Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Singapore

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Datasheet

Singapore

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 5,703,569 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 59,590 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 339,860.54 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 372,062.53 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 0.03 (2019)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
yellow head virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Dermatophilus congolensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaBacteroidetesPaenibacillus larvaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma synoviaeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginaleAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella melitensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Hepatobacter penaeiAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)PresentEPPO (2021); Yik (1988); Yik et al. (1994)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); CABI (Undated);
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella AbortusequiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella enteritidisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaVibrio parahaemolyticusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)PresentLim (1988); Yik (1988); Li et al. (2007); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXenohaliotis californiensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces astaciAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces invadansAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)PresentNativeInvasiveAVA (2001); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella fijiensis (black Sigatoka)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022); Graham (1969); CABI and EPPO (2011)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora ulei (South American leaf blight of rubber (SALB))Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022); IPPC (2021)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora pachyrhizi (soyabean rust)Present, Few occurrencesYik (1988); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997); AVA (2001); Burcham et al. (2015)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)PresentDemers et al. (2015)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia kuehnii (orange rust)PresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)AbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaSynchytrium endobioticum (wart disease of potato)AbsentIPPC (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcarapis woodi (honeybee mite)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAdoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle)PresentUK, CAB International (1981); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAethina tumidaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)PresentWaterhouse (1993); AVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)PresentEPPO (2022); Clausen and Berry (1932); Mound and Halsey (1978); APPPC (1987); UK, CAB International (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus destructor (coconut whitefly)Present, WidespreadAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993); AVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022); NHM (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurothrixus floccosus (woolly whitefly)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAmphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle)PresentIntroducedJones et al. (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1983); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1968); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993); AVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)PresentNativeInvasiveUK, CAB International (1969); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)PresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale)PresentIntroducedHodgson and Martin (2001); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); EPPO (2022); NHM (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera carambolae (carambola fruit fly)PresentDrew and Hancock (1994); Iwahashi (1999); Khalid Mahmood (2004); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)PresentInvasiveAVA (2001); CABI and EPPO (2003); Boontop et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)PresentNativeDrew and Hancock (1994); Iwahashi (1999); Khalid Mahmood (2004); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera latifrons (Solanum fruit fly)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera tauPresentNHM (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly)AbsentEPPO (2022); IPPC (2015); IPPC (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera umbrosaPresent, WidespreadAVA (2001); NHM (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)PresentWaterhouse (1993); AVA (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBlattella germanica (German cockroach)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrontispa longissima (coconut hispine beetle)PresentAPPPC (1987); NHM (1999); AVA (2001); Rethinam and Singh (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallosobruchus chinensis (Chinese bruchid)Present, WidespreadWaterhouse (1993); AVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)AbsentEPPO (2022); IPPC (2015); IPPC (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis helleriiPresent, WidespreadNativeWee and Ng (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish)PresentIntroducedAhyong and Yeo (2007); Belle and Yeo (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilades pandavaPresent, WidespreadAVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI (Undated); UK, CAB International (1988); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)PresentOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes curvignathus (rubber termite)PresentNativeSnyder (1949)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)PresentIntroducedInvasiveJenkins et al. (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, WidespreadReuben et al. (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCylas formicarius (sweet potato weevil)PresentUK, CAB International (1970); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)Present, LocalizedWaterhouse (1993); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDichromothrips corbettiPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentUK, CAB International (1972); Ben-Dov (1994); Williams (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug)PresentGarcía Morales et al. (2016); Williams (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErionota thrax (banana skipper)PresentUK, CAB International (1981); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea perbrevis (tea shot-hole borer)PresentNativeSmith et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentKaydan and Gullan (2012); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI and EPPO (1999); He LianSheng et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentUK, CAB International (1983); Jacot-Guillarmod and Brothers (1986)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1993); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeteropsylla cubana (leucaena psyllid)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIcerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus clypealis (mango leafhopper)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)PresentIntroducedSEAFDEC (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)PresentNativeWilliams (2004); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)PresentNativeNew (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium destructor (Singapore ant)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1979); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)PresentUK, CAB International (1970); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug)PresentWilliams (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryctes rhinoceros (coconut rhinoceros beetle)PresentWaterhouse (1993); AVA (2001); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle)Present, WidespreadWaterhouse (1993); AVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPapilio demoleus (chequered swallowtail)Present, WidespreadMurphy (1973); APPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParaleyrodes mineiPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)Present, LocalizedNativeShrimp News (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1986); Waterhouse (1993); AVA (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPieris rapae (cabbage white butterfly)Present, WidespreadWaterhouse (1993); AVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1967); Ng et al. (1997); AVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPrays endocarpa (citrus rind borer)PresentWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProcambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRastrococcus invadens (fruit tree mealybug)PresentWilliams (1986); CABI and EPPO (1998); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus ferrugineus (red palm weevil)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2016); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer)Present, WidespreadAVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil)Present, WidespreadChamp and Dyte (1976); AVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)PresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSophonia orientalis (two-spotted leafhopper)PresentNativeHuang KunWei (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera exempta (black armyworm)PresentEPPO (2022); Pogue (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)PresentInvasiveOng and Soon (1989); UK, CAB International (1993); Waterhouse (1993); AVA (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)Present, WidespreadInvasiveLee and Kooi (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)PresentWaterhouse (1993); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); CABI and EPPO (1998); AVA (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)PresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (1998); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes ricini (castor bean whitefly)Present, WidespreadAVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse)PresentAVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrogoderma granarium (khapra beetle)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyIPPC (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUnaspis citri (citrus snow scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1962); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)PresentSanford et al. (2007); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus perforans (island pinhole borer)PresentNativeUK, CAB International (1973)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus similisPresentNativeNHM (1984); Murphy and Meepol (1990)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer)PresentNativeCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentDole et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres cristatellusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres fuscus (jungle myna)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres tristis (common myna)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAmphiprionPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAristichthys nobilis (bighead carp)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Chou and Lam (1989); FishBase (2004); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAstronotus ocellatus (oscar)PresentIntroducedNg et al. (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationCockrill (1977)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubulcus ibis (cattle egret)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCallosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)PresentIntroducedThorington et al. (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataChitala ornata (clown knife)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichla ocellaris (peacock cichlid)PresentIntroducedTan and Tan (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichlasoma citrinellumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichlasoma labiatumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichlasoma urophthalmum (Mayan cichlid)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveNg and Tan (2010); Froese R and Pauly D (2016); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias batrachus (walking catfish)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias gariepinusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCorvus splendens (house crow)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveRyall (2002); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)AbsentShireman and Smith (1983); Chou and Lam (1989); Froese and Pauly (2004); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCygnus olor (mute swan)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDicrurus macrocercusPresentNativeRobson (2000); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad)PresentNativeDijk et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedGroenewoud and Law (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFroese and Pauly (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGarrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei)Present, LocalizedIntroducedAllen (2012); BirdForum (2015); Singapore Birds (2015); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)AbsentFroese and Pauly (2004); FishBase (2005); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypostomus plecostomus (suckermouth catfish)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Baensch and Riehl (1985); Froese R and Pauly D (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLutjanus kasmira (blueline snapper)Present, WidespreadNativeAllen (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque)PresentNativeJiang et al. (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)PresentIntroducedNg et al. (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); FAO (1997); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPangasianodon hypophthalmus (sutchi catfish)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPasser domesticus (house sparrow)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPavo cristatusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPelvicachromis pulcher (rainbow krib)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia latipinna (sailfin molly)PresentIntroducedNg et al. (1993); FAO (1997); Froese R and Pauly D (2014); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia reticulata (guppy)Present, WidespreadIntroducedChou and Lam (1989); Ng et al. (1993); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia veliferaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet)PresentIntroducedCramp (1985); BirdLife International (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterygoplichthys multiradiatus (Orinoco sailfin catfish)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered bulbul)Present, WidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International (2017); IUCN (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRachycentron canadum (cobia)PresentNativeIUCN (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRana catesbeiana (American bullfrog)PresentIntroducedInvasiveTan and Tan (2002); Baker (2009); Santos-Barrera et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus exulans (Pacific rat)Present, WidespreadHo (1980); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus norvegicus (brown rat)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSciaenops ocellatus (red drum)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataThorichthys meeki (firemouth cichlid)PresentIntroducedNg et al. (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataThreskiornis aethiopicus (sacred ibis)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)PresentIntroducedNg et al. (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrichopodus trichopterus (three spot gourami)PresentNativeLow and Lim (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)PresentNativeAvibase (2012); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataXiphophorus helleriiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Ng et al. (1993); FAO (1997)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataXiphophorus maculatus (southern platyfish)PresentIntroducedNg et al. (1993); FAO (1997); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataZosterops japonicus (Japanese white-eye)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaTubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAchatina fulica (giant African land snail)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveJarrett (1923); Mead (1961); Mead (1979); Lim et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaArcuatula senhousia (Asian date mussel)Present, LocalizedNativeOBIS (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytella charruana (Charru mussel)PresentIntroducedLim et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytilopsis sallei (Caribbean false mussel)Present, LocalizedIntroducedSachidhanandam and Chou (1996); Chan (1997); Tan and Morton (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)PresentNativePoutiers (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)PresentIntroducedCowie (2002); Halwart and Bartley (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea maculataPresentIntroducedHayes et al. (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)Present, Few occurrencesAVA (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne enterolobii (Pacara earpod tree root-knot nematode)Absent, EradicatedEPPO (2022); Anonymous (2010); CABI and EPPO (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode)Present, Few occurrencesAVA (2001); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)PresentAVA (2001); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)PresentAVA (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus granulosusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus multilocularisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesGyrodactylus salarisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila psittaciPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaCaulerpa taxifolia (killer algae)PresentNativeGuiry and Guiry (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva pertusaPresentNativeTeo and Wee (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)PresentNativeChou and Wong (1984)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAdiantum hispidulum (rosy maidenhair fern)Present, LocalizedNativeHolttum (1954)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAdiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAngiopteris evecta (king fern)PresentNativeChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCeratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)PresentNativeGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)PresentNativeGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)PresentNativeIrudayaraj (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)PresentNativeKoh LianPin et al. (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedWee and Chua (1988); Chong et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern)PresentNativePIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaNephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern)PresentGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris tripartita (giant brake)PresentNativeNational Parks Board (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)PresentChong et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia molesta (kariba weed)PresentInvasiveWee (1986); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaThelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)PresentFosberg and Sachet (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAcanthophora spiciferaPresentNativeSilva et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaGracilaria salicorniaPresentNativeTeo and Wee (1983); Phang (1994); Withell et al. (1994); Silva et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaHypnea musciformisPresentNativeSilva et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbrus precatorius (rosary pea)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Chong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon indicum (country mallow)PresentInvasivePIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveTan and Tan (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mangium (brown salwood)PresentIntroducedInvasiveAguiar Júnior et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)PresentChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene americana (shyleaf)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave americana (century plant)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Waterhouse (1993); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia chinensis (Chinese albizia)Present, PlantedIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009); PIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAleurites moluccanus (candlenut tree)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAloe vera (true aloe)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia purpurata (red ginger)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)PresentPancho and Soerjani (1978); Holm et al. (1991); Chong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona cherimola (cherimoya)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAntigonon leptopus (coral vine)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia crenata (coral berry)Present, Few occurrencesNativeChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArenga pinnata (sugar palm)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsystasia gangetica (chinese violet)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAverrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)PresentCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus compressus (carpet grass)Present, WidespreadLeong (1987); Waterhouse (1993); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus fissifoliusPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); Chong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBacopa monnieri (water hyssop)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)PresentIntroducedDuriyaprapan and Jansen (1995); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)PresentIntroducedPIER (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria cristata (Philippine violet)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBasella alba (malabar spinach)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBixa orellana (annatto)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBlyxa aubertii (roundfruit blyxa)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentHooker (1885); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBorreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBreynia disticha (snowbush)PresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja asiatica (dog tail)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCallisia fragrans (basketplant)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentIntroducedInvasiveILDIS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCananga odorata (ylang-ylang)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum annuum (bell pepper)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)PresentIntroducedLock and Ford (2004); Chong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWright (1912); PIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina glauca (scaly oak (Australia))Present, PlantedIntroducedWAC (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCedrela odorata (Spanish cedar)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)PresentNativePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentratherum punctatum (lark daisy)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratophyllum demersum (coontail)Present, WidespreadRevilla et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum diurnum (day jessamine)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaecrista nictitans (sensitive partridge pea)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )PresentNativeChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCissus quadrangularis (treebine)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedYeo et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome gynandraPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveJacobs (1960); Wild (1960); Turner (1995); Waterhouse and Mitchell (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum quadriloculare (bronze-leaved clerodendrum)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum speciosissimum (Java glory bower)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveWee and Corlett (1986)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClusia roseaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)PresentOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColeus blumei (common coleus)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColubrina asiatica (latherleaf)PresentNativeFlora of Singapore (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCombretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina benghalensis (wandering jew)PresentWilson (1981)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordyline fruticosa (ti plant)PresentHinkle (2007); Smithsonian (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentNativeILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptocoryne ciliataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia grandiflora (rubber vine)Present, LocalizedIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea hyssopifolia (false heather)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHEAR (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus compressus (annual sedge)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus iria (rice flatsedge)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus papyrus (papyrus)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura metel (Hindu datura)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDerris elliptica (tuba root)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass)PresentChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane)PresentIntroducedHEAR (2017); Keng et al. (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)PresentNativePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)PresentNativePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDombeya wallichii (pink ball)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDracaena fragrans (corn plant)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDuranta erecta (golden dewdrop)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)Present, WidespreadInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedNational Parks Board (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGopal (1987); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)PresentIntroducedLee et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Waterhouse (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed)PresentIntroducedRevilla et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentChong et al. (2009); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)PresentInvasivePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis unioloides (Chinese lovegrass)PresentNativePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012); Corlett (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEriobotrya japonica (loquat)Present, PlantedIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEtlingera elatior (torch ginger)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)PresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009); National Parks Board (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFalcataria moluccana (batai wood)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014); ILDIS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benghalensis (banyan)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benjamina (weeping fig)PresentChong et al. (2009); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus elastica (rubber plant)PresentChong et al. (2009); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)PresentNativeChong et al. (2009); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus pumila (creeping fig)PresentChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus religiosa (sacred fig tree)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChong et al. (2009); Randall (2012); PIER (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry)PresentLouis (1990)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia macrophylla (large leaf flemingia)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia strobilifera (wild hops)PresentNativeInvasiveChong et al. (2009); ILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFurcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (gliricidia)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGmelina arborea (candahar)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGrevillea robusta (silky oak)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHaematoxylum campechianum (logwood)PresentIntroducedSeegeler (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemigraphis alternata (red ivy)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHevea brasiliensis (rubber)PresentFAO (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)Present, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)Present, WidespreadCook and Luond (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)PresentIntroducedUK, Royal Botanic Gardens (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis suaveolens (pignut)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balsamina (garden balsam)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImperata cylindrica (cogon grass)PresentNativeGilliland (1971); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera spicata (creeping indigo)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera tinctoria (true indigo)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)PresentChuo et al. (1981); Khoo and Lim (1989); Isabelle et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)PresentWaterhouse (1993); Chong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIxora finlaysoniana (white jungle flame)PresentIntroducedTeo et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Wilson (1997); Padua et al. (1999); IPCS, INCHEM (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga)PresentNativeKumar (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)PresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)PresentOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeersia hexandra (southern cut grass)PresentPyrah (1969)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonotis nepetifolia (Christmas candlestick)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)PresentNativeChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedInvasiveILDIS (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)PresentInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)PresentNativeHEAR (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia octovalvis (primrose willow)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)PresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaManilkara zapota (sapodilla)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaranta arundinacea (arrowroot)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelastoma malabathricum (Banks melastoma)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)Present, LocalizedIntroducedLouis (1990); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia umbellata (hogvine)PresentNativeStaples (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMiconia calvescens (miconia)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Lee et al. (1997); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993); PIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWee and Corlett (1986); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); AVA (2001); PIER (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016); Cantley and Dennys (1886)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)PresentNativeInvasivePIER (2019); Tagore et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria vaginalis (pickerel weed)PresentPancho and Soerjani (1978)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass)PresentNativeKumar (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMuntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)PresentIntroducedInvasiveNghiem et al. (2015); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurraya paniculata (orange jessamine)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)PresentIntroducedCreuwels (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNerium oleander (oleander)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed)PresentIntroducedVeldkamp (1999); Duistermaat (2004); Duistermaat (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)PresentIntroducedPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOdontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOlea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)PresentIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Waterhouse (1993); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis debilis (pink woodsorrel)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPachira aquatica (pachira nut)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaederia foetida (skunkvine)Present, LocalizedNativePuff (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPanicum repens (torpedo grass)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParkinsonia aculeata (Mexican palo-verde)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Waterhouse (1993); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass paspalum)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentNativePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora edulis (passionfruit)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Waterhouse (1993); Yeoh and Wee (1994); Anon (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)PresentIntroducedInvasiveRandall (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPeltophorum pterocarpum (copperpod)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Waterhouse (1993); Chong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhormium tenax (New Zealand flax)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPilea microphyllaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta dioica (allspice)PresentIntroducedParthasarathy et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper aduncum (spiked pepper)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHartemink (2006); Tan et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)PresentWaterhouse (1993); PIER (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Chua et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)PresentChong et al. (2009); Corlett (1988); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca quadrifida (chickenweed)PresentGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)PresentNative and IntroducedChong et al. (2009); Barstow (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPtychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedKeng et al. (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)PresentNativePIER (2012); Plessis et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRivina humilis (bloodberry)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)PresentDuistermaat (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRoystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRusselia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); Chong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedNational Parks Board (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna alata (candle bush)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna bacillaris (whitebark senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna hirsuta (hairy senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2005); PIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna multijuga (November shower)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna siamea (yellow cassia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna spectabilis (whitebark senna)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna surattensis (golden senna)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009); ILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania grandiflora (sesbania)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum torvum (turkey berry)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Corlett (1988)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)PresentNativeChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphagneticola trilobata (wedelia)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus pyramidatus (whorled dropseed)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)PIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015); Chong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Moldenke (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSauer (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSterculia apetala (Panama tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSterculia foetida (Java olive)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStriga asiatica (witch weed)PresentNativeWaterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSynedrella nodiflora (synedrella)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTabebuia rosea (pink poui)PresentIntroducedInvasiveTan (2011); PIER (2016); Urban Forest (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarindus indica (tamarind)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)PresentOrwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThemeda arguens (Christmas grass)PresentInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia fragrans (whitelady)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Chong et al. (2009); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia spathacea (boat lily)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriphasia trifolia (limeberry)PresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriplaris americana (ant tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationNativeChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYoungia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZoysia matrella (Manila grass)PresentNativePIER (2016); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaProtistaParamyxeaMarteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia exitiosaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia ostreaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaGymnodinium catenatumPresent, Few occurrencesHolmes et al. (2002)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPlasmodium relictumPresentNativeBeadell et al. (2006)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusalcelaphine herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusArterivirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusavian metapneumovirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAvipoxvirusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusbluetongue virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine leukemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscamelpox virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusclassical swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusCowpea aphid-borne mosaic virusPresentDahal and Albrechtsen (1996); CABI and EPPO (2010)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruseastern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusepizootic haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Virusequid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine arteritis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine influenzavirusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusHaliotid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
VirusIndian cassava mosaic virus (Indian cassava mosaic)PresentWang Gang et al. (2014)
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Virusinfectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Virusinfectious myonecrosis virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Virusinfectious salmon anemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Virusinfluenza A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Virusmyxoma virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNewcastle disease virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNipah virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPapaya ringspot virusPresentAVA (2001); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019)
Virusrabies virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusred sea bream iridovirusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusswine vesicular disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusTaura syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
VirusTomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt)Present, Few occurrencesAVA (2001)
Virustransmissible gastroenteritis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Virusvisna/maedi virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWest Nile virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWhite spot syndrome virusAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
abalone viral ganglioneuritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
acarapisosis of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
actinomycosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
acute hepatopancreatic necrosis diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Aeromonas infection in fishAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
African horse sicknessAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
African swine feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
American foul broodAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
anaplasmosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
anthraxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian chlamydiosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
avian infectious bronchitisAbsentOIE (2019); Lim (1977); Chew (1985); OIE (2019)
avian influenzaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); Koh-Yeo et al. (1996); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian tuberculosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
avipoxPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
babesiosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
blacklegAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bluetongueAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bonamiosis (Bonamia exitiosa)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
bonamiosis (Bonamia ostreae)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Borrelia anserina infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
botulismAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bovine anaplasmosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine babesiosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine genital campylobacteriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine tuberculosisAbsentOIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine venereal trichomonosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine viral diarrhoeaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella suis)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2000); OIE (2019)
Burkholderia pseudomallei infectionsPresentChiew King-Tiong et al. (1991); Dance (1991)
camel poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
caprine arthritis encephalitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
caseous lymphadenitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Chrysomya bezziana infestationPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2020)
ChytridiomycosisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
classical swine feverAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Clostridium perfringens enteritis and enterotoxaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cochliomyia hominivorax infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious agalactiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious ecthymaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
contagious equine metritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious ophthalmiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
crayfish plagueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
dermatophilosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
dourineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
duck virus hepatitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
EchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Echinococcus granulosusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Echinococcus multilocularisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Edwardsiella septicaemia (Edwardsiella tarda infection)PresentCABI (Undated)
enzootic abortion of ewesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
enzootic bovine leukosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
epizootic haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic lymphangitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
epizootic ulcerative syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
equine coital exanthemaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine encephalomyelitis (Western)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine infectious anaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine influenzaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine piroplasmosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine rhinopneumonitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine viral arteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
European foul broodAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
fowl choleraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
fowl typhoidAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Fusobacterium necrophorum infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
glandersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
heartwaterAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
horse poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
infection with Marteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
infection with Perkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
infection with Perkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Infection with salmonid alphavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
infectious bursal diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
infectious laryngotracheitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
infectious myonecrosisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
infectious salmon anaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Japanese encephalitisAbsentOIE (2019); CHAN and LOH (1966); OIE (2019)
koi herpesvirus diseaseAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2009); OIE (2020)
leishmaniosisPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019)
leptospirosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
leucocytozoonosisPresentAkiba (1970)
listeriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
lumpy skin diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
malignant catarrhal feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Marek's diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Mycoplasma agalactiae infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
myxomatosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Nairobi sheep diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
necrotizing hepatopancreatitisAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Newcastle diseasePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
Nipah virus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); Chew et al. (2000); OIE (2019)
Oncorhynchus masou virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
paratuberculosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Pasteurella multocida infectionsPresentRhoades and Rimler (1987); Tay et al. (1992)
peste des petits ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Plasmodium relictum infectionPresentNativeBeadell et al. (2006)
porcine enterovirus infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
pullorum diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
pulmonary adenomatosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Q feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rabbit haemorrhagic diseasePresentOIE (2020); OIE (2019)
rabiesAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Ranavirus infection in amphibiansAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
red sea bream iridoviral diseaseAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
Riemerella anatipestifer infectionPresent, WidespreadSingh et al. (1982); Loh et al. (1992)
Rift Valley feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rinderpestAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
scrapieAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
sheep and goat poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
small hive beetle infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
spherical baculovirosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
spring viraemia of carpAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
stranglesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
surraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
swine dysenteryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
swine vesicular diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Taura syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
theileriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
TrichinellaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
trichomonosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
trypanosomosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
tuberculosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
tularaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
turkey rhinotracheitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
varroosis of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); Sanford et al. (2007); OIE (2019)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
vesicular stomatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
visna/maediAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
West Nile feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
white spot diseaseAbsentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
white tail diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Xenohaliotis californiensis infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)
yellow head diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2020); OIE (2020)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
BananasArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Beans, greenArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Cabbages and other brassicasArea harvested37 Im36 Im35 Im34 Im33 Im
Production quantity723 Im705 Im688 Im671 Im655 Im
Yield195,405 Fc195,833 Fc196,571 Fc197,353 Fc198,485 Fc
CassavaArea harvestedImImImImIm
Production quantityImImImImIm
CoconutsArea harvested16 Im16 Im16 Im15 Im14 Im
Production quantity126 Im126 Im127 Im126 Im94 Im
Yield78,750 Fc78,750 Fc79,375 Fc84,000 Fc67,143 Fc
Cucumbers and gherkinsArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A
Production quantity2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A
Yield20,000 Fc20,000 Fc20,000 Fc20,000 Fc20,000 Fc
Fruit, fresh nesArea harvested1 Im1 Im1 Im1 Im1 Im
Production quantity2 Im2 Im2 Im2 Im2 Im
Yield20,000 Fc20,000 Fc20,000 Fc20,000 Fc20,000 Fc
Lettuce and chicoryArea harvested27 Im30 Im27 Im22 Im18 Im
Production quantity660722652546439
Yield244,444 Fc240,667 Fc241,481 Fc248,182 Fc243,889 Fc
Mushrooms and trufflesArea harvested7 Im6 Im3 Im2 Im2 Im
Production quantity131108533032
Yield187,143 Fc180,000 Fc176,667 Fc150,000 Fc160,000 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested16 A16 A16 A15 A14 A
Production quantity126 A126 A127 A126 A94 A
Yield78,750 Fc78,750 Fc79,375 Fc84,000 Fc67,143 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested16 A16 A16 A15 A14 A
Production quantity10 A10 A10 A10 A8 A
Yield6,300 Fc6,300 Fc6,350 Fc6,720 Fc5,371 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested16 A16 A16 A15 A14 A
Production quantity16 A16 A17 A16 A12 A
Yield10,238 Fc10,238 Fc10,319 Fc10,920 Fc8,729 Fc
Onions, shallots, greenArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
PapayasArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Roots and tubers nesArea harvested1 Im1 Im1 Im1 Im1 Im
Production quantity16 Im16 Im16 Im15 Im15 Im
Yield160,000 Fc160,000 Fc160,000 Fc150,000 Fc150,000 Fc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A
Production quantity16 A16 A16 A15 A15 A
Yield160,000 Fc160,000 Fc160,000 Fc150,000 Fc150,000 Fc
Rubber, naturalArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
SpinachArea harvested104 Im104 Im103 Im103 Im103 Im
Production quantity2,126 Im2,111 Im2,095 Im2,080 Im2,096 Im
Yield204,423 Fc202,981 Fc203,398 Fc201,942 Fc203,495 Fc
Sugar caneArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Sugar Crops PrimaryArea harvestedAAAAA
Production quantityAAAAA
Sweet potatoesArea harvestedImImImImIm
Production quantityImImImImIm
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea harvestedImImImImIm
Production quantityImImImImIm
TomatoesArea harvested6 Im6 Im8 Im6 Im5 Im
Production quantity5965886664
Yield98,333 Fc108,333 Fc110,000 Fc110,000 Fc128,000 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested1,458 A1,444 A1,368 A1,360 A1,363 A
Production quantity27,145 A26,849 A25,402 A25,210 A25,790 A
Yield186,180 Fc185,935 Fc185,687 Fc185,368 Fc189,215 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested1,277 Im1,262 Im1,192 Im1,193 Im1,202 Im
Production quantity23,44623,13821,82621,81722,504
Yield183,602 Fc183,344 Fc183,104 Fc182,875 Fc187,221 Fc
Flag
No flag = Official data
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology
M = Data not available

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm
AgricultureArea1 Fc1 Fc1 Fc1 Fc1 Fc
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area0 I
Arable landArea1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm
Country areaArea72 Fm72 Q72 Q72 Q72 Q
CroplandArea1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm1 Q
Cropland area under organic agric.Area0 I
Forest landArea16 Q16 Q16 Q16 Q17 Fm
Inland watersArea1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm1 Fm
Land areaArea71 Fm71 Fm71 Fm71 Fm71 Fm
Land under permanent cropsArea0 Fm0 Fm0 Fm0 Fm0 Fm
Naturally regenerating forestArea16 Q16 Q16 Q16 Q17 Fm
Other landArea54 Fc54 Fc54 Fc54 Fc54 Fc
Planted ForestArea0 Q0 Q0 Q0 Q0 Fm
Primary ForestArea0 Fm0 Fm0 Q0 Fm
Land used for aquacultureArea1 Q
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc.
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.