Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Panama

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Datasheet

Panama

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 4,246,439 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 14,950 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 63,468.43 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 66,800.80 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 2.13 (2019)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
Cucumis dipsaceus (hedgehog gourd)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2016)
yellow head virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato)PresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Dermatophilus congolensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (sugarcane ratoon stunting disease)PresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesSpiroplasma kunkelii (corn stunt spiroplasma)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2008)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginalePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella melitensisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Hepatobacter penaeiPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); EPPO (2017)
BacteriaProteobacteriacitrus huanglongbing (greening) disease (citrus greening)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)PresentEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella AbortusequiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (cassava bacterial blight)PresentBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (bean blight)PresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. vasculorum (sugarcane gumming disease)PresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces astaciAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPeronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum downy mildew)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFrederiksen and Renfro (1977); UK, CAB International (1988); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)PresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentUK, CAB International (1982)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew)PresentUK, CAB International (1988)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella fijiensis (black Sigatoka)PresentIntroducedInvasiveStover (1987); Mourichon and Fullerton (1990); CABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant)PresentPiepenbring (2006); CABI and EPPO (2008)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora ulei (South American leaf blight of rubber (SALB))PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolliday (1970); UK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaTrichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFerrer et al. (1980)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)PresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaMoniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease of cacao)Present, LocalizedEspino (1989); CABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaMoniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)PresentInvasiveCABI (Undated); Miranda (1986); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia graminis (stem rust of cereals)Present, Few occurrencesMuller (1953)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia kuehnii (orange rust)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2015); Flores et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaThecaphora solani (potato smut)PresentNativeMcguire and Crandall (1967); UK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBrem and Lips (2008); Woodhams et al. (2008); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcrocinus longimanusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcromyrmex octospinosus (leaf cutting ant)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)PresentEPPO (2022); Mound and Halsey (1978)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated); NHM (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurothrixus floccosus (woolly whitefly)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeStone (1942); Norrbom (2004); Hernández-Ortiz et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha grandis (South American cucurbit fruit fly)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Stone (1942); Norrbom (1991)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveNorrbom et al. (2005); Ruiz-Arce et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly)PresentNativeNorrbom (2004); CABI/EPPO (2011); Scally et al. (2016); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeGreene (1934); Stone (1942); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeStone (1942); CABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnopheles quadrimaculatus (common malaria mosquito)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella orientalis (oriental yellow scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1978)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1968)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1969); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis melliferaPresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis mellifera scutellata (africanized bee)PresentIntroducedInvasiveRoubik et al. (2003); Boreham and Roubik (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArtemia (brine shrimp)PresentIntroducedVanhaecke et al. (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiella hartii (yam scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1966)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1966)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)PresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Bernal-Vega (2000); Shatters et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly)PresentBrown et al. (1995); Alvarado G. et al. (2004); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBlattella germanica (German cockroach)PresentIntroducedWolda et al. (1983)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBoophilus microplusPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)PresentCABI/EPPO (2013); Dominguez et al. (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallinectes sapidus (blue crab)PresentNativeTavares (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCarcinus maenas (European shore crab)Absent, Formerly presentSmith (1879)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)PresentIntroducedInvasiveEnkerlin et al. (1989); Gasparich et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1988); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChthamalus proteusPresent, WidespreadNativeDando and Southward (1980); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Present, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCryptotermes brevis (powderpost termite)PresentIntroducedInvasiveNickle and Collins (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHeinemann and Belkin (1978)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentUK, CAB International (1972); Ben-Dov (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug)PresentGarcía Morales et al. (2016); Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea perbrevis (tea shot-hole borer)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWood (1980); Kirkendall and Ødegaard (2007); CABI and EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentUK, CAB International (1966); Ben-Dov (1994); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella cephalicaPresentBarba Alvarado et al. (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGeococcus coffeae (coffee root mealybug)PresentWilliams and Granara de Willink (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGymnandrosoma aurantianum (citrus fruit borer)PresentAdamski and Brown (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentDenmark (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHaplaxius crudus (American palm cixiid)PresentNativeKramer (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHarmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa zea (bollworm)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeteropsylla cubana (leucaena psyllid)PresentUK, CAB International (1988); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)Present, LocalizedIntroducedCristancho et al. (2007); IPPC (2007); IPPC (2017); IPPC (2021); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypsipyla grandella (mahogany shoot borer)PresentManso (1974)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia)PresentBen-Dov et al. (1998); NHM (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)PresentNativeCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMythimna unipuncta (rice armyworm)PresentNativeUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus hemerocallisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1979); Remaudière et al. (1991)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNeoleucinodes elegantalis (eggplant stem borer)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022); Dyar (1914)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus nipae (spiked mealybug)PresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParaleyrodes bondariPresentNHM (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWilliams and Granara de Willink (1992); Ben-Dov (1994); Granara de Willink and Szumik (2007); Kondo et al. (2008); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea absoluta (tomato leafminer)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2013); Roda et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)PresentUK, CAB International (1986); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProstephanus truncatus (larger grain borer)PresentNativeHodges (1986); UK, CAB International (1995); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus elisae (banana mealybug)PresentGimpel and Miller (1996); Beardsley (1986); Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)PresentEPPO (2022); Gimpel and Miller (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp)PresentMedianero and Zachrisson (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhithropanopeus harrisii (Harris mud crab)PresentIntroducedAbele and Kim (1989); Roche and Torchin (2007); Roche et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus palmarum (South American palm weevil)PresentHusband and Flechtmann (1972); Esser and Meredith (1987); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaissetia oleae (olive scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1952)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSepedomerus macropus (liverfluke snail predator fly)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant)PresentNativeISSG (2009); Torres (1984); Gotzek et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)PresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)PresentEPPO (2022); Simmons et al. (1991); Pogue (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)PresentIntroducedWetterer (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTecia solanivora (potato tuber moth)PresentPovolny (1973); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)PresentBarba Alvarado et al. (2020); Goldarazena et al. (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTibraca limbativentris (stinkbug)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)Present, WidespreadYokomi et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (1998); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUmbonia crassicornisPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUnaspis citri (citrus snow scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1962); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaViteus vitifoliae (grapevine phylloxera)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaWasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant)PresentNativeISSG (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus volvulusPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle)PresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaBryozoaBugula neritina (brown bryozoan)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAmatitlania nigrofasciata (convict cichlid)Present, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAristichthys nobilis (bighead carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); FishBase (2004); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBoa imperator (Central American Boa)Present, WidespreadNativeHynková et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Borghese (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubulcus ibis (cattle egret)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCanis latrans (Coyote)PresentNativeGese et al. (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichla ocellaris (peacock cichlid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWelcomme (1988); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)PresentIntroducedShireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenosaura similis (black spiny-tailed iguana)PresentNativeKöhler (2003); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); FAO (1996); Lever (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDendrobates auratus (Green and black dart-poison frog)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDidelphis marsupialis (common opossum)Present, WidespreadNativeIUCN (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog)Present, LocalizedIntroducedCrawford et al. (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHemidactylus frenatus (common house gecko)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveRand and Myers (1990)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHerpestes auropunctatus (small Indian mongoose)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHoagland et al. (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004); Seebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIctalurus punctatus (channel catfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Pérez et al. (2003); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIguana iguana (iguana)PresentNativeLeenders (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLepomis macrochirus (bluegill)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMicropterus salmoides (largemouth bass)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMolothrus bonariensis (shiny cowbird)PresentAvibase (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMylopharyngodon piceus (black amur)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPasser domesticus (house sparrow)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPiaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPomoxis annularis (white crappie)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie)PresentIntroducedFroese R and Pauly D (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataProcyon lotor (raccoon)PresentNativeGoldman (1950)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterois volitans (lionfish)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedSchofield (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRachycentron canadum (cobia)PresentNativeKing (2016); IUCN (2017); FAO (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRana catesbeiana (American bullfrog)PresentFlores Nava (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRhinella marina (cane toad)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalmo trutta (sea trout)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSciaenops ocellatus (red drum)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSturnus vulgaris (common starling)PresentNatureserve (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataStyela clava (Asian tunicate)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)PresentNativeBruce (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaCordylophora (euryhaline hydroid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHildenbrand (1939); Jones and Rutzler (1975)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaTubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaEchinodermataAcanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCorbicula fluminea (Asian clam)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCounts et al. (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras invadens (tramp slug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHutchinson et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaEualetes tulipaPresentKeen (1971); Hughes (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMagallana gigas (Pacific oyster)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMarisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)PresentNativeSimone (2006); Cowie and Hayes (2012); Horgan et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMelanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveAbbott (1973)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytilopsis sallei (Caribbean false mussel)PresentNativeJones and Rutzler (1975)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)PresentNativeLeal (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveBrodie (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBrodie (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentSher (1966); WEHUNT and EDWARDS (1968); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Present, WidespreadSosa Moss (1985); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)Present, WidespreadSosa Moss (1985); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)Present, WidespreadEdwards and Wehunt (1973); Pinochet and Duarte (1986); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); Elbadri et al. (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRhadinaphelenchus cocophilus (red ring nematode)Present, WidespreadBriton-Jones (1940); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)Present, WidespreadTarjan (1967); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesBothriocephalus acheilognathiPresentIntroducedChoudhury et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus granulosusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus multilocularisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaCaulerpa taxifolia (killer algae)PresentGuiry and Guiry (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaBlechnum appendiculatum (palm fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCeratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)Present, WidespreadIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMacrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaNephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteridium aquilinum (bracken)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris tripartita (giant brake)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia auriculata (giant salvinia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia minimaPresentNativeGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaThelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedSmith (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAcanthophora spiciferaPresentNativeTaylor (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaHypnea musciformisPresentNativeTaylor (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)PresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako (2010); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia angustissima (prairie acacia)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia crassicarpa (northern wattle)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)PresentNativeILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia glauca (wild dividivi)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mangium (brown salwood)PresentBrown (2000); CABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthocereus tetragonusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene americana (shyleaf)PresentNativeILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave vivipara (Caribbean agave)PresentNativeDavidse et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); JOHNSON (1971)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia adinocephala (cream albizia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); ILDIS (2005); Flora of Panama (2016); Proyecto Ecológico Azuero (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentIntroducedFlora of Panama (2016); ILDIS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia procera (white siris)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllium neapolitanum (False onion weed)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia purpurata (red ginger)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera halimifolia (hairy joyweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus cruentus (red amaranth)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2015); Correa et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth)PresentNativeGBIF (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Davidse et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)PresentLorenzi (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)PresentNativeFlora Mesoamericana (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAndropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAndropogon virginicus (broomsedge)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnethum graveolens (dill)PresentIntroducedFlora of Panama (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona cherimola (cherimoya)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona glabra (pond apple)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona squamosa (sugar apple)PresentNativeUSA, Missouri Botanical Garden (2009); Flora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAntigonon leptopus (coral vine)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)PresentStandley and Williams (1969); USA, Missouri Botanical Garden (2011); USDA-ARS (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAverrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus fissifoliusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBacopa monnieri (water hyssop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria cristata (Philippine violet)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBasella alba (malabar spinach)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2017); Missouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBatis maritima (saltwort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBegonia nelumbiifolia (lilypad begonia)PresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBixa orellana (annatto)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Present, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated); Condit et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBorreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed)PresentLorenzi (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa saccharoidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)PresentIntroducedGrandtner and Chevrette (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica juncea (mustard)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica rapa (field mustard)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromelia pinguin (wild pineapple)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)PresentIntroducedAlvarez (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja davidii (butterfly bush)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)PresentIntroducedFlora of Panama (2014); ILDIS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalceolaria tripartitaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalliandra houstoniana (calliandra)PresentNativeWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCallisia repens (creeping inch-plant)PresentNativeCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium caeruleum (jicama)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentNativeCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis procera (apple of sodom)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveWorld Agroforestry Centre (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCananga odorata (ylang-ylang)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora Mesoamericana (2014); Panama Checklist (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean)PresentIntroducedSauer (1964)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia gladiata (sword bean)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna indica (canna lilly)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna x generalis (canna lily)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum annuum (bell pepper)PresentFAO (2009); Herrera-Vásquez et al. (2009); Aguilar-Meléndez et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)PresentEPPO (2022); PIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant)PresentNativeIUCN (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)PresentIntroducedFlora of Panama (2014); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia grandis (pink shower)PresentNativeCondit et al. (2011); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree)PresentNativePittier (1910); Cokeley et al. (2000); GBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCecropia peltata (trumpet tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCedrela odorata (Spanish cedar)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentratherum punctatum (lark daisy)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratophyllum demersum (coontail)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaecrista nictitans (sensitive partridge pea)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris radiataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris virgata (feather finger grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChromolaena odorata (Siam weed)PresentNativeGautier (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinchona pubescens (quinine tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle)PresentNativeCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCissus verticillata (possum grape vine)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantium (sour orange)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)PresentIntroducedPhilcox (1996); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedCochrane and Iltis (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)PresentIntroducedRueda (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)PresentNativeWester and Wood (1977); Missouri Botanical Garden (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClusia roseaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)PresentIntroducedHenderson et al. (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Present, WidespreadIntroducedDavidse et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCombretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)PresentLorenzi (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2004); USDA-ARS (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of Panama (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCostus spicatus (spiked spiralflag ginger)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)Panama Checklist (2014); Flora of Panama (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria maypurensis (rattlebox weed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCroton argenteus (silver July croton)PresentNativeGovaerts (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia grandiflora (rubber vine)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea hyssopifolia (false heather)PresentNativeFlora, Mesoamericana (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentIntroducedInvasivePruski (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyathula prostrata (pasture weed)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2015); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)PresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus meyenianus (Meyen's flatsedge)PresentNativeGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Govaerts (2014); Zachrisson et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura metel (Hindu datura)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); Flora of Panama (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura stramonium (jimsonweed)PresentTropicos (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)PresentNativeILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); PIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)PresentIntroducedVega and Rúgolo de Agrasar (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria insularis (sourgrass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDiodia teres (poorjoe)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004); FAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea bulbifera (air potato)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)PresentIntroducedStandley (1928); PROTA (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)PresentNativeUlloa (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDracaena fragrans (corn plant)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDuranta erecta (golden dewdrop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)PresentCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)PresentGarita et al. (1995); Clayton et al. (2014); Zachrisson et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass)PresentNativeTropicos (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEclipta prostrata (eclipta)PresentZachrisson et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth)PresentNativeUK, Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew) (2009); USA, Missouri Botanical Garden (2009); USDA-ARS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)Present, WidespreadGopal (1987); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeis guineensis (African oil palm)PresentFAO (2009); Missouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEntada gigas (sea-bean)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis unioloides (Chinese lovegrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2012); Belcher (1956)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)PresentIntroducedD'Arcy (1975); Meusel and Jäger (1992); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEriobotrya japonica (loquat)Present, PlantedIntroducedNaturalizedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErythrina berteroana (coralbean)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErythrina poeppigiana (coral tree)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEtlingera elatior (torch ginger)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)PresentNativePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)PresentFlora of Panama (2020); Govaerts (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benjamina (weeping fig)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2014); WBN Flora Database (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus religiosa (sacred fig tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentUSDA-ARS (2014); Zachrisson et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia macrophylla (large leaf flemingia)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia strobilifera (wild hops)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004); ILDIS (2014); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFragaria vesca (wild strawberry)PresentDarrow (1966)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFurcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Present, WidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalphimia gracilis (goldshower)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGarcia nutans (false tung oil tree)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (gliricidia)PresentNativeILDIS (2002); WAC (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)PresentNativeFloridata (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena serrata (arrasa con todo)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHertentains et al. (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliconia bihai (macaw flower)PresentIntroducedShenk (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliocarpus americanus (white moho)Present, WidespreadNativeLay (1949); USDA-ARS (2012); Grandtner and Chevrette (2013); Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Miller (1988)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemerocallis fulva (tawny daylily)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemigraphis alternata (red ivy)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)PresentPFAF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHolcus lanatus (common velvet grass)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHura crepitans (sand box)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)Present, WidespreadIntroducedPieterse (1981); Cook and Luond (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort)PresentUSDA-ARS (2004); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)PresentIntroducedIUCN (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Present, WidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis spicigera (black sesame)PresentRoskov et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis suaveolens (pignut)PresentNativeGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balsamina (garden balsam)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)PresentIntroducedChristenhusz MJM (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaInga punctata (ice cream bean tree)Present, WidespreadNativeIUCN (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea alba (white moonflower )PresentNativeStaples (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )PresentNativeStaples (2016); Witt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea imperatiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)PresentStaples (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)PresentNativeStaples (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)PresentNativeDavidse et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)PresentNativeStaples (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory)PresentOrdetx (1949)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIxora casei (giant red ixora)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIxora finlaysoniana (white jungle flame)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda)Present, PlantedIntroducedGBIF (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)PresentIntroducedGreen (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)Present, PlantedNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)PresentNativeCSIRO (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJusticia pectoralis (freshcut)PresentNativeDaniel (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentGBIF (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop )PresentNativeeMonocot (2016); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016); PIER (2016); Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena diversifoliaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnocharis flava (yellow bur-head)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia peploides (water primrose)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa aegyptiaca (loofah)PresentZipcode Zoo (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaManilkara zapota (sapodilla)PresentNativeGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaranta arundinacea (arrowroot)PresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)PresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis minutiflora (molasses grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)Present, LocalizedIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose)PresentNativeAustin et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia tuberosa (woodrose)PresentDavidse et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia umbellata (hogvine)PresentNativeAustin et al. (2012); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)Present, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMiconia calvescens (miconia)PresentNativeMeyer (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)PresentNativePIER (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa casta (graceful mimosa)PresentNativeCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant)PresentNativePIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadNativePinzón et al. (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica charantia (bitter gourd)PresentIntroducedInvasiveScholz (1988); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMucuna pruriens (velvet bean)PresentILDIS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMuntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Present, WidespreadNativeFlora, Mesoamericana (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurdannia nudiflora (doveweed)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurraya paniculata (orange jessamine)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam)PresentNativeILDIS (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)PresentDaniel (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeomarica caerulea (walking iris)PresentIntroducedD'Arcy (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNerium oleander (oleander)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana tabacum (tobacco)PresentIntroducedFlora of Panama (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNoronhia emarginata (Madagascar olive)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea ampla (dot-leaf water-lily)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum gratissimum (African basil)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOdontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOdontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)PresentIntroducedDaniel and McDade (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOeceoclades maculata (monk orchid)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia monacantha (common prickly pear)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrbea variegata (carrion-flower)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPachira aquatica (pachira nut)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); Flora Mesoamericana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParkinsonia aculeata (Mexican palo-verde)PresentNativeILDIS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)PresentHammel (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalidium geminatum (Egyptian paspalidium)Present, LocalizedNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2012); Croat (1978)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)PresentIntroducedZhao LiFeng and Qin ShaoWei (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum distichum (knotgrass)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum fasciculatum (bull grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum millegrana (yerba brava)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum notatum (Bahia grass)PresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum virgatum (sword grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora edulis (passionfruit)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)PresentNativeKillip (1938)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)Present, WidespreadNativeDavidse et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora quadrangularis (giant granadilla)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora subpeltata (white passionflower)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora tarminiana (banana passionfruit)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora tripartita var. mollissima (banana passionfruit)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum polystachion (mission grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPereskia aculeata (Lemon-vine)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria punctata (dotted smartweed)PresentNativePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPetiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)PresentNativeCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)PresentIntroducedeMonocot (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean)PresentILDIS (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhragmites australis (common reed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2008); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018); Missouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta dioica (allspice)PresentIntroducedRodriquez (1969)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree)PresentNativeGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PresentIntroducedFrancis (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper aduncum (spiked pepper)PresentNativeStarr et al. (2003); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper auritumPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); Govaerts (2014); Missouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea carolinensis (sourbush)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentIntroducedD'Arcy (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis juliflora (mesquite)PresentNativeBurkart (1976); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudelephantopus spicatus (false elephant’s foot)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); World Agroforestry Centre (2002); FAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPtychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)PresentIntroducedNational Museum of Natural History (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPtychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)PresentIntroducedSvenning (2002); Govaerts et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)PresentIntroducedD'Arcy (1987); ILDIS (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaQuamoclit hederifoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhizophora mangle (red mangrove)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRivina humilis (bloodberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRotala ramosiorPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedMillhollon and Burner (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRoystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSvenning (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2014); Simão-Bianchini (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRuellia macrophylla (large leaved ruellia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)PresentGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRusselia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of Panama (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRytidostylis carthagenensisPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalix humboldtiana (pencil willow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)Present, PlantedNativeILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedDaniel (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSedas et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchinus molle (false pepper tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSechium edule (chayote)PresentIntroducedLira (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna alata (candle bush)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna bacillaris (whitebark senna)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna hirsuta (hairy senna)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna multijuga (November shower)Present, PlantedIrwin and Barneby (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); ILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)PresentIntroducedIrwin and Barneby (1982); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna siamea (yellow cassia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna spectabilis (whitebark senna)PresentNativeILDIS (2014); Missouri Botanical Garden (2014); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania grandiflora (sesbania)PresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria palmifolia (palm grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail)Present, WidespreadNativeGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida repens (Javanese fanpetals)PresentNativeD'Arcy (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum americanumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum erianthum (potato tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)PresentLim (2013); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum quitoense (naranjilla)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum torvum (turkey berry)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum tuberosum (potato)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum wendlandiiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora Mesoamericana (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSorghum halepense (Johnson grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood)PresentNativePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphagneticola trilobata (wedelia)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpondias purpurea (red mombin)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass)PresenteMonocot (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)Present, Few occurrencesNativeGibson (1970); Davidse et al. (2012); PIER (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSterculia apetala (Panama tree)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)PresentIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2019); USDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)PresentNativeCroat (1981); Govaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium cumini (black plum)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium jambos (rose apple)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveMorton (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTabebuia rosea (pink poui)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarindus indica (tamarind)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma stans (yellow bells)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTectona grandis (teak)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThespesia populnea (portia tree)PresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)PresentIntroducedDaniel (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia fragrans (whitelady)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)PresentIntroducedCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Present, WidespreadNativeWoodson and Schery (1980); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrachypogon spicatus (spiked crinkleawn)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTribulus cistoides (false puncture vine)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); Barker and Govaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriphasia trifolia (limeberry)PresentIntroducedD'Arcy (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriplaris americana (ant tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTripsacum latifolium (wideleaf gamagrass)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurbina corymbosa (Christmas vine)PresentNativeAustin et al. (2012); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha domingensis (southern cattail)PresentNativeD'Arcy (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUlex europaeus (gorse)PresentIntroducedD'Arcy (1980); ILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentNativeCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena sinuata (bur mallow)PresentNativeCorrea et al. (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa decumbens (signal grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa distachya (signal grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveKissmann (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUtricularia gibbaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVachellia macracantha (porknut)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbena litoralis (blue vervain)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)PresentNativeWoodson and Schery (1980); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex parviflora (molave)PresentIntroducedFlora of Panama (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYoungia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber officinale (ginger)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora, Mesoamericana (2016)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaMikrocystos mackiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPlasmodium relictumPresentNativeSousa and Herman (1982)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiPresentIntroducedDesquesnes (2004)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusalcelaphine herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusAvipoxvirusPresent, WidespreadKirmse and Loftin (1969)
Virusbluetongue virusPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusbovine leukemia virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Viruscamelpox virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusCitrus leprosis virus C (leprosis of citrus)PresentDominguez et al. (2000); Dominguez et al. (2001); CABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
Virusclassical swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
VirusCucurbit yellow stunting disorder virusAbsentEPPO (2022)
Virusduck hepatitis A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Viruseastern equine encephalitis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusequid herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusequine arteritis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusHaliotid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusinfectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusinfectious myonecrosis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusinfluenza A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2018); OIE (2018);
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
VirusNewcastle disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusNipah virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusPepper mild mottle virus (PMMV)PresentCABI and EPPO (2009); Herrera-Vásquez et al. (2009)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusrabies virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusred sea bream iridovirusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusSugarcane mosaic virus (sugarcane mosaic)PresentISSCT (1989); EPPO (2022)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusswine vesicular disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusTaura syndrome virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusvisna/maedi virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusWest Nile virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusWhite spot syndrome virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
abalone viral ganglioneuritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Aeromonas infection in fishAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
African horse sicknessAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
African swine feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
anthraxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avian encephalomyelitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
avian infectious bronchitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avian influenzaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018);
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avian tuberculosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
avipoxPresent, WidespreadKirmse and Loftin (1969)
babesiosisPresentOIE (2009)
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
blacklegPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Bonamia roughleyi (Australian winter disease) of oystersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Borrelia anserina infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bothriocephalus acheilognathi infectionPresentIntroducedChoudhury et al. (2013)
botulismPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
bovine anaplasmosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine babesiosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine papillomatosisPresentOlson et al. (1965)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine tuberculosisAbsentOIE (2018); OIE (2009); OIE (2018)
bovine viral diarrhoeaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BP virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)PresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
brucellosis (Brucella suis)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
camel poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
caprine arthritis encephalitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
caseous lymphadenitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Chrysomya bezziana infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
ChytridiomycosisPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBrem and Lips (2008); Woodhams et al. (2008); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
classical swine feverAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Clostridium perfringens enteritis and enterotoxaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cochliomyia hominivorax infestationPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
contagious agalactiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious ecthymaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
contagious equine metritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious ophthalmiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
crayfish plagueAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Denman island diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
dermatophilosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
dourineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
duck viral enteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Echinococcus granulosusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Echinococcus multilocularisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Edwardsiella septicaemia (Edwardsiella tarda infection)PresentCABI (Undated)
encephalomyocarditisPresentMurnane et al. (1960)
enzootic bovine leukosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
epizootic lymphangitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
equine coital exanthemaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)PresentOIE (2019); Andreadis et al. (1998); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine infectious anaemiaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine piroplasmosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine rhinopneumonitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
fibropapillomatosis of sea turtlesPresentHerbst (1994)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Fusobacterium necrophorum infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
glandersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
haplosporidiosis of pacific oystersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
heartwaterAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
infectious coryzaPresentCalderón et al. (2010)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
infectious myonecrosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Japanese encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
leptospirosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
lumpy skin diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
malignant catarrhal feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Nairobi sheep diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
necrotizing hepatopancreatitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Newcastle diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Nipah virus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Oncorhynchus masou virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
paratuberculosisPresentWhittington et al. (2019)
peste des petits ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Plasmodium relictum infectionPresentNativeSousa and Herman (1982)
porcine enterovirus infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
porcine parvovirus infectionPresentObaldia (1991)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
pulmonary adenomatosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Q feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
rabiesPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
red sea bream iridoviral diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Rift Valley feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
rinderpestAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
rotavirus infections in livestock and poultryPresent, LocalizedRyder et al. (1986)
scrapieAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
sheep and goat poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
stranglesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
surraPresentIntroducedDesquesnes (2004)
swine dysenteryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
swine erysipelasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
swine vesicular diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Taura syndromeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
theileriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
tuberculosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005)
tularaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
varroosis of honey beesPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2009); OIE (2020)
vesicular stomatitisPresentOIE (2009); Johnson et al. (1969); Nichol (1988)
visna/maediAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
West Nile feverAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
white spot diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
white tail diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
yellow head diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
AvocadosArea harvested1,789 Im1,777 Im1,754 Im1,749 Im1,757 Im
Production quantity8,567 Im8,448 Im8,2768,1958,115
Yield47,887 Fc47,541 Fc47,184 Fc46,855 Fc46,187 Fc
BananasArea harvested8,449 Im9,512 Im9,642 Im8,282 Im8,790 Im
Production quantity308,837 Im350,900 F358,925311,060333,878
Yield365,531 Fc368,902 Fc372,252 Fc375,586 Fc379,838 Fc
Beans, dryArea harvested10,328 Im12,178 Im12,14011,48012,510
Production quantity4,533 Im5,506 Im5,9284,5765,008
Yield4,389 Fc4,521 Fc4,883 Fc3,986 Fc4,003 Fc
Cabbages and other brassicasArea harvested152 Im168 Im170 Im171 Im173 Im
Production quantity2,558 Im2,809 Im2,8152,8112,808
Yield168,289 Fc167,202 Fc165,588 Fc164,386 Fc162,312 Fc
Carrots and turnipsArea harvested433 Im424 Im423 Im424 Im421 Im
Production quantity4,503 Im4,375 Im4,3454,3214,296
Yield103,995 Fc103,184 Fc102,719 Fc101,910 Fc102,043 Fc
CassavaArea harvested1,068 Im1,289 Im1,347 Im906 Im704 Im
Production quantity17,234 Im20,638 Im21,41514,30111,270
Yield161,367 Fc160,109 Fc158,983 Fc157,848 Fc160,085 Fc
Cereals, TotalArea harvested141,136 A152,199 A146,693 A150,514 A159,252 A
Production quantity417,627 A449,277 A433,472 A450,357 A388,183 A
Yield29,590 Fc29,519 Fc29,550 Fc29,921 Fc24,375 Fc
Chillies and peppers, greenArea harvested121 Im135 Im136 Im136 Im133 Im
Production quantity2,192 Im2,417 Im2,4082,3902,372
Yield181,157 Fc179,037 Fc177,059 Fc175,735 Fc178,346 Fc
Citrus Fruit, TotalArea harvested4,819 A4,869 A4,795 A4,683 A5,674 A
Production quantity40,419 A40,925 A40,394 A39,536 A47,952 A
Yield83,874 Fc84,052 Fc84,242 Fc84,425 Fc84,512 Fc
Cocoa, beansArea harvested8,267 Im8,219 Im5,393 Im5,427 Im4,845 Im
Production quantity1,000 *1,000 *660668572
Yield1,210 Fc1,217 Fc1,224 Fc1,231 Fc1,181 Fc
CoconutsArea harvested4,408 Im4,476 Im4,425 Im4,350 Im4,281 Im
Production quantity15,618 Im15,886 Im15,73315,49415,259
Yield35,431 Fc35,492 Fc35,555 Fc35,618 Fc35,644 Fc
Coffee, greenArea harvested16,117 Im17,197 Im14,756 Im13,746 Im16,627 Im
Production quantity7,200 *7,680 *6,5886,1357,464
Yield4,467 Fc4,466 Fc4,465 Fc4,463 Fc4,489 Fc
Cucumbers and gherkinsArea harvested306 Im306 Im310 Im309 Im317 Im
Production quantity2,915 Im2,869 Im2,8602,8402,820
Yield95,261 Fc93,758 Fc92,258 Fc91,909 Fc88,959 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested35,757 A38,101 A38,963 A37,426 A35,670 A
Production quantity652,687 A698,506 A716,909 A658,678 A664,945 A
Yield182,534 Fc183,330 Fc183,997 Fc175,995 Fc186,416 Fc
Fruit, fresh nesArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Lettuce and chicoryArea harvested267 Im258 Im250 Im247 Im241 Im
Production quantity5,005 Im4,841 Im4,6944,6494,604
Yield187,453 Fc187,636 Fc187,760 Fc188,219 Fc191,037 Fc
MaizeArea harvested50,810 Im51,538 Im53,23058,95065,910
Production quantity110,000 *111,973 Im116,151127,799102,582
Yield21,649 Fc21,726 Fc21,821 Fc21,679 Fc15,564 Fc
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasArea harvested1,117 Im1,099 Im1,096 Im1,094 Im1,106 Im
Production quantity7,443 Im7,319 Im7,2987,2627,227
Yield66,634 Fc66,597 Fc66,588 Fc66,380 Fc65,344 Fc
Melons, other (inc.cantaloupes)Area harvested929 Im1,575 Im2,261 Im2,854 Im2,445 Im
Production quantity1,861 Im3,367 Im5,1627,2458,637
Yield20,032 Fc21,378 Fc22,831 Fc25,385 Fc35,325 Fc
Oil palm fruitArea harvested2,741 Im3,483 Im4,066 Im4,713 Im4,897 Im
Production quantity27,756 Im35,300 Im41,24047,84949,809
Yield101,262 Fc101,349 Fc101,426 Fc101,526 Fc101,713 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested7,705 A8,560 A9,129 A9,726 A9,852 A
Production quantity43,664 A51,490 A57,290 A63,670 A65,403 A
Yield56,670 Fc60,152 Fc62,756 Fc65,464 Fc66,386 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested7,705 A8,560 A9,129 A9,726 A9,852 A
Production quantity2,275 A2,544 A2,728 A2,924 A2,973 A
Yield2,953 Fc2,972 Fc2,988 Fc3,006 Fc3,017 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested7,705 A8,560 A9,129 A9,726 A9,852 A
Production quantity8,184 A9,862 A11,137 A12,545 A12,942 A
Yield10,622 Fc11,522 Fc12,200 Fc12,898 Fc13,136 Fc
Onions, dryArea harvested509 Im463 Im552 Im799 Im727 Im
Production quantity10,469 Im9,568 Im11,44816,64115,377
Yield205,678 Fc206,652 Fc207,391 Fc208,273 Fc211,513 Fc
OrangesArea harvested4,819 Im4,869 Im4,795 Im4,683 Im5,674 Im
Production quantity40,419 Im40,925 Im40,39439,53647,952
Yield83,874 Fc84,052 Fc84,242 Fc84,425 Fc84,512 Fc
PapayasArea harvested202 Im202 Im201 Im199 Im198 Im
Production quantity7,935 Im7,919 Im7,8357,7267,617
Yield392,822 Fc392,030 Fc389,801 Fc388,241 Fc384,697 Fc
Pigeon peasArea harvested3,903 Im3,941 Im3,964 Im3,977 Im4,030 Im
Production quantity1,980 Im1,987 Im1,9871,9831,980
Yield5,073 Fc5,042 Fc5,013 Fc4,986 Fc4,913 Fc
PineapplesArea harvested2,595 Im2,527 Im2,567 Im2,132 Im2,099 Im
Production quantity111,070 Im109,305 Im112,26994,39496,230
Yield428,015 Fc432,548 Fc437,355 Fc442,749 Fc458,456 Fc
Plantains and othersArea harvested14,732 Im15,933 Im15,510 Im14,316 Im11,668 Im
Production quantity146,252 Im159,403 Im156,382145,468120,685
Yield99,275 Fc100,046 Fc100,827 Fc101,612 Fc103,432 Fc
PotatoesArea harvested1,050 Im953 Im862 Im1,285 Im1,111 Im
Production quantity25,967 Im23,421 Im21,03931,18027,382
Yield247,305 Fc245,761 Fc244,072 Fc242,646 Fc246,463 Fc
Pulses nesArea harvested3,661 Im3,112 Im1,938 Im4,296 Im3,906 Im
Production quantity3,081 Im2,563 Im1,5613,3842,960
Yield8,416 Fc8,236 Fc8,055 Fc7,877 Fc7,578 Fc
Pulses, TotalArea harvested17,892 A19,231 A18,042 A19,753 A20,446 A
Production quantity9,594 A10,056 A9,476 A9,943 A9,948 A
Yield5,362 Fc5,229 Fc5,252 Fc5,034 Fc4,865 Fc
Rice, paddyArea harvested89,559 Im100,284 Im93,20091,27092,380
Production quantity305,000 *336,000316,403321,520281,980
Yield34,056 Fc33,505 Fc33,949 Fc35,227 Fc30,524 Fc
Rice, paddy (rice milled equivalent)Production quantity203,435 Fc224,112 Fc211,041 Fc214,454 Fc188,081 Fc
Roots and tubers nesArea harvested9 Im9 Im8 Im1 Im1 Im
Production quantity182 Im187 Im167 Im2421
Yield202,222 Fc207,778 Fc208,750 Fc240,000 Fc210,000 Fc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested5,784 A6,548 A5,916 A5,316 A6,244 A
Production quantity55,096 A58,336 A55,063 A56,629 A56,209 A
Yield95,256 Fc89,090 Fc93,075 Fc106,526 Fc90,021 Fc
Sesame seedArea harvested389 Im390 Im391 Im392 Im395 Im
Production quantity247 Im245 Im243 Im240 Im238 Im
Yield6,350 Fc6,282 Fc6,215 Fc6,122 Fc6,025 Fc
SorghumArea harvested767 Im377 Im263 Im294 Im962 Im
Production quantity2,627 Im1,304 Im9181,0383,621
Yield34,250 Fc34,589 Fc34,905 Fc35,306 Fc37,640 Fc
SoybeansArea harvested167 Im211 Im247 Im271 Im279 Im
Production quantity43 Im59 Im74 Im87 Im97 Im
Yield2,575 Fc2,796 Fc2,996 Fc3,210 Fc3,477 Fc
Sugar caneArea harvested37,54838,74938,62937,99538,208
Production quantity2,670,9092,931,3952,694,5522,667,1942,380,811
Yield711,332 Fc756,509 Fc697,546 Fc701,986 Fc623,118 Fc
Sugar Crops PrimaryArea harvested37,548 A38,749 A38,629 A37,995 A38,208 A
Production quantity2,670,909 A2,931,395 A2,694,552 A2,667,194 A2,380,811 A
Yield711,332 Fc756,509 Fc697,546 Fc701,986 Fc623,118 Fc
TeaArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea harvested1,516 Im1,505 Im1,494 Im1,486 Im1,488 Im
Production quantity2,797 Im2,774 Im2,752 Im2,736 Im2,743 Im
Yield18,450 Fc18,432 Fc18,420 Fc18,412 Fc18,434 Fc
TomatoesArea harvested612 Im630 Im655 Im600 Im609 Im
Production quantity18,372 Im18,939 Im19,68118,07418,918
Yield300,196 Fc300,619 Fc300,473 Fc301,233 Fc310,640 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested5,519 A5,785 A5,899 A6,230 A7,270 A
Production quantity50,479 A50,673 A53,097 A56,555 A56,008 A
Yield91,464 Fc87,594 Fc90,010 Fc90,778 Fc77,040 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested3,119 Im3,401 Im3,403 Im3,544 Im4,649 Im
Production quantity4,465 Im4,855 Im4,8464,8294,813
Yield14,315 Fc14,275 Fc14,240 Fc13,626 Fc10,353 Fc
WatermelonsArea harvested1,125 Im607 Im1,137 Im2,117 Im1,933 Im
Production quantity20,303 Im10,920 Im20,36837,79234,604
Yield180,471 Fc179,901 Fc179,138 Fc178,517 Fc179,017 Fc
YamsArea harvested3,271 Im3,923 Im3,434 Im2,756 Im3,832 Im
Production quantity9,791 Im12,203 Im11,0889,22214,410
Yield29,933 Fc31,106 Fc32,289 Fc33,462 Fc37,604 Fc
Yautia (cocoyam)Area harvested386 Im374 Im265 Im368 Im596 Im
Production quantity1,922 Im1,887 Im1,3541,9023,126
Yield49,793 Fc50,455 Fc51,094 Fc51,685 Fc52,450 Fc
Flag
No flag = Official data
* = Unofficial figure
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
F = FAO estimate
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology
M = Data not available

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea2,259 Fm2,259 Fm2,259 Fm2,259 Fm2,259 Fm
AgricultureArea2,259 Fc2,259 Fc2,259 Fc2,259 Fc2,259 Fc
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area6 I15 I15 I15 I15 I
Arable landArea565 Fm565 Fm565 Fm565 Fm565 Fm
Country areaArea7,532 W7,532 Q7,532 Q7,532 Q7,532 Q
CroplandArea750 Fm750 Fm750 Fm750 Fm750 Fm
Forest landArea4,237 Q4,248 Q4,260 Q4,271 Q4,282 Fm
Inland watersArea108 Fm108 Fm108 Fm108 Fm108 Fm
Land areaArea7,418 W7,412 Q7,412 Q7,412 Q7,412 Q
Land area equipped for irrigationArea32 Fm32 Fm32 Fm32 Fm32 Fm
Land under perm. meadows and pasturesArea1,509 Fm1,509 Fm1,509 Fm1,509 Fm1,509 Fm
Land under permanent cropsArea185 Fm185 Fm185 Fm185 Fm185 Fm
Land under temp. meadows and pasturesArea29 Fm29 Fm29 Fm29 Fm29 Fm
Land under temporary cropsArea250 Fm250 Fm250 Fm250 Fm250 Fm
Land with temporary fallowArea286 Fm286 Q286 Fm286 Fm286 Q
Naturally regenerating forestArea4,172 Q4,184 Q4,197 Q4,210 Q4,222 Fm
Other landArea922 Fc905 Fc894 Fc882 Fc871 Fc
Planted ForestArea65 Q64 Q63 Q61 Q60 Fm
Cropland area under organic agric.Area15 I
Primary ForestArea0 Fm0 Fm0 Q0 Fm
Agriculture area certified organicArea5 I
Agriculture area actually irrigatedArea
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc.
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries
W = Data reported on country official publications or web sites (Official) or trade country files

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.