PIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSynedrella nodiflora (synedrella)PresentInvasiveSwarbrick (1997); PIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)PresentWaterhouse (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)Present, WidespreadNativeAregheore (2002)
VirusBanana bunchy top virus (bunchy top of banana)PresentInvasivePearson and Grisoni (2002); CABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2020 2019 2018 2017 2016
BananasProduction quantity288 Im287 Im287 Im288 Im285 Im
CoconutsArea harvested1,650 Im1,645 Im1,658 Im1,661 Im1,656 Im
Production quantity1,589 Im1,586 Im1,600 *1,600 *1,600 *
Yield9,630 Fc9,641 Fc9,650 Fc9,633 Fc9,662 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested82 A82 A82 A82 A83 A
Production quantity869 A870 A869 A867 A873 A
Yield105,976 Fc106,098 Fc105,976 Fc105,732 Fc105,181 Fc
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea harvested82 Im82 Im82 Im82 Im83 Im
Production quantity581 Im583 Im582 Im579 Im588 Im
Yield70,854 Fc71,098 Fc70,976 Fc70,610 Fc70,843 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentProduction quantity127 A127 A128 A128 A128 A
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentProduction quantity207 A206 A208 A208 A208 A
Roots and tubers nesProduction quantity145 Im145 Im145 Im145 Im144 Im
Roots and Tubers, TotalProduction quantity145 A145 A145 A145 A144 A
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested80 A80 A80 A80 A81 A
Production quantity596 A598 A597 A594 A601 A
Yield74,500 Fc74,750 Fc74,625 Fc74,250 Fc74,198 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested80 Im80 Im80 Im80 Im81 Im
Production quantity596 Im598 Im597 Im594 Im601 Im
Yield74,500 Fc74,750 Fc74,625 Fc74,250 Fc74,198 Fc
* = Unofficial figure
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology

Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2022). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Agricultural landArea2 Fm2 Fm2 Fm2 Fm2 Fm
AgricultureArea2 Fc2 Fc2 Fc2 Fc2 Fc
Country areaArea3 W3 W3 W3 W3 W
CroplandArea2 Fm2 Fm2 Fm2 Fm2 Fm
Forest landArea1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q
Land areaArea3 W3 W3 W3 W3 W
Land under permanent cropsArea2 Fm2 Fm2 Fm2 Fm2 Fm
Naturally regenerating forestArea1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q
Other landArea0 Fc0 Fc0 Fc0 Fc0 Fc
Planted ForestArea0 Q0 Q0 Q0 Q0 Q
Primary ForestArea0 Fm0 Fm0 Fm
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries
W = Data reported on country official publications or web sites (Official) or trade country files

Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2022). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, Reproduced with permission.