Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Thailand

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Datasheet

Thailand

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 69,625,582 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 7,260 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 505,271.07 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 543,548.97 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 7.98 (2019)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
yellow head virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Chantanachookin et al. (1993); OIE (2019)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2009)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Dermatophilus congolensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (sugarcane ratoon stunting disease)PresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaBacteroidetesPaenibacillus larvaePresentChen YueWen et al. (2008)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas)PresentSchneider et al. (1993)
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusPresentNeramitmansook et al. (2003)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma synoviaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAcidovorax citrulli (fruit blotch)PresentCABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginalePresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella melitensisPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia pseudomalleiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Hepatobacter penaeiAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)PresentBové (2006); Tomimura et al. (2009); Akarapisan et al. (2016); CABI/EPPO (2017); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriacitrus huanglongbing (greening) disease (citrus greening)PresentEPPO (2019); Promintara (1990)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)PresentEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella AbortusequiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella choleraesuisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella enteritidisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella paratyphiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumAbsentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaVibrio parahaemolyticusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Kongrueng et al. (2015); Chonsin et al. (2016); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (cassava bacterial blight)PresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (bean blight)PresentEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)PresentBradbury (1986); Lan Bui Thi Ngoc et al. (2010); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (bacterial leaf streak of rice)PresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXenohaliotis californiensisPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedWetchateng et al. (2010); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaSpirochaetesLeptospira interrogansPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces astaciAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces invadansAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPeronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew of maize)PresentSenanarong (1975); UK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPeronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum downy mildew)PresentNativeBhat et al. (1979); ICRISAT (1982); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight)PresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentUK, CAB International (1982); Jaimasit and Prakob (2010)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew)PresentUK, CAB International (1988)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaAlternaria japonica (pod spot of radish)PresentHerb IMI (undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBlumeria graminis (powdery mildew of grasses and cereals)PresentAmano (1986)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaClaviceps africana (ergot)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFrederickson et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2010)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFourie et al. (2009); CABI and EPPO (2015); Czislowski et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4)Present, Few occurrencesIPPC (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGibberella indica (wilt of pigeon pea)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella fijiensis (black Sigatoka)PresentIntroducedCABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine)PresentEPPO (2022); Ivory (1994)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight)PresentChandrasrikul (1962); Punithalingham and Waterston (1970)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaTrichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)PresentOu (1963); UK, CAB International (1984)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus)PresentEPPO (2022); Ono (2000); CABI and EPPO (2007)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora pachyrhizi (soyabean rust)PresentPoonpolgul and Surin (1980); Lorsuwan et al. (1984); Poolpol and Pupipat (1985); Ono et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia graminis (stem rust of cereals)Present, Few occurrencesCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)PresentCharumas et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia kuehnii (orange rust)PresentRicaud et al. (1989); Magarey (2000); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaSporisorium sacchari (Asian sugarcane smut)PresentShivas et al. (2007)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); McLeod et al. (2008); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcarapis woodi (honeybee mite)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAdoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle)PresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAethina tumidaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1969); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)PresentEPPO (2022); Clausen and Berry (1932); Mound and Halsey (1978); UK, CAB International (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus destructor (coconut whitefly)PresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Saengyot (2016); EPPO (2022); NHM (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella aurantii (red scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella orientalis (oriental yellow scale)PresentNHM (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidomytilus albus (tapioca scale)PresentIntroducedAPPPC (1987); Wongkobrat (1988); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1983); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1968); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)PresentNativeInvasiveUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis ceranaPresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis melliferaPresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArtemia (brine shrimp)PresentIntroducedLavens and Sorgeloos (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)PresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale)PresentNativeNHM (1972); Nakao et al. (1977); CABI and EPPO (2000); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Giorgi and Vandenberg (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera carambolae (carambola fruit fly)Present, LocalizedDrew and Hancock (1994); Muraji and Nakahara (2002); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly)Present, WidespreadWhite and Elson-Harris (1992); Allwood et al. (1999); Chinajariyawong et al. (2000); Clarke et al. (2001); CABI and EPPO (2003); Somta et al. (2010); Orankanok et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)PresentInvasiveClausen et al. (1965); CABI and EPPO (2003); Somta et al. (2010); Boontop et al. (2017); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)Present, WidespreadInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Drew and Hancock (1994); Clarke et al. (2001); Muraji and Nakahara (2002); Nakahara et al. (2008); Schutze et al. (2012); Schutze et al. (2012); Shi Wei et al. (2012); Wan XuanWu et al. (2012); CABI/EPPO (2013); San Jose et al. (2013); Aketarawong et al. (2014); Wu ZhongZhen et al. (2014); Chinvinijkul et al. (2015); Ihsan-ul-Haq et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera latifrons (Solanum fruit fly)PresentClausen et al. (1965); Hardy (1973); Tigvattananont (1986); Clarke et al. (2001); Wingsanoi and Siri (2012); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera tauPresentNHM (undated); Baimai et al. (2000); Drew and Romig (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera umbrosaPresentWhite and Elson-Harris (1994); Tigvattananont (1986)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)PresentNativeHardy (1973); Tigvatananont and Areekul (1984); CABI and EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)PresentWaterhouse (1993); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Hu Jian et al. (2015); Götz and Winter (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBlattella germanica (German cockroach)PresentIntroducedTawatsin et al. (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBoophilus microplusPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrachyponera chinensis (Asian needle ant)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Nelder et al. (2006); Miner (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)PresentYano et al. (1995); CABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrontispa longissima (coconut hispine beetle)PresentRethinam and Singh (2007); Pundee et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallosobruchus chinensis (Chinese bruchid)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis helleriiPresent, WidespreadNativeStephenson (1972)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis japonica (lady crab)PresentNativeWee and Ng (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish)PresentIntroducedChang (2001); FAO-DIAS (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilo partellus (spotted stem borer)PresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer)PresentNativeInvasiveUK, CAB International (1977); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)PresentNativeInvasiveJames (1947); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCirrospilus ingenuusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoccidohystrix insolita (eggplant mealybug)PresentVeilleux et al. (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaConopomorpha cramerella (cocoa pod borer)PresentMumford and Ho (1988); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes (termites)PresentWongkobrat (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes curvignathus (rubber termite)PresentAhmad (1965); Rao (1974); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)PresentNativeKirton and Brown (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCrossopriza lyoniPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, WidespreadBram (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCylas formicarius (sweet potato weevil)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1970); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly)PresentMound and Halsey (1978); International Institute of Entomology (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)PresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale)PresentDanzig (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDichromothrips corbettiPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDrosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila)PresentNativeHauser (2011); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentPitaksa et al. (2000); Williams (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug)Present, WidespreadSarkar et al. (2014); Williams (2004); García Morales et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEchinothrips americanusPresentCABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErionota thrax (banana skipper)PresentUK, CAB International (1981); Pinratana (1985); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErionota torus (banana skipper)Present, LocalizedNativePinratana (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea fornicatus (polyphagous shot-hole borer)PresentNativeStouthamer et al. (2017); Gomez et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea perbrevis (tea shot-hole borer)PresentNativeAPPPC (1987); Beaver (1990); Wood and Bright (1992); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentUK, CAB International (1966); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993); Ben-Dov (1994); Kaydan and Gullan (2012); Suh SooJung and Bombay (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentUK, CAB International (1983); Waterhouse (1993); Saengyot (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1993); Waterhouse (1993); Parnell et al. (1999); Bhonwong et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)PresentKudô (1980); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeteropsylla cubana (leucaena psyllid)PresentNapompeth (1990); Showler and Melcher (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)PresentRTDA (Royal Thai Department of Agriculture) (1965); Waterhouse (1993); Cristancho et al. (2007); Saengyot (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIcerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus clypealis (mango leafhopper)PresentViraktamath (1989); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus nagpurensis (mango leafhopper)PresentViraktamath (1989); Hongsaprug (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus nitidulus (mango leafhopper)PresentViraktamath (1989); Waterhouse (1993); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSangtongpraow et al. (2011); CABI and EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLernaea cyprinaceaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)PresentIntroducedCABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner)Present, LocalizedMartinez (1994); Sappanukhro et al. (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022); Rushtapakornchai and Petchwichit (1996); Sappanukhro et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)PresentNativeTakahashi (1942); Williams (2004); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)PresentNativeNew (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1979); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)Present, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1970); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus nipae (spiked mealybug)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug)PresentWilliams (2004); CABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOpogona sacchari (banana moth)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryctes rhinoceros (coconut rhinoceros beetle)PresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle)PresentChamp and Dyte (1976); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOxycarenus hyalinipennis (cotton, seed bug)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPapilio demoleus (chequered swallowtail)Present, WidespreadPinratana (1977); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)PresentIntroducedMuniappan et al. (2009); CABI/EPPO (2012); Ahmed et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPealius mori (mulberry whitefly)PresentMaketon et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm)PresentAnthony and Jones (1963); APPPC (1987); UK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)PresentNativeHolthuis (1980); Dore and Frimodt (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveParsa et al. (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveAbbas et al. (2009); Muniappan (2009); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea operculella (potato tuber moth)PresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)PresentUK, CAB International (1986); Weerawut (1990); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug)PresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlatypus quercivorus (oak ambrosia beetle)PresentBeaver and Sanguansub (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProstephanus truncatus (larger grain borer)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPyroderces rileyi (corn, worm, pink)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRaoiella indica (red palm mite)PresentKane et al. (2005); Kane et al. (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRastrococcus invadens (fruit tree mealybug)PresentCABI and EPPO (1998); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus ferrugineus (red palm weevil)PresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer)Present, WidespreadSukprakarn (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaissetia oleae (olive scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1952); Ben-Dov (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)PresentNativeMound and Palmer (1981); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2010); Farris et al. (2010); Toda et al. (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSepedomerus macropus (liverfluke snail predator fly)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Papp et al. (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSepedon aenescens (snail-killing fly)PresentYano (1978); Knutson and Orth (1984); Knutson and Ghorpade (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSesamia cretica (greater sugarcane borer)PresentNativeUK, CAB International (1968); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus granarius (grain weevil)PresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil)PresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitotroga cerealella (grain moth)PresentSukprakarn (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera exempta (black armyworm)PresentPogue (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)PresentIntroducedIPPC (2018); IPPC (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)PresentInvasiveAPPPC (1987); UK, CAB International (1993); Waterhouse (1993); Petlamul and Prasertsan (2012); Ruttanaphan et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyCABI (Undated); Waterhouse (1993); Chaisawat (2006); EPPO (2022);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)PresentIntroducedWetterer (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentWaterhouse (1993); International Institute of Entomology (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)PresentOkajima et al. (1992); Hirose et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1993); Yasunaga and Miyamoto (1993); Kajita et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (1998); Kox et al. (2005); Walsh et al. (2005); Kadirvel et al. (2013); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)PresentAPPPC (1987); CABI and EPPO (1998); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes ricini (castor bean whitefly)PresentNativeMartin (1987); Waterhouse (1993); Martin et al. (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrirachys holosericeus (apple stem borer)PresentNativeGahan (1906); Khan and Maiti (1983); Mitra et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrogoderma granarium (khapra beetle)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); Vongpakorn and Neramitmansook (2003); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelaps clareaePresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)PresentWarrit et al. (2006); Laigo and Morse (1969); Chantawannakul et al. (2006); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa jacobsoni (Varroa mite)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespa velutina (Asian hornet)PresentNativeArcher (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus glabratus (redbay ambrosia beetle)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus perforans (island pinhole borer)PresentNativeUK, CAB International (1973); Wood and Bright (1992); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus similisPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus volvulusPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle)PresentNativeBeaver and Browne (1975); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus discolorPresentNativeBeaver and Browne (1975)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentBeaver et al. (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus mutilatus (camphor shoot beetle)Present, WidespreadNativeCoyle (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAbbottina rivularis (Chinese false gudgeon)PresentVidthayanon and Kottelat (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres tristis (common myna)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAmphiprionPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAnser indicus (bar-headed goose)PresentNativeBirdLife International (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAristichthys nobilis (bighead carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Piyakarnchana (1989); FishBase (2004); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBos taurus (cattle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationCockrill (1977); Borghese (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubulcus ibis (cattle egret)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCallosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel)PresentNativeCorbet and Hill (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCallosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)PresentNativeCorbet and Hill (1992); Thorington et al. (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCapra hircus (goats)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCettia diphone (Japanese bush-warbler)PresentNativeClement and Juana (2013); Clements et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataChanna argus argus (northern snakehead)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)Northern Snakehead Working Group (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataChanna marulius (bullseye snakehead)PresentNativeCourtenay and Williams (2004); Froese R and Pauly D (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)PresentIntroducedNico et al. (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias batrachus (walking catfish)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias gariepinusPresentIntroducedInvasiveFAO (1997); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCorvus splendens (house crow)Present, LocalizedNativeInvasiveWells (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)PresentIntroducedShireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988); Piyakarnchana (1989); Greathead and Greathead (1992); Seebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); FAO (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDicrurus macrocercusPresentNativeRobson (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad)PresentNativeDijk et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEquus ferusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBanpot (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHemidactylus frenatus (common house gecko)Present, WidespreadNativeThe Reptile Database (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004); FishBase (2005); Seebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypostomus plecostomus (suckermouth catfish)PresentIntroducedBartley (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIctalurus punctatus (channel catfish)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedVidthayanon (2005); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLutjanus kasmira (blueline snapper)Present, WidespreadNativeAllen (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque)PresentNativeJiang et al. (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca mulatta (rhesus macaque)PresentNativeTimmins et al. (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMisgurnus anguillicaudatus (oriental weatherloach)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMonopterus albus (Asian swamp eel)PresentNativeFishbase (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMylopharyngodon piceus (black amur)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMyocastor coypus (coypu)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Iongh and Zon (1993); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOvis aries (sheep)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPangasianodon hypophthalmus (sutchi catfish)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia reticulata (guppy)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2007); Nico et al. (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia veliferaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet)Present, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNativeForshaw (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet)PresentIntroducedInvasiveRobson (2005); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterois volitans (lionfish)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered bulbul)Present, WidespreadNativeBirdLife International (2017); Avibase (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPython bivittatus (Burmese python)Present, WidespreadNativeTaylor and Elbel (1958); Cox (1991); Cox et al. (1998); Chan-ard et al. (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRachycentron canadum (cobia)PresentNativeIUCN (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRana catesbeiana (American bullfrog)PresentIntroducedTeixeira et al. (2001); DIAS (2004); Flores Nava (2005); Santos-Barrera et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus exulans (Pacific rat)PresentSudto (1980); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus tanezumi (Asian house rat)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRhinella marina (cane toad)Absent, Formerly presentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSiganus rivulatus (marbled spinefoot)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Froese and Pauly (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig)PresentNativeIUCN (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Bartley (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrichopodus trichopterus (three spot gourami)Present, WidespreadNativeVidthayanon et al. (1997)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)Present, Few occurrencesNativeWells (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataZosterops japonicus (Japanese white-eye)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaTubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaEchinodermataAcanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAchatina fulica (giant African land snail)PresentIntroducedMead (1961); Mead (1979); Sri-aroon et al. (2010); Dusitsittipon et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCorbicula fluminea (Asian clam)PresentNativeInvasiveAguirre and Poss (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCornu aspersum (common garden snail)Present, LocalizedIntroducedPattarmanon (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLimnoperna fortunei (golden mussel)PresentOliveira et al. (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMelanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania)Present, WidespreadNativeBrandt (1974)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytella charruana (Charru mussel)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSanpanich and Wells (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytilopsis sallei (Caribbean false mussel)Present, LocalizedIntroducedWangkulangkul and Lheknim (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPerna viridis (Asian green mussel)PresentNativeNACA (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)PresentNativePoutiers (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)PresentIntroducedMochida (1991); Halwart and Bartley (2006); Hayes et al. (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea insularum (island applesnail)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea maculataPresent, WidespreadIntroducedKeawjam and Upatham (1990); Hayes et al. (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAnguillicoloides crassusPresentMoravec (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)PresentTimm (1965); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus angustus (rice stem nematode)Present, LocalizedHashioka (1963); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)Present, WidespreadTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne enterolobii (Pacara earpod tree root-knot nematode)Present, LocalizedJindapunnapat et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)PresentRatanaprapa and Chunram (1988); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)PresentChunram (1972); Shepherd and Barker (1990); CABI and EPPO (2002); Ruanpanun and Khun-in (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)PresentKanjanasoon (1964); Chunram (1972); Madamba (1981); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)Present, WidespreadChunram (1972); Siddiqi (1972); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)PresentTimm (1965); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)Present, WidespreadChunram (1972); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesGyrodactylus salarisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesHaplorchis pumilioPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila psittaciAbsentOIE (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaCaulerpa taxifolia (killer algae)PresentNativeGuiry and Guiry (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)PresentNativeLewmanomont (1998); Ratana-arporn and Chirapart (2006); Ruangchuay et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAngiopteris evecta (king fern)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); ISSG (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla pinnata (mosquito fern)Present, LocalizedNativeTakara (1981); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCeratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)PresentNativeTagawa and Iwatsuki (1965); GBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)PresentNativeHolttum (1976); Boonkerd et al. (2008); To-anun et al. (2010); Lindsay and Middleton (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaDeparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)PresentNativeKato (1984)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)PresentNativeIrudayaraj (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)PresentNativeUSDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern)PresentNativeGarrison Hanks (1998); Lindsay and Middleton (2013); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMacrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)PresentNativeLindsay and Middleton (2012); USDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMarsilea minuta (pepperwort)Present, WidespreadPeudpaichit et al. (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaNephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern)PresentGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteridium aquilinum (bracken)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris tripartita (giant brake)PresentNativeLindsay and Middleton (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia cucullataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia molesta (kariba weed)PresentInvasiveGunn and Ritchie (1982); Pallewatta et al. (2003); Chomchalow (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaThelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaGracilaria salicorniaPresentNativeAbbott (1988); Lewmanomont (1994); Silva et al. (1996); Terada et al. (1999); Tseng and Xia (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbrus precatorius (rosary pea)PresentNativePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon indicum (country mallow)PresentWaterhouse (1993); PIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia angustissima (prairie acacia)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)PresentIntroducedMarcar et al. (1991); Booth and Turnbull (1994); World Agroforestry Centre (2002); Sunpapao and Pitaloka (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia coleiPresent, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia crassicarpa (northern wattle)Present, PlantedIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia cyclops (coastal wattle)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia glauca (wild dividivi)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mangium (brown salwood)PresentIntroducedKrisnawati et al. (2011); Orchard and Wilson (2001); Orwa et al. (2009); Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2016); CABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mearnsii (black wattle)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia melanoxylon (Australian blackwood)PresentIntroducedPinyopusarerk and Puriyakorn (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia polyacantha (hook thorn)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)Present, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes japonica (Japanese chaff flower)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012); World Agroforestry Centre (2002); Orwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene americana (shyleaf)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene indica (Indian jointvetch)Present, WidespreadNoda et al. (1985)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave americana (century plant)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratina adenophora (Croftonweed)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); IRRI (1989); Waterhouse (1993); PIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia chinensis (Chinese albizia)Present, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia julibrissin (silk tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009); Cook et al. (2005); PIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia procera (white siris)PresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009); ILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAleurites moluccanus (candlenut tree)PresentNativeKrisnawati et al. (2011); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)PresentNativeGovaerts (2019); USDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAloe vera (true aloe)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia purpurata (red ginger)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013); USDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSankaran and Ramaseshiah (1974); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera pungens (Khaki weed)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Present, LocalizedParham (1958); Holm et al. (1991); Saengyot (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)PresentUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentIntroducedJansen et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona squamosa (sugar apple)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAntigonon leptopus (coral vine)PresentIntroducedBurke and DiTommaso (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia crenata (coral berry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAreca catechu (betelnut palm)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArenga pinnata (sugar palm)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass)PresentNativeFlora of China (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)PresentIntroducedRagone (2006); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)Present, PlantedSudhi-Aromna et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2007); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAverrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)PresentCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus compressus (carpet grass)Present, WidespreadBoonklinkajorn (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBoontawee (1996); World Agroforestry Centre (2002); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBacopa monnieri (water hyssop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Present, PlantedNativeClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria cristata (Philippine violet)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)PresentIntroducedAguilar (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria prionitis (porcupine flower)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)PresentNativeGovaerts and Tulig (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBasella alba (malabar spinach)PresentUSDA-ARS (2017); WCSP (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018); Moody (1989); Waterhouse (1993); Saengyot (2016); Seebens et al. (2017);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBixa orellana (annatto)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBorreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus rigidus (ripgut brome)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBroussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja asiatica (dog tail)PresentNativeLi and Leeuwenberg (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia decapetala (Mysore thorn)PresentNativeILDIS (2002); PIER (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentIntroducedFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis gigantea (Yercum fibre)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis procera (apple of sodom)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCananga odorata (ylang-ylang)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia catharticaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia gladiata (sword bean)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna indica (canna lilly)PresentIntroducedPIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum annuum (bell pepper)PresentFAO (2009); Götz and Winter (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)PresentIntroducedISSG (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentIntroducedRojo and Pitargue (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)PresentILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia grandis (pink shower)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia javanica (pink shower)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina cunninghamiana (Australian beefwood)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)PresentNativePongpanich et al. (1996); World Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina glauca (scaly oak (Australia))Present, PlantedIntroducedWAC (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Noda et al. (1985); Holm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratophyllum demersum (coontail)Present, WidespreadPholprasith et al. (1978); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )PresentNativeGovaerts (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris barbata (purpletop chloris)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris gayana (Rhodes grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChromolaena odorata (Siam weed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGautier (1992); Saengyot (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum verum (cinnamon)Present, PlantedCABI (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCissus quadrangularis (treebine)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedBrink and Achigan-Dako (2012); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantiifolia (lime)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantium (sour orange)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveJacobs (1960); Holm et al. (1991); Philcox (1996); Waterhouse and Mitchell (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)PresentFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)PresentWearn and Mabberley (2011); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower)PresentDeori et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)PresentIntroducedInvasiveRenner et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); PIER (2013); Sunpapao (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)PresentIntroducedGovaerts et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)PresentNativeChoenkwan et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)PresentNativeGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColubrina asiatica (latherleaf)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCombretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina benghalensis (wandering jew)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1977); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed)PresentHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordyline fruticosa (ti plant)PresentHinkle (2007); Smithsonian (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCorymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster franchetii (orange cotoneaster)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)PresentIntroducedTjitrosoedirdjo (1991); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentNativeILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyathula prostrata (pasture weed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016); Detpiratmongkol et al. (2005); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus compressus (annual sedge)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)Present, WidespreadNoda et al. (1985); Govaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)PresentNativeNoda et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus iria (rice flatsedge)PresentNoda et al. (1985)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus papyrus (papyrus)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentNative and IntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016); Noda et al. (1985)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDalbergia sissooPresentIntroducedICRAF (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura metel (Hindu datura)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura stramonium (jimsonweed)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDerris elliptica (tuba root)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmostachya bipinnata (halfa grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)PresentIntroducedEncyclopedia of Life (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichrostachys cinerea (sickle bush)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)PresentNativePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993); Clayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria longiflora (false couch grass)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea bulbifera (air potato)PresentNativeGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDombeya wallichii (pink ball)PresentIntroducedAnderson (1986)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)Present, WidespreadInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PresentIntroducedMoody (1989); Holm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEclipta prostrata (eclipta)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGopal (1987); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)Present, PlantedCABI (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeis guineensis (African oil palm)PresentFAO (2009); Kittimorakul et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleocharis dulcis (Chinese water chestnut)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)PresentIntroducedNoda et al. (1985); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed)PresentIntroducedRevilla et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElsholtzia ciliataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); IRRI (1989); Waterhouse (1993); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)PresentNativeGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis unioloides (Chinese lovegrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEriobotrya japonica (loquat)Present, PlantedIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEtlingera elatior (torch ginger)PresentNativeGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus paniculata (grey ironbark)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEupatorium trapezoideum (crofton weed)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)Present, LocalizedWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)PresentIntroducedWelzen and Chayamarit (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia trigona (African milk weed)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedEsser and Chayamarit (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benghalensis (banyan)PresentNativeRojo et al. (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benjamina (weeping fig)Present, PlantedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus elastica (rubber plant)PresentQuattrocchi (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus religiosa (sacred fig tree)PresentNativeRojo et al. (1999); Orwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis dichotoma (tall fringe rush)PresentNemoto et al. (1987); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlacourtia indica (governor's plum)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia lineata (wild hops)PresentNativeILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia macrophylla (large leaf flemingia)PresentNativeILDIS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia strobilifera (wild hops)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (gliricidia)Present, PlantedIntroducedWAC (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGmelina arborea (candahar)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGrevillea robusta (silky oak)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013); Puangpen (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelianthus annuus (sunflower)PresentFAO (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHevea brasiliensis (rubber)PresentFAO (2009); Laohasakul et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHiptage benghalensis (hiptage)PresentNativePIER (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHovenia dulcisPresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)Present, LocalizedPieterse (1981); Siriworakul et al. (1997); Govaerts (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)PresentIntroducedUK, Royal Botanic Gardens (1999); Meetum et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis suaveolens (pignut)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balsamina (garden balsam)PresentIntroducedValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImperata cylindrica (cogon grass)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993); Mcdonald and Chandler (1994); Garrity et al. (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)PresentNativeMattapha and Chantaranothai (2012); USDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera spicata (creeping indigo)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera tinctoria (true indigo)PresentNativeBisby et al. (1994); Flora of Pakistan (2014); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera trita (Asian indigo)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera trita subsp. scabra (Asian Indigo)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea alba (white moonflower )PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Suckcharoen (1978); Stripen et al. (1991); Göthberg et al. (2002); Htar Htar Naing et al. (2014); Ito and Barfod (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)PresentHarada et al. (1996); POWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )PresentIntroducedStaples (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)PresentIntroducedStaples (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)PresentIntroducedStaples (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Present, LocalizedGilliland et al. (1971); Noda et al. (1985); Clayton et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIxora finlaysoniana (white jungle flame)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015); Chamchumroon (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)PresentNativeSinnott et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)Present, PlantedIntroducedOudhia and Tripathi (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)PresentIntroducedUSA, Missouri Botanical Garden (2009); Matchacheep (1995); Padua et al. (1999); Thailand Department of Agriculture (2002); Soontornchainaksaeng and Jenjittikul (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Wu et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe integra (Never die)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga)PresentNativeKumar (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKyllinga polyphylla (navua sedge)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)PresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeersia hexandra (southern cut grass)PresentPyrah (1969)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonotis nepetifolia (Christmas candlestick)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)PresentNativeGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa chinensis (Chinese sprangletop)Present, LocalizedReed (1977); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena diversifoliaPresent, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedInvasiveILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigustrum robustum subsp. walkeri (Sri Lankan privet)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnocharis flava (yellow bur-head)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMoody (1989); Holm et al. (1991); Waterhouse and Mitchell (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnophila chinensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)PresentYongboonkird et al. (1988); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLitsea glutinosa (Indian laurel)PresentNativeHuang et al. (2008); ISSG (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)PresentMoody (1989); Raven (1963)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia octovalvis (primrose willow)PresentMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia peploides (water primrose)PresentGBIF (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa acutangula (angled luffa)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2016); Götz and Winter (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa aegyptiaca (loofah)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)PresentNativeAiry Shaw (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)PresentIntroducedLim (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedIUCN (2013); Sudhi-Aromna et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaManilkara zapota (sapodilla)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); Sunpapao et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaranta arundinacea (arrowroot)PresentIntroducedPROSEA (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelastoma malabathricum (Banks melastoma)Present, LocalizedNapompeth (1990); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)PresentNativeWatanabe et al. (1988); Simsiri and Namsawath (1993); World Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)Present, LocalizedIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia cissoides (roadside woodrose)PresentIntroducedStaples (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia umbellata (hogvine)PresentNativeStaples (2010); Ooststroom and Hoogland (1953)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMicrostegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); ISSG (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania cordataPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)Present, LocalizedIntroducedWaterhouse (1993); PIER (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedWaterhouse and Norris (1987); Moody (1989); Napompeth (1990); Waterhouse (1993); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977); Moody (1989); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica charantia (bitter gourd)PresentNativeScholz (1988); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)PresentNativePIER (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria vaginalis (pickerel weed)PresentIRRI (1989); Tomita et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass)PresentNativeKumar (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)PresentNativeGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedPROTA (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMosla dianthera (miniature beefsteakplant)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMucuna pruriens (velvet bean)PresentNativeLock and Heald (1994); ILDIS (2014); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMuntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)PresentIntroducedVerheij (1989); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurdannia nudiflora (doveweed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977); Moody (1989); Galinato et al. (1999); USDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurraya paniculata (orange jessamine)PresentNativePROTA (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil)PresentNapompeth and Bay-Petersen (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNerium oleander (oleander)PresentIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed)PresentNativeSukon (2007); Zungsontiporn (2006); Ohwi (2010); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicandra physalodes (apple of Peru)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)PresentIntroducedDonkin (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus)PresentNativePlant Gene Resources of Canada (2016); Udomsri et al. (2005); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNypa fruticans (nipa palm)Present, PlantedNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum gratissimum (African basil)PresentNativeWCSP (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2014); Govaerts (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)PresentGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOplismenus hirtellus subsp. undulatifolius (wavyleaf basketgrass)PresentUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia monacantha (common prickly pear)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza punctata (wild rice)PresentClayton (1970); Ivens (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza rufipogon (wild rice)PresentChang (1975); Doi et al. (2000); Yamanaka et al. (2003); Zhu et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaederia foetida (skunkvine)Present, WidespreadNativePuff (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPanicum repens (torpedo grass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParkinsonia aculeata (Mexican palo-verde)PresentIntroducedLock and Heald (1994); PIER (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)PresentIntroducedAdkins et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993); Clayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum distichum (knotgrass)PresentIntroducedFalvey and Hengmichai (1978); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum notatum (Bahia grass)PresentIntroducedPROSEA (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass paspalum)Present, LocalizedNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1993); Rotkittikhun et al. (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora edulis (passionfruit)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPeltophorum pterocarpum (copperpod)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum pedicellatum (deenanath grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum polystachion (mission grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2013); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)PresentIntroducedPuff and Chamchumroon (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhragmites australis (common reed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)Present, WidespreadNativeDirekbusarakom et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta dioica (allspice)PresentIntroducedParthasarathy et al. (2008); FAO (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PresentIntroducedFAO (2001); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus oocarpa (ocote pine)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)Present, WidespreadInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); PIER (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)PresentIntroducedMcVaugh (1987); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)PresentNativeGovaerts (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum barbatum (knot grass)PresentMoody (1989); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentGeesink (1975)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca quadrifida (chickenweed)PresentGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed)PresentNativePIER (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis juliflora (mesquite)Present, Localized, PlantedIntroducedPasiecznik et al. (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudelephantopus spicatus (false elephant’s foot)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); Danggomen et al. (2013); FAO (2013); Sunpapao et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); Saengyot (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); ILDIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)PresentNativeILDIS (2007); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Present, WidespreadNativeCsurhes and Hankamer (2011); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Present, LocalizedNativeMillhollon and Burner (1993); Waterhouse (1993); Valverde et al. (1999); USA, USDA-ARS (2008); Meksawat and Pornprom (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus alceifolius (giant bramble)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSaccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane)PresentHolm et al. (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass)Present, WidespreadNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2012); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSagittaria sagittifoliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)PresentIntroducedAkkasaeng et al. (1989); ILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScaevola taccada (beach naupaka)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSechium edule (chayote)PresentIntroducedPROSEA (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna alata (candle bush)PresentIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); Neamsuvan et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna hirsuta (hairy senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2005); PIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna obtusifolia (sicklepod)PresentCock and Evans (1984); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna siamea (yellow cassia)PresentNativeILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna spectabilis (whitebark senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna surattensis (golden senna)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania cannabina (corkwood tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania grandiflora (sesbania)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sericea (silky sesban)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sesban (sesban)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria palmifolia (palm grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria verticillata (bristly foxtail)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria viridis (green foxtail)PresentTeerawatsakul et al. (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)Present, WidespreadIntroducedWaterhouse (1993); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)PresentIntroducedSaensouk et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum torvum (turkey berry)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); Arthan et al. (2006); Chanchaichaovivat et al. (2007); Götz and Winter (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum tuberosum (potato)PresentJaimasit and Prakob (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum viarum (tropical soda apple)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSorghum halepense (Johnson grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)PresentNativeGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood)PresentIntroducedPuff (2007); Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphagneticola trilobata (wedelia)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphenoclea zeylanica (wedgewort)PresentMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); PIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Moldenke (1948); Moldenke (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSterculia foetida (Java olive)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStriga asiatica (witch weed)PresentNativeMcGrath et al. (1957); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStylosanthes hamata (Caribbean Stylo)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSynedrella nodiflora (synedrella)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium jambos (rose apple)PresentNativeChantaranothai and Parnell (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTabebuia rosea (pink poui)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTabernaemontana divaricataPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTagetes minuta (stinking Roger)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarindus indica (tamarind)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); Danggomen et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTectona grandis (teak)Present, PlantedCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTephrosia candida (white tephrosia)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)PresentNativeThomson and Evans (2006); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThemeda arguens (Christmas grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThemeda quadrivalvis (grader grass)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThespesia populnea (portia tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)PresentIntroducedHarada et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia fragrans (whitelady)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona ciliata (toon)PresentNativeHua and Edmonds (2008); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona sinensis (Chinese Toona)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTragus racemosus (stalker bur grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrapa natans (waterchestnut)PresentGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTribulus terrestris (puncture vine)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)Present, LocalizedNoda et al. (1985); Saengyot (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriphasia trifolia (limeberry)PresentNativePIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)PresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentWaterhouse (1993); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentMohanasundaram and Boonyonk (1973); Holm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena sinuata (bur mallow)PresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa distachya (signal grass)PresentNativeJSTOR (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa panicoides (liverseed grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUtricularia gibbaPresentNativeZhenyu and Cheek (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex parviflora (molave)PresentNativeUseful Tropical Plants (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)PresentNativeMunir (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex trifoliaPresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYoungia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger)PresentNativeNaturalizedBranney (2005); Govaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber officinale (ginger)PresentNativeGBIF (2016); Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2000); Govaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZiziphus mauritiana (jujube)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZoysia matrella (Manila grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaProtistaParamyxeaMarteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaAlexandrium minutumPresent, LocalizedPiumsomboon et al. (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia caballiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia equiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia exitiosaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia ostreaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPlasmodium relictumPresentNativeMcClure et al. (1978)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaToxoplasma gondiiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiAbsentOIE (2019); Luckins (1988); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusalcelaphine herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusArterivirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAvipoxvirusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusBanana bunchy top virus (bunchy top of banana)PresentCABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
VirusBanana streak diseasePresentNativeInvasiveDiekmann and Putter (1996)
VirusBarley yellow dwarf viruses (barley yellow dwarf)PresentLister and Ranieri (1995)
Virusbluetongue virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine leukemia virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusclassical swine fever virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusCowpea aphid-borne mosaic virusPresentBrunt et al. (1990); Dahal and Albrechtsen (1996); CABI and EPPO (2010)
VirusCowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)PresentIwaki et al. (1982); Iwaki (1986); Iwaki et al. (1986); CABI and EPPO (2019); EPPO (2022)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusCucumber green mottle mosaic virusPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); Supakitthanakorn and Ruangwong (2019)
VirusCucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows)Present, WidespreadCheewachaiwit et al. (2017); Sharman et al. (2015)
Virusduck hepatitis A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusepizootic haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine arteritis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine influenzavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusextra small virusPresentSudthongkong (2007)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusfowlpox virusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusGallid herpesvirus 2PresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusHaliotid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious myonecrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious salmon anemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfluenza A virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019);
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Sudthongkong (2007); OIE (2019)
VirusMaize chlorotic mottle virusPresentCABI and EPPO (2014)
VirusMaize lethal necrosis diseasePresentCABI (Undated)
Virusmyxoma virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusNewcastle disease virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNipah virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPapaya ringspot virusPresentYeh and Gonsalves (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusporcine epidemic diarrhea virusPresent, WidespreadTemeeyasen et al. (2014)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrabies virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusred sea bream iridovirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusSugarcane mosaic virus (sugarcane mosaic)PresentISSCT (1989); EPPO (2022)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusswine vesicular disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusTaura syndrome virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Nielsen et al. (2005); OIE (2019)
VirusTomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
VirusTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)PresentNativeIto et al. (2008); CABI and EPPO (2016); Dhillon et al. (2020); EPPO (2022)
VirusTomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt)PresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2022)
VirusTomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)PresentNativeThanapase et al. (1983); Thongrit et al. (1986); EPPO (2022)
Virustransmissible gastroenteritis virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvisna/maedi virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWest Nile virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWhite spot syndrome virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2019)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
abalone viral ganglioneuritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
acarapisosis of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
actinomycosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
acute hepatopancreatic necrosis diseasePresentChonsin et al. (2016); Kongrueng et al. (2015); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Aeromonas infection in fishPresentOIE (2009)
African horse sicknessPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
African swine feverAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
American foul broodPresentChen YueWen et al. (2008)
anaplasmosisPresentDissamarn et al. (1968); Chansiri (1997); OIE Handistatus (2005)
anguillicolosisPresentMoravec (2006)
anthraxAbsentOIE (2020); Food & Agriculture Organization (1972); OIE (1997); Pollarp (1997); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
atrophic rhinitis of swineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian chlamydiosisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2009)
avian encephalomyelitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
avian infectious bronchitisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian influenzaAbsentOIE (2020); Li et al. (2004); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019);
avian leukosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)AbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian tuberculosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
avipoxPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
babesiosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infectionPresentNativeCABI (Undated); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
blacklegAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bluetongueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bonamiosis (Bonamia exitiosa)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bonamiosis (Bonamia ostreae)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Borrelia anserina infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
botulismAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bovine anaplasmosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine babesiosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine coronavirus infectionPresentAiumlamai et al. (1992)
bovine ephemeral feverPresentWongwatcharadumrong et al. (1984)
bovine genital campylobacteriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine parainfluenza 3 infectionPresent, WidespreadVirakul et al. (1997)
bovine respiratory syncytial virus infectionPresentAiumlamai et al. (1992)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine tuberculosisAbsentOIE (2018); OIE (2009); OIE (2018)
bovine venereal trichomonosisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine viral diarrhoeaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)Present, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)PresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)AbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella suis)AbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Burkholderia pseudomallei infectionsPresentDance (1991); OIE Handistatus (2005)
caprine arthritis encephalitisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
caseous lymphadenitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
chicken anaemiaPresentTantaswasdi et al. (1996)
Chrysomya bezziana infestationPresentNativeInvasiveJames (1947); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
ChytridiomycosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); McLeod et al. (2008); OIE (2019)
classical swine feverPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Clostridium perfringens enteritis and enterotoxaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
coccidiosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cochliomyia hominivorax infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious agalactiaAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); Lefèvre (1991); Laak (1992); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
contagious ecthymaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
contagious equine metritisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious ophthalmiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
crayfish plagueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
cryptosporidiosis in livestock and poultryPresent, WidespreadChokephaibulkit et al. (2001); Leelayoova et al. (2001); Tiangtip and Jongwutiwes (2002); Wanachiwanawin et al. (2002); Uga et al. (2003); CABI (Undated)
dermatophilosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Derzsy's diseasePresentTantaswasdi et al. (1994)
Digenean infections of fishPresentSithithaworn et al. (1997); Sukontason et al. (1999)
dourineAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
duck viral enteritisPresentSandhu and Leibovitz (1997); OIE Handistatus (2005)
duck virus hepatitisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Edwardsiella septicaemia (Edwardsiella tarda infection)PresentCABI (Undated)
enteric septicaemia of catfishPresentKasornchandra et al. (1987)
enzootic abortion of ewesAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
enzootic bovine leukosisAbsentOIE (2020); Aiumlamai et al. (1992); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
eperythrozoonosis in pigsPresentVayuchote et al. (1991)
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic haemorrhagic diseaseAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic lymphangitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
epizootic ulcerative syndromeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
equine coital exanthemaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
equine encephalomyelitis (Western)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine infectious anaemiaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine influenzaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine piroplasmosisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine rhinopneumonitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine viral arteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Escherichia coli infectionsPresentSuthienkul et al. (1990)
European foul broodPresentNeramitmansook et al. (2003)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsPresentOIE (2020); Kitching (1998); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
fowl choleraPresentOIE (2009)
fowl typhoidAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
fowlpoxPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Fusobacterium necrophorum infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
glandersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
heartwaterAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
hepatitis E virus infectionPresent, WidespreadKeawcharoen et al. (2013)
horse poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
infection with Marteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Perkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Perkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Infection with salmonid alphavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious bursal diseaseAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2009); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious coryzaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
infectious haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
infectious laryngotracheitisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
infectious myonecrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious pancreatic necrosisPresentWattanavijarn et al. (1988)
infectious salmon anaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Japanese encephalitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
koi herpesvirus diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); Haenen et al. (2004); OIE (2019)
leishmaniosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
leptospirosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
leucocytozoonosisPresentAkiba (1970)
listeriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
lumpy skin diseaseAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
malignant catarrhal feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Marek's diseasePresentOIE (2009)
mycobacteriosis in fishPresentChinabut et al. (1990); Somsiri et al. (1993); Somsiri and Alexandra (1994)
myxomatosisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
necrotizing hepatopancreatitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
neosporosisPresentSuteeraparp et al. (1999)
Newcastle diseaseAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2004); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Nipah virus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Oncorhynchus masou virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
paratuberculosisPresentWhittington et al. (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
Pasteurella multocida infectionsPresent, WidespreadUnchitti et al. (1992)
peste des petits ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Plasmodium relictum infectionPresentNativeMcClure et al. (1978)
porcine epidemic diarrhoeaPresent, WidespreadTemeeyasen et al. (2014)
porcine parvovirus infectionPresentWattanavijarn et al. (1983)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromePresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
proliferative enteropathyPresentRaphanaphraiwan et al. (2009)
pullorum diseaseAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
pulmonary adenomatosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Q feverAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rabbit haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rabiesPresentOIE (2020); Ito et al. (1999); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Ranavirus infection in amphibiansAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
red sea bream iridoviral diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Rhodococcus equi infectionsPresentPoolkhet et al. (2010)
Riemerella anatipestifer infectionPresent, WidespreadMahitanan et al. (1982); Pathanasophon et al. (1994); Kohler et al. (1997)
Rift Valley feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rinderpestAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
rotavirus infections in livestock and poultryPresent, WidespreadPongsuwanne et al. (1989)
scrapieAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
sheep and goat poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
small hive beetle infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
spring viraemia of carpAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
stranglesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in pigs (and ruminants)PresentKramomtong et al. (1994)
surraAbsentOIE (2020); Luckins (1988); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
swine dysenteryAbsent, No presence record(s)Kramomtong et al. (1996); OIE Handistatus (2005)
swine erysipelasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
swine influenzaPresentNEROME et al. (1982); Kupradinun et al. (1991)
swine vesicular diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Taura syndromePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Nielsen et al. (2005); OIE (2019)
tetanusPresent, WidespreadSakdinun and Pholpark (1997)
Theileria orientalis/Theileria buffeli infectionsPresentChansiri et al. (1999); CABI (Undated);
theileriosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2020); OIE (2009); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
toxoplasmosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
TrichinellaAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
trichomonosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); Vongpakorn and Neramitmansook (2003); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
trypanosomosisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
tuberculosisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
turkey rhinotracheitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
varroosis of honey beesPresentWarrit et al. (2006); Laigo and Morse (1969); Chantawannakul et al. (2006); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
visna/maediAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
West Nile feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
white spot diseasePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
white tail diseasePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Sudthongkong (2007); OIE (2019)
Xenohaliotis californiensis infectionPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedWetchateng et al. (2010); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
yellow head diseasePresentChantanachookin et al. (1993); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Areca nutsArea harvested23,485 Im23,153 Im22,776 Im22,621 Im23,031 Im
Production quantity40,037 Im39,405 Im38,699 Im38,372 Im39,047 Im
Yield17,048 Fc17,019 Fc16,991 Fc16,963 Fc16,954 Fc
AsparagusArea harvested1,385 Im1,703 Im1,800 F1,786 Im1,408
Production quantity18,184 Im21,982 Im25,000 F23,478 Im23,688
Yield131,292 Fc129,078 Fc138,889 Fc131,456 Fc168,239 Fc
BananasArea harvested60,83059,72055,25048,028 Im38,061
Production quantity1,297,5901,265,4201,114,2801,110,717 Im1,032,542
Yield213,314 Fc211,892 Fc201,680 Fc231,264 Fc271,286 Fc
BarleyArea harvested60,013 Im56,606 Im61,449 Im53,096 Im53,051 Im
Production quantity138,921 Im130,000 F140,000 F120,000 F120,000 F
Yield23,148 Fc22,966 Fc22,783 Fc22,601 Fc22,620 Fc
Bastfibres, otherArea harvested996 Im996 Im996 Im996 Im997 Im
Production quantity1,403 Im1,403 Im1,403 Im1,403 Im1,397 Im
Yield14,086 Fc14,086 Fc14,086 Fc14,086 Fc14,012 Fc
Beans, dryArea harvested94,489 Im98,886 Im103,284 Im107,682 Im111,310 Im
Production quantity71,985 Im75,329 Im78,674 Im82,019 Im84,734 Im
Yield7,618 Fc7,618 Fc7,617 Fc7,617 Fc7,612 Fc
Beans, greenArea harvested152,604 Im154,482 Im156,387 Im158,318 Im159,015 Im
Production quantity290,307 Im291,846 Im293,385 Im294,924 Im296,992 Im
Yield19,024 Fc18,892 Fc18,760 Fc18,629 Fc18,677 Fc
Cabbages and other brassicasArea harvested8,933 Im11,096 Im11,648 Im11,491 Im11,146
Production quantity221,679 Im268,390 Im271,350268,340256,700
Yield248,157 Fc241,880 Fc232,958 Fc233,522 Fc230,307 Fc
Canary seedArea harvested95,829 Im89,288 Im90,007 Im87,600 Im86,687 Im
Production quantity38,868 Im36,162 Im36,400 F35,375 Im34,920 Im
Yield4,056 Fc4,050 Fc4,044 Fc4,038 Fc4,028 Fc
Cashew nuts, with shellArea harvested12,136 Im13,017 Im14,056 Im15,456 Im15,413
Production quantity18,087 Im19,502 Im21,505 Im20,928 Im22,060
Yield14,904 Fc14,982 Fc15,300 Fc13,540 Fc14,313 Fc
CassavaArea harvested1,386,6551,332,3791,394,3151,402,600 Im1,433,815
Production quantity31,079,96629,368,18530,495,19031,161,00032,357,741
Yield224,136 Fc220,419 Fc218,711 Fc222,166 Fc225,676 Fc
Castor oil seedArea harvested1,605 Im1,652 Im1,300 *1,300 *593
Production quantity1,588 Im1,616 Im1,200 *1,100 *408
Yield9,894 Fc9,782 Fc9,231 Fc8,462 Fc6,880 Fc
Cauliflowers and broccoliArea harvested1,290 Im1,299 Im1,374 Im1,550 Im1,040
Production quantity17,851 Im18,004 Im19,717 Im19,869 Im10,091
Yield138,380 Fc138,599 Fc143,501 Fc128,187 Fc97,029 Fc
Cereals nesArea harvested110,712 Im107,377 Im104,042 Im100,705 Im103,397 Im
Production quantity279,420 Im270,963 Im262,506 Im254,048 Im260,517 Im
Yield25,238 Fc25,235 Fc25,231 Fc25,227 Fc25,196 Fc
Cereals, TotalArea harvested10,960,243 A12,024,437 A12,043,705 A11,906,946 A11,116,700 A
Production quantity33,162,862 A37,892,498 A38,196,150 A36,695,113 A32,890,605 A
Yield30,257 Fc31,513 Fc31,715 Fc30,818 Fc29,587 Fc
Chillies and peppers, dryArea harvested89,040 Im88,672 Im93,935 Im88,435 Im85,645
Production quantity348,102 Im340,639 Im348,235 Im372,736 Im348,223
Yield39,095 Fc38,416 Fc37,072 Fc42,148 Fc40,659 Fc
Chillies and peppers, greenArea harvested1,412 Im1,397 Im1,383 Im1,368 Im1,347 Im
Production quantity19,120 Im18,908 Im18,697 Im18,486 Im18,289 Im
Yield135,411 Fc135,347 Fc135,192 Fc135,132 Fc135,776 Fc
Citrus Fruit, TotalArea harvested78,678 A80,379 A88,693 A83,052 A83,265 A
Production quantity1,156,370 A1,144,224 A1,102,934 A1,062,153 A1,026,519 A
Yield146,975 Fc142,354 Fc124,354 Fc127,890 Fc123,283 Fc
Cocoa, beansArea harvested36 Im43 Im45 F40 F42
Production quantity113 Im125 Im125 F120 F128
Yield31,389 Fc29,070 Fc27,778 Fc30,000 Fc30,476 Fc
CoconutsArea harvested124,374121,248121,033190,000 F191,540
Production quantity806,026858,235761,914904,094904,094
Yield64,807 Fc70,783 Fc62,951 Fc47,584 Fc47,201 Fc
Coffee, greenArea harvested36,80441,25340,48944,086 Im40,229
Production quantity24,61423,61925,90930,57926,089
Yield6,688 Fc5,725 Fc6,399 Fc6,936 Fc6,485 Fc
CoirProduction quantity62,833 Im61,842 Im61,641 Im57,610 Im57,000 F
Area harvested
Cucumbers and gherkinsArea harvested16,557 Im17,125 Im18,102 Im18,750 Im18,265
Production quantity143,887 Im151,959 Im165,759 Im178,501 Im176,720
Yield86,904 Fc88,735 Fc91,569 Fc95,201 Fc96,753 Fc
Eggplants (aubergines)Area harvested572 Im624 Im709 Im918 Im730
Production quantity18,022 Im19,001 Im20,782 Im20,000 F19,734
Yield315,070 Fc304,503 Fc293,117 Fc217,865 Fc270,329 Fc
Fibre crops nesArea harvested820 Im832 Im844 Im855 Im874 Im
Production quantity635 Im653 Im670 Im688 Im716 Im
Yield7,744 Fc7,849 Fc7,938 Fc8,047 Fc8,192 Fc
Fibre Crops PrimaryArea harvested44,198 A44,999 A42,009 A39,698 A35,195 A
Production quantity24,193 A25,514 A26,981 A28,271 A29,707 A
Yield5,474 Fc5,670 Fc6,423 Fc7,122 Fc8,441 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested1,084,926 A1,084,988 A1,245,984 A1,224,975 A1,150,170 A
Production quantity9,609,732 A10,179,456 A11,463,013 A11,269,694 A10,838,949 A
Yield88,575 Fc93,821 Fc92,000 Fc91,999 Fc94,238 Fc
Fruit, citrus nesArea harvested6,791 Im6,668 Im6,769 Im6,658 Im6,560 Im
Production quantity33,069 Im32,000 F32,000 F31,000 F30,000 F
Yield48,695 Fc47,990 Fc47,274 Fc46,561 Fc45,732 Fc
Fruit, fresh nesArea harvested55,080 Im52,539 Im52,832 Im47,226 Im44,340 Im
Production quantity948,785 Im900,000 F900,000 F800,000 F750,000 F
Yield172,256 Fc171,301 Fc170,351 Fc169,398 Fc169,147 Fc
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea harvested594,262 Im577,890 Im562,346 Im541,471 Im491,617 Im
Production quantity2,586,136 Im2,551,900 Im2,524,383 Im2,540,039 Im2,554,613 Im
Yield43,518 Fc44,159 Fc44,890 Fc46,910 Fc51,963 Fc
GarlicArea harvested13,09213,72510,98610,682 Im11,446
Production quantity84,03990,98269,18067,55473,626
Yield64,191 Fc66,289 Fc62,971 Fc63,241 Fc64,325 Fc
GingerArea harvested10,118 Im10,067 Im10,112 Im9,834 Im9,656
Production quantity166,923 Im166,196 Im168,025 Im166,346 Im162,404
Yield164,976 Fc165,090 Fc166,164 Fc169,154 Fc168,190 Fc
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Area harvested16,94917,24427,77926,496 Im26,720
Production quantity281,728261,451250,534243,659 Im232,965
Yield166,221 Fc151,619 Fc90,188 Fc91,961 Fc87,188 Fc
GrapesArea harvested4,980 Im4,911 Im4,882 Im4,656 Im4,538
Production quantity86,723 Im85,403 Im85,579 Im80,237 Im77,520
Yield174,143 Fc173,901 Fc175,295 Fc172,330 Fc170,824 Fc
Groundnuts, with shellArea harvested30,000 *30,000 *30,000 *30,000 *21,744
Production quantity31,09733,83034,17536,22836,337
Yield10,366 Fc11,277 Fc11,392 Fc12,076 Fc16,711 Fc
JuteArea harvested17 Im39 Im140 F130 F140 F
Production quantity32 Im72 Im260 F270 F280 F
Yield18,824 Fc18,462 Fc18,571 Fc20,769 Fc20,000 Fc
Kapok fruitArea harvested18,715 Im19,768 Im20,820 Im21,870 Im22,934 Im
Production quantity67,006 Im70,832 Im74,657 Im78,483 Im82,736 Im
Yield35,803 Fc35,832 Fc35,858 Fc35,886 Fc36,076 Fc
Lemons and limesArea harvested17,05817,22116,78416,670 Im16,420 Im
Production quantity152,037152,160152,936150,345 Im146,768 Im
Yield89,129 Fc88,357 Fc91,120 Fc90,189 Fc89,384 Fc
Lettuce and chicoryArea harvested3,685 Im3,670 Im3,662 Im3,575 Im3,512
Production quantity31,002 Im30,915 Im31,121 Im30,938 Im30,621
Yield84,130 Fc84,237 Fc84,984 Fc86,540 Fc87,190 Fc
MaizeArea harvested958,1701,103,1471,048,464994,277 Im1,131,757
Production quantity4,309,4805,069,1434,820,9624,390,1854,729,527
Yield44,976 Fc45,952 Fc45,981 Fc44,155 Fc41,789 Fc
Maize, greenArea harvested34,860 Im34,663 Im35,175 Im35,879 Im34,917 Im
Production quantity357,118 Im350,000 F350,000 F350,000 F330,000 F
Yield102,443 Fc100,972 Fc99,502 Fc97,550 Fc94,510 Fc
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasArea harvested209,038207,758381,360407,771 Im407,682
Production quantity1,628,1921,576,4193,087,4793,331,1133,331,113
Yield77,890 Fc75,878 Fc80,960 Fc81,691 Fc81,709 Fc
MelonseedArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Mushrooms and trufflesProduction quantity24 Im24 Im25 Im26 Im1,105 Im
Nutmeg, mace and cardamomsArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Nuts nesArea harvested7,757 Im8,537 Im9,336 Im10,155 Im11,044 Im
Production quantity9,840 Im10,804 Im11,788 Im12,793 Im13,856 Im
Yield12,685 Fc12,655 Fc12,626 Fc12,598 Fc12,546 Fc
Oil palm fruitArea harvested896,322856,422797,128622,780 Im648,198
Production quantity16,772,43015,534,98414,452,26111,420,22011,058,720
Yield187,125 Fc181,394 Fc181,304 Fc183,375 Fc170,607 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested1,194,107 A1,152,435 A1,089,626 A986,756 A976,030 A
Production quantity17,780,231 A16,603,589 A15,428,963 A12,539,817 A12,182,483 A
Yield148,900 Fc144,074 Fc141,599 Fc127,081 Fc124,817 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested1,192,502 A1,150,783 A1,088,326 A985,456 A975,437 A
Production quantity685,084 A654,691 A615,554 A530,522 A527,383 A
Yield5,745 Fc5,689 Fc5,656 Fc5,384 Fc5,407 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested1,194,107 A1,152,435 A1,089,626 A986,756 A976,030 A
Production quantity3,801,946 A3,541,011 A3,293,049 A2,651,778 A2,569,453 A
Yield31,839 Fc30,726 Fc30,222 Fc26,874 Fc26,326 Fc
Oilseeds nesArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Onions, dryArea harvested1,247 Im1,250 Im1,198 Im1,218 Im1,416
Production quantity32,714 Im32,836 Im32,649 Im32,545 Im35,466
Yield262,342 Fc262,688 Fc272,529 Fc267,200 Fc250,466 Fc
Onions, shallots, greenArea harvested11,43612,35610,6899,346 Im10,008
Production quantity152,299203,500159,954128,538129,741
Yield133,175 Fc164,697 Fc149,644 Fc137,533 Fc129,637 Fc
OrangesArea harvested23,989 Im23,747 Im23,499 Im23,244 Im23,021 Im
Production quantity526,495 Im514,542 Im502,589 Im490,635 Im478,330 Im
Yield219,474 Fc216,677 Fc213,877 Fc211,080 Fc207,780 Fc
PapayasArea harvested3,221 Im3,486 Im3,848 Im4,228 Im4,287
Production quantity137,536 Im144,925 Im153,980 Im167,073 Im166,679
Yield426,998 Fc415,734 Fc400,156 Fc395,158 Fc388,801 Fc
Peas, greenArea harvested267 Im271 Im275 Im215 Im155
Production quantity3,757 Im3,784 Im3,808 Im3,201 Im2,246
Yield140,712 Fc139,631 Fc138,473 Fc148,884 Fc144,903 Fc
Pepper (piper spp.)Area harvested613634594395 Im440
Production quantity2,2192,0052,5361,4091,405
Yield36,199 Fc31,625 Fc42,694 Fc35,671 Fc31,932 Fc
PineapplesArea harvested74,64090,94389,27380,847 Im68,694
Production quantity1,679,6682,350,8872,328,3782,013,6341,733,677
Yield225,036 Fc258,501 Fc260,815 Fc249,067 Fc252,377 Fc
PotatoesArea harvested7,1795,9675,9227,068 Im7,603
Production quantity127,935108,291107,103119,778125,665
Yield178,207 Fc181,483 Fc180,856 Fc169,465 Fc165,283 Fc
Pulses nesArea harvested110,552 Im108,697 Im106,814 Im104,904 Im103,806 Im
Production quantity134,123 Im130,924 Im127,726 Im124,527 Im121,796 Im
Yield12,132 Fc12,045 Fc11,958 Fc11,871 Fc11,733 Fc
Pulses, TotalArea harvested205,041 A207,583 A210,098 A212,586 A215,116 A
Production quantity206,108 A206,253 A206,400 A206,546 A206,530 A
Yield10,052 Fc9,936 Fc9,824 Fc9,716 Fc9,601 Fc
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsArea harvested5,384 Im5,291 Im5,500 F4,922 Im4,222
Production quantity111,397 Im106,092 Im104,784 Im109,097 Im90,113
Yield206,904 Fc200,514 Fc190,516 Fc221,652 Fc213,437 Fc
RamieArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Rice, paddyArea harvested9,715,35810,647,94110,719,69810,650,058 Im9,717,975
Production quantity28,356,86932,348,11432,898,90331,857,00027,702,191
Yield29,188 Fc30,380 Fc30,690 Fc29,913 Fc28,506 Fc
Rice, paddy (rice milled equivalent)Production quantity18,914,032 Fc21,576,192 Fc21,943,568 Fc21,248,619 Fc18,477,361 Fc
Roots and tubers nesArea harvested19,190 Im18,619 Im18,049 Im17,480 Im17,029 Im
Production quantity312,092 Im303,042 Im293,992 Im284,942 Im279,292 Im
Yield162,633 Fc162,760 Fc162,885 Fc163,010 Fc164,010 Fc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested1,424,982 A1,368,486 A1,429,384 A1,437,836 A1,468,740 A
Production quantity31,627,982 A29,885,303 A30,999,866 A31,667,097 A32,861,928 A
Yield221,954 Fc218,382 Fc216,876 Fc220,241 Fc223,742 Fc
Rubber, naturalArea harvested3,272,9273,203,6963,057,0793,055,908 Im3,015,361
Production quantity4,839,9524,813,5274,503,1014,519,000 *4,466,063
Yield14,788 Fc15,025 Fc14,730 Fc14,788 Fc14,811 Fc
Seed cottonArea harvested23,594 Im23,314 Im19,164 Im15,806 Im10,213 Im
Production quantity6,927 Im6,927 Im6,927 Im6,927 Im5,543 Im
Yield2,936 Fc2,971 Fc3,615 Fc4,383 Fc5,427 Fc
Sesame seedArea harvested45,000 *45,000 *45,000 *44,000 *41,788
Production quantity31,000 *31,000 *30,000 *30,000 *28,604
Yield6,889 Fc6,889 Fc6,667 Fc6,818 Fc6,845 Fc
SisalArea harvested56 Im50 Im45 Im41 Im37 Im
Production quantity11 Im11 Im11 Im11 Im11 Im
Yield1,964 Fc2,200 Fc2,444 Fc2,683 Fc2,973 Fc
SorghumArea harvested18,91718,86318,80420,000 F22,574
Production quantity37,95336,78436,08037,21642,185
Yield20,063 Fc19,501 Fc19,187 Fc18,608 Fc18,687 Fc
SoybeansArea harvested23,49724,03124,18130,000 *34,235
Production quantity39,15741,16542,82937,76556,963
Yield16,665 Fc17,130 Fc17,712 Fc12,588 Fc16,639 Fc
Spices nesArea harvested1,936 Im1,935 Im1,934 Im1,933 Im1,939 Im
Production quantity3,055 Im3,046 Im3,037 Im3,027 Im3,024 Im
Yield15,780 Fc15,742 Fc15,703 Fc15,660 Fc15,596 Fc
Sugar caneArea harvested1,835,0851,790,2081,403,5201,375,984 Im1,400,748
Production quantity131,002,173135,073,79993,088,46494,138,46594,138,465
Yield713,875 Fc754,515 Fc663,250 Fc684,154 Fc672,059 Fc
Sugar Crops PrimaryArea harvested1,835,085 A1,790,208 A1,403,520 A1,375,984 A1,400,748 A
Production quantity131,002,173 A135,073,799 A93,088,464 A94,138,465 A94,138,465 A
Yield713,875 Fc754,515 Fc663,250 Fc684,154 Fc672,059 Fc
Sunflower seedArea harvested31,000 *31,000 *31,000 *31,000 *4,785
Production quantity25,000 *25,000 *25,000 *25,000 *9,078
Yield8,065 Fc8,065 Fc8,065 Fc8,065 Fc18,972 Fc
Sweet potatoesArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Tangerines, mandarins, clementines, satsumasArea harvested13,891 Im15,499 Im13,862 Im9,984 Im10,544
Production quantity163,041 Im184,071 Im164,875146,514138,456
Yield117,372 Fc118,763 Fc118,940 Fc146,749 Fc131,313 Fc
Taro (cocoyam)Area harvested11,958 Im11,521 Im11,098 Im10,688 Im10,293 Im
Production quantity107,989 Im105,785 Im103,581 Im101,377 Im99,230 Im
Yield90,307 Fc91,819 Fc93,333 Fc94,851 Fc96,405 Fc
TeaArea harvested7,661 Im7,828 Im8,366 Im7,907 Im6,651
Production quantity58,803 Im58,197 Im58,547 Im55,156 Im49,054
Yield76,756 Fc74,345 Fc69,982 Fc69,756 Fc73,754 Fc
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea harvested19,514 Im19,937 Im20,604 Im15,927 Im16,439
Production quantity66,780 Im66,969 Im66,651 Im57,384 Im61,086
Yield34,222 Fc33,590 Fc32,349 Fc36,029 Fc37,159 Fc
TomatoesArea harvested5,6705,5495,5975,576 Im5,117
Production quantity124,944123,609122,593118,650102,400
Yield220,360 Fc222,759 Fc219,033 Fc212,787 Fc200,117 Fc
Treenuts, TotalArea harvested19,893 A21,554 A23,392 A25,611 A26,457 A
Production quantity27,927 A30,306 A33,293 A33,721 A35,916 A
Yield14,039 Fc14,060 Fc14,233 Fc13,167 Fc13,575 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested349,816 A356,183 A357,765 A361,904 A355,021 A
Production quantity2,725,007 A2,818,757 A2,779,576 A2,766,516 A2,647,022 A
Yield77,898 Fc79,138 Fc77,693 Fc76,443 Fc74,560 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested91,090 Im91,356 Im92,961 Im95,998 Im90,971 Im
Production quantity1,096,359 Im1,084,657 Im1,088,541 Im1,100,175 Im1,047,326 Im
Yield120,360 Fc118,729 Fc117,097 Fc114,604 Fc115,127 Fc
Vegetables, leguminous nesArea harvested332 Im326 Im319 Im312 Im306 Im
Production quantity2,304 Im2,268 Im2,231 Im2,194 Im2,164 Im
Yield69,398 Fc69,571 Fc69,937 Fc70,321 Fc70,719 Fc
WatermelonsArea harvested4,197 Im7,362 Im7,500 F7,696 Im7,686
Production quantity88,732 Im160,278 Im166,000 F164,728 Im166,286
Yield211,418 Fc217,710 Fc221,333 Fc214,044 Fc216,349 Fc
WheatArea harvested1,244 Im1,215 Im1,241 Im1,210 Im1,259 Im
Production quantity1,351 Im1,332 Im1,299 Im1,289 Im1,265 Im
Yield10,860 Fc10,963 Fc10,467 Fc10,653 Fc10,048 Fc
Flag
No flag = Official data
* = Unofficial figure
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
F = FAO estimate
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology
M = Data not available

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea22,110 Fm22,110 Fm22,110 Fm22,110 Fm22,110 Fm
AgricultureArea22,110 Fc22,110 Fc22,110 Fc22,110 Fc22,110 Fc
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area95 I91 I57 I46 I38 I
Arable landArea16,810 Fm16,810 Fm16,810 Fm16,810 Fm16,810 Fm
Country areaArea51,312 Q51,312 Q51,312 Q51,312 Q51,312 Q
CroplandArea21,310 Fm21,310 Fm21,310 Fm21,310 Fm21,310 Fm
Forest landArea19,945 Q19,981 Q20,017 Q20,061 Q20,063 Fm
Inland watersArea223 Fm223 Fm223 Fm223 Fm223 Fm
Land areaArea51,089 Fm51,089 Fm51,089 Fm51,089 Fm51,089 Fm
Land area equipped for irrigationArea6,415 Fm6,415 Fm6,415 Fm6,415 Fm6,415 Fm
Land under perm. meadows and pasturesArea800 Fm800 Fm800 Fm800 Fm800 Fm
Land under permanent cropsArea4,500 Fm4,500 Fm4,500 Fm4,500 Fm4,500 Fm
Naturally regenerating forestArea16,342 Q16,345 Q16,348 Q16,359 Q16,453 Fm
Other landArea9,034 Fc8,998 Fc8,962 Fc8,918 Fc8,916 Fc
Planted ForestArea3,603 Q3,636 Q3,669 Q3,702 Q3,610 Fm
Primary ForestArea6,726 Fm6,726 Fm6,726 Q6,726 Fm
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc.
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.