Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tonga

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Datasheet

Tonga

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 104,494 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 5,000 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 522.80 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 512.35 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 17.07 (2018)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
yellow head virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato)PresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaBacteroidetesPaenibacillus larvaeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma synoviaeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginaleAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella melitensisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Hepatobacter penaeiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)PresentEPPO (2021); CABI (Undated)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaVibrio parahaemolyticusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXenohaliotis californiensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces astaciAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces invadansAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)PresentDavis et al. (2004); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella fijiensis (black Sigatoka)PresentIntroducedJohnston (1965); CABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora pachyrhizi (soyabean rust)PresentDingley et al. (1981); McKenzie and Jackson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcarapis woodi (honeybee mite)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes aegyptiPresentIntroducedInvasiveHorwood et al. (2013); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAethina tumidaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)PresentUK, CAB International (1986); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella aurantii (red scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1983)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1968); APPPC (1987); Carver (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiella hartii (yam scale)PresentAPPPC (1987); Williams and Watson (1988); García Morales et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera facialisPresentHeimoana et al. (1997); Leblanc et al. (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera kirkiPresentHeimoana et al. (1997); Leblanc et al. (2012); CABI and EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera passiflorae (Fijian fruit fly)PresentDrew. R. A. I. and Hancock (1995); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera xanthodes (Pacific fruit fly)PresentHeimoana et al. (1997); Heimoana et al. (1997); Leblanc et al. (2012); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)PresentBarro et al. (1998); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly)PresentSchmidt et al. (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)PresentAPPPC (1987); CABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)PresentO'Connor (1949); UK, CAB International (1969); Maddison (1976); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCrocidosema plebejana (cotton tipworm)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, WidespreadIntroducedBelkin (1962)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCylas formicarius (sweet potato weevil)PresentUK, CAB International (1970); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentUK, CAB International (1972); Ben-Dov (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaElytroteinus subtruncatusPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentUK, CAB International (1966); Williams and Watson (1988); Ben-Dov (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)PresentUK, CAB International (1961); APPPC (1987); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1976); Williams and Watson (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeteropsylla cubana (leucaena psyllid)PresentFAO (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIcerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1971); Williams and Watson (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)PresentIntroducedWilliams and Watson (1988); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentCarver et al. (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)PresentUK, CAB International (1970); Waterhouse and Norris (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryctes rhinoceros (coconut rhinoceros beetle)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPheidole megacephala (big-headed ant)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug)PresentWilliams and Watson (1988); CABI and EPPO (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)PresentUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)PresentWilliams and Watson (1988); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSimosyrphus grandicornis (common hover fly)PresentIntroducedNishida (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitobion miscanthi (indian grain aphid)PresentNativeNHM (1949); Eastop (1966); Carver et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil)PresentAPPPC (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant)PresentIntroducedAPPPC (1987); ISSG (2009); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis papuana (Papuan thief ant)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)PresentInvasiveUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil)PresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)PresentCarver et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUnaspis citri (citrus snow scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1962); Williams and Watson (1988); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus perforans (island pinhole borer)PresentIntroducedInvasiveAPPPC (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBeaver (1987); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres fuscus (jungle myna)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres tristis (common myna)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAmphiprionPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCanis lupus familiaris (dogs)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataFelis catus (cat)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHemidactylus frenatus (common house gecko)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveFisher (1997); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHerpestes auropunctatus (small Indian mongoose)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveCranwell (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLutjanus kasmira (blueline snapper)Present, WidespreadNativeAllen (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMus musculus (house mouse)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Absent, EradicatedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterois volitans (lionfish)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus norvegicus (brown rat)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus rattus (black rat)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSturnus vulgaris (common starling)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSPREP (South Pacific Regional Environment Programme) (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)PresentNativeBruce (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAchatina fulica (giant African land snail)Absent, Formerly presentSouth Pacific Commission (1979); Brodie and Barker (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCrassostrea virginica (eastern oyster)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras laeve (meadow slug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHutchinson et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMagallana gigas (Pacific oyster)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Wilkinson (1975); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMelanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania)Present, WidespreadNativeStarmühlner (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPerna viridis (Asian green mussel)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaTurbo marmoratus (great green turban)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Present, WidespreadBridge (1988); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)Present, WidespreadBridge (1988); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)PresentBridge (1988); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)PresentKirby et al. (1980); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)PresentOrton Williams (1980); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus granulosusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus multilocularisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesGyrodactylus salarisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesPlatydemus manokwari (New guinea flatworm)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila psittaciAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAngiopteris evecta (king fern)PresentNativePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)PresentNativeIwatsuki (1963)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris tripartita (giant brake)PresentNativeSykes (1981)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)PresentPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAcanthophora spiciferaPresentNativeDoty (1961)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaEucheuma spp.PresentDoty (1985)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaKappaphycusPresent, LocalizedIntroducedEldredge (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSankaran and Suresh (2013); PIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbrus precatorius (rosary pea)PresentNativePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia crassicarpa (northern wattle)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)PresentSwarbrick (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)PresentSwarbrick (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)PresentIntroducedPIER (2002); Space and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave americana (century plant)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)PresentIntroducedWhistler (1983); Waterhouse (1997); PIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAleurites moluccanus (candlenut tree)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013); Krisnawati et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia purpurata (red ginger)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Imada (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)PresentUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)PresentPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus cruentus (red amaranth)PresentIntroducedYuncker (1959)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona squamosa (sugar apple)PresentIntroducedPacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAntigonon leptopus (coral vine)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedRagone (2006); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001); Yuncker (1959)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveYuncker (1959); Swarbrick (1997); USDA-ARS (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern)PresentIntroducedPIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsystasia gangetica (chinese violet)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus fissifoliusPresentIntroducedGBIF (2012); PIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria cristata (Philippine violet)PresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)PresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018); Waterhouse (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBixa orellana (annatto)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)PresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)PresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBreynia disticha (snowbush)PresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBroussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBurkill (1901); PIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)PresentPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCananga odorata (ylang-ylang)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna indica (canna lilly)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)PresentNativePIER (2002); World Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina glauca (scaly oak (Australia))Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCedrela odorata (Spanish cedar)PresentIntroducedPIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass)PresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)PresentWhistler (1983); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)PresentPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum diurnum (day jessamine)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaecrista nictitans (sensitive partridge pea)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001); PIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001); Englberger (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris barbata (purpletop chloris)PresentWhistler (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass)PresentNativeYuncker (1959)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)PresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantiifolia (lime)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantium (sour orange)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum speciosissimum (Java glory bower)PresentInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)PresentIntroducedWester and Wood (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013); Englberger (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)PresentIntroducedYuncker (1959)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)PresentIntroducedEllison (1990)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCombretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)PresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHaysom and Murphy (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordyline fruticosa (ti plant)Present, WidespreadRandall (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)PresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001); Bishop Museum (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWhistler (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentWhistler (1983); Space and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentIntroducedPIER (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2009); Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDerris elliptica (tuba root)PresentPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane)PresentIntroducedHEAR (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013); FAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea bulbifera (air potato)PresentIntroducedInvasiveYuncker (1959)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDuranta erecta (golden dewdrop)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013); USDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)PresentWaterhouse (1997); Clayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013); USDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)PresentIntroducedWhistler (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018); Holm et al. (1997); Waterhouse (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)PresentNativeGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012); GBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEriobotrya japonica (loquat)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)PresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)PresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFalcataria moluccana (batai wood)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benjamina (weeping fig)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia macrophylla (large leaf flemingia)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia strobilifera (wild hops)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFurcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveDrake et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (gliricidia)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGmelina arborea (candahar)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton)PresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGrevillea robusta (silky oak)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2002); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHaematoxylum campechianum (logwood)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium flavescens (wild ginger)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemigraphis alternata (red ivy)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balsamina (garden balsam)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018); GRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImperata cylindrica (cogon grass)PresentPIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea alba (white moonflower )PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)PresentSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)PresentStaples (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIxora finlaysoniana (white jungle flame)PresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveThaman (1974)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentPacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonotis nepetifolia (Christmas candlestick)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHughes (1998); Hughes (1998); PIER (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigustrum sinense (Chinese privet)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa aegyptiaca (loofah)PresentPIER (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaranta arundinacea (arrowroot)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago lupulina (black medick)PresentPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago polymorpha (bur clover)PresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWhistler (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelastoma malabathricum (Banks melastoma)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)PresentIntroducedPIER (2002); World Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis minutiflora (molasses grass)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)Present, LocalizedIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia peltataPresentIntroducedEnglberger (2009); Waterhouse (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMeyer (2000); Englberger (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse and Norris (1987); PIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica charantia (bitter gourd)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014); Waterhouse (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurdannia nudiflora (doveweed)PresentPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurraya paniculata (orange jessamine)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNerium oleander (oleander)PresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana tabacum (tobacco)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum gratissimum (African basil)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOlea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia humifusaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia monacantha (common prickly pear)PresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentPIER (2013); Waterhouse (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)PresentIntroducedPIER (2018); Whistler (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)PresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass paspalum)PresentPIER (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentNativePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower)PresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora edulis (passionfruit)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014); Space and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)PresentWhistler (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora quadrangularis (giant granadilla)PresentIntroducedPIER (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)PresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)PresentIntroducedInvasiveYuncker (1959)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta dioica (allspice)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001); Space and Flynn (2002); PIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper aduncum (spiked pepper)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHartemink (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper auritumPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)PresentInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea carolinensis (sourbush)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudelephantopus spicatus (false elephant’s foot)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Imada (2004); PIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRivina humilis (bloodberry)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRusselia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna alata (candle bush)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna obtusifolia (sicklepod)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWhistler (1983); Swarbrick (1989); Mackey et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016); Whistler (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna siamea (yellow cassia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna surattensis (golden senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania grandiflora (sesbania)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sesban (sesban)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse and Norris (1987); Whistler (1988); Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mauritianum (tobacco tree)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Space and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum torvum (turkey berry)PresentWhistler (1983); Waterhouse (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSorghum halepense (Johnson grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWhistler (1983); PIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)PresentNativeGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphagneticola trilobata (wedelia)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008); Space and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachys arvensis (staggerweed)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedYuncker (1959); PIER (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)PresentWhistler (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Ellison (1990); Moldenke (1980); Franklin et al. (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)PresentPIER (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium cumini (black plum)PresentIntroducedPIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium jambos (rose apple)Present, PlantedIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarindus indica (tamarind)PresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997); Swarbrick (1997); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma stans (yellow bells)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)PresentThomson and Evans (2006); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThespesia populnea (portia tree)PresentFriday and Okano (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)PresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia fragrans (whitelady)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona ciliata (toon)PresentIntroducedPacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2011); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia spathacea (boat lily)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)PresentIntroducedInvasiveYuncker (1959)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)PresentWaterhouse (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001); PIER (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa distachya (signal grass)PresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)PresentNativeYuncker (1953)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex trifoliaPresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYoungia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaProtistaParamyxeaMarteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia exitiosaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia ostreaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus olseniAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusavian metapneumovirusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusBanana bunchy top virus (bunchy top of banana)PresentInvasivePearson and Grisoni (2002); CABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
VirusBanana streak diseasePresentThomas et al. (1994); Lockhart and Jones (1999)
Virusbluetongue virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine leukemia virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscamelpox virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusclassical swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruseastern equine encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusepizootic haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine arteritis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine influenzavirusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusHaliotid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious myonecrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious salmon anemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfluenza A virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusmyxoma virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNewcastle disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNipah virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPapaya ringspot virusPresentCABI (Undated)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrabies virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusred sea bream iridovirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusSweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2022)
VirusTaura syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virustransmissible gastroenteritis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvisna/maedi virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWest Nile virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWhite spot syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
BananasArea harvested612 Im604 Im596 Im588 Im582 Im
Production quantity897 Im888 Im879 Im870 Im852 Im
Yield14,657 Fc14,702 Fc14,748 Fc14,796 Fc14,639 Fc
CassavaArea harvested418 Im423 Im429 Im434 Im439 Im
Production quantity6,692 Im6,692 Im6,692 Im6,692 Im6,603 Im
Yield160,096 Fc158,203 Fc155,991 Fc154,194 Fc150,410 Fc
Citrus Fruit, TotalArea harvested1,383 A1,359 A1,336 A1,316 A1,293 A
Production quantity3,027 A3,050 A3,069 A3,095 A3,140 A
Yield21,887 Fc22,443 Fc22,972 Fc23,518 Fc24,285 Fc
Cocoa, beansArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
CoconutsArea harvested1,780 Im2,107 Im2,295 Im2,370 Im3,183 Im
Production quantity36,924 Im42,400 *44,800 *44,800 *57,600 *
Yield207,438 Fc201,234 Fc195,207 Fc189,030 Fc180,961 Fc
Coffee, greenArea harvested11 Im11 Im11 Im11 Im11 Im
Production quantity16 Im16 Im16 Im16 Im16 Im
Yield14,545 Fc14,545 Fc14,545 Fc14,545 Fc14,545 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested6,354 A6,111 A5,924 A5,686 A5,461 A
Production quantity8,450 A8,592 A8,721 A8,774 A8,813 A
Yield13,299 Fc14,060 Fc14,721 Fc15,431 Fc16,138 Fc
Fruit, fresh nesArea harvested3,702 Im3,459 Im3,274 Im3,078 Im2,885 Im
Production quantity1,062 Im1,064 Im1,065 Im1,066 Im1,058 Im
Yield2,869 Fc3,076 Fc3,253 Fc3,463 Fc3,667 Fc
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea harvested354 Im383 Im410 F392 Im393 Im
Production quantity733 Im793 Im850 Im814 Im815 Im
Yield20,706 Fc20,705 Fc20,732 Fc20,765 Fc20,738 Fc
Groundnuts, with shellArea harvested1,387 Im1,454 Im1,556 Im1,696 Im1,864 Im
Production quantity844 Im881 Im940 Im1,020 Im1,114 Im
Yield6,085 Fc6,059 Fc6,041 Fc6,014 Fc5,976 Fc
Lemons and limesArea harvested1,153 Im1,132 Im1,111 Im1,093 Im1,068 Im
Production quantity2,198 Im2,216 Im2,230 Im2,251 Im2,272 Im
Yield19,063 Fc19,576 Fc20,072 Fc20,595 Fc21,273 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested3,167 A3,561 A3,851 A4,066 A5,047 A
Production quantity37,768 A43,281 A45,740 A45,820 A58,714 A
Yield119,255 Fc121,542 Fc118,774 Fc112,691 Fc116,334 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested3,167 A3,561 A3,851 A4,066 A5,047 A
Production quantity3,275 A3,727 A3,941 A3,972 A5,031 A
Yield10,340 Fc10,466 Fc10,234 Fc9,768 Fc9,969 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested3,167 A3,561 A3,851 A4,066 A5,047 A
Production quantity5,053 A5,776 A6,106 A6,130 A7,822 A
Yield15,956 Fc16,221 Fc15,856 Fc15,076 Fc15,499 Fc
OrangesArea harvested230 Im227 Im225 Im223 Im225 Im
Production quantity829 Im834 Im839 Im844 Im868 Im
Yield36,043 Fc36,740 Fc37,289 Fc37,848 Fc38,578 Fc
Plantains and othersArea harvested246 Im248 Im249 Im252 Im248 Im
Production quantity2,320 Im2,373 Im2,420 Im2,478 Im2,489 Im
Yield94,309 Fc95,685 Fc97,189 Fc98,333 Fc100,363 Fc
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsArea harvested2,275 Im2,245 Im2,214 Im2,184 Im2,167 Im
Production quantity20,231 Im20,098 Im19,964 Im19,831 Im19,885 Im
Yield88,927 Fc89,523 Fc90,172 Fc90,801 Fc91,763 Fc
Roots and tubers nesArea harvested283 Im282 Im281 Im279 Im282 Im
Production quantity2,327 Im2,316 Im2,305 Im2,294 Im2,312 Im
Yield82,226 Fc82,128 Fc82,028 Fc82,222 Fc81,986 Fc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested2,185 A2,176 A2,166 A2,158 A2,154 A
Production quantity23,797 A23,776 A23,749 A23,738 A23,721 A
Yield108,911 Fc109,265 Fc109,645 Fc110,000 Fc110,125 Fc
Spices nesArea harvested90 Im90 Im89 Im89 Im88 Im
Production quantity255 Im254 Im254 Im254 Im255 Im
Yield28,333 Fc28,222 Fc28,539 Fc28,539 Fc28,977 Fc
Sweet potatoesArea harvested651 Im641 Im630 Im621 Im626 Im
Production quantity6,483 Im6,458 Im6,426 Im6,404 Im6,571 Im
Yield99,585 Fc100,749 Fc102,000 Fc103,124 Fc104,968 Fc
Taro (cocoyam)Area harvested488 Im484 Im480 Im477 Im464 Im
Production quantity3,615 Im3,616 Im3,617 Im3,625 Im3,576 Im
Yield74,078 Fc74,711 Fc75,354 Fc75,996 Fc77,069 Fc
TomatoesArea harvested26 Im26 Im26 Im26 Im26 Im
Production quantity936 Im911 Im887 Im862 Im858 Im
Yield360,000 Fc350,385 Fc341,154 Fc331,538 Fc330,000 Fc
VanillaArea harvested243 Im247 Im250 Im253 Im270 Im
Production quantity181 Im179 Im178 Im176 Im183 Im
Yield7,449 Fc7,247 Fc7,120 Fc6,957 Fc6,778 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested7,001 A6,958 A6,913 A6,869 A6,839 A
Production quantity27,259 A27,075 A26,890 A26,705 A26,719 A
Yield38,936 Fc38,912 Fc38,898 Fc38,878 Fc39,069 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested4,700 Im4,687 Im4,673 Im4,659 Im4,646 Im
Production quantity6,092 Im6,066 Im6,039 Im6,012 Im5,976 Im
Yield12,962 Fc12,942 Fc12,923 Fc12,904 Fc12,863 Fc
WatermelonsArea harvested57 Im58 Im59 Im60 Im60 Im
Production quantity411 Im424 Im438 Im451 Im459 Im
Yield72,105 Fc73,103 Fc74,237 Fc75,167 Fc76,500 Fc
YamsArea harvested345 Im346 Im346 Im347 Im343 Im
Production quantity4,680 Im4,694 Im4,709 Im4,723 Im4,659 Im
Yield135,652 Fc135,665 Fc136,098 Fc136,110 Fc135,831 Fc
Flag
* = Unofficial figure
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
F = FAO estimate
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology
M = Data not available

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea35 Fm35 Fm35 Fm35 Fm34 Fm
AgricultureArea35 Fc35 Fc35 Fc35 Fc34 Fc
Agriculture area certified organicArea0 I1 I1 I2 I2 I
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area1 I2 I2 I3 I2 I
Arable landArea20 Fm20 Fm20 Fm20 W19 Fm
Country areaArea75 W75 W75 W75 W75 W
CroplandArea31 Fm31 Fm31 Fm31 Fm30 Fm
Cropland area certified organicArea0 I1 I
Cropland area under organic agric.Area1 I2 I
Forest landArea9 Q9 Q9 Q9 Q9 Fm
Inland watersArea3 Fm3 Fm3 Fm3 Fm3 Fm
Land areaArea72 Fm72 Fm72 Fm72 Fm72 W
Land under perm. meadows and pasturesArea4 Fm4 Fm4 Fm4 Fm4 Fm
Land under permanent cropsArea11 Fm11 Fm11 Fm11 Fm11 Fm
Land with temporary fallowArea10 Fm10 Fm10 Fm10 W
Naturally regenerating forestArea8 Q8 Q8 Q8 Q8 Fm
Other landArea28 Fc28 Fc28 Fc28 Fc29 Fc
Planted ForestArea1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Q1 Fm
Primary ForestArea4 Fm4 Fm4 Q4 Fm
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc.
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries
W = Data reported on country official publications or web sites (Official) or trade country files

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.