Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Netherlands

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Datasheet

Netherlands

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 17,332,850 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 53,100 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 920,333.91 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 907,050.86 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 1.65 (2019)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
yellow head virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato)Present, Transient under eradicationNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); CABI and EPPO (2009); IPPC (2014); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot)Present, Transient under eradicationNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Dermatophilus congolensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaBacteroidetesPaenibacillus larvaeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma palmae (lethal yellowing (LY))Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesGrapevine flavescence doree phytoplasma (flavescence dorée of grapevine)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma synoviaePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesPhytoplasma mali (apple proliferation)Present, Few occurrencesCABI/EPPO (2013); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesPhytoplasma pyri (pear decline)Present, WidespreadNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); CABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAcidovorax citrulli (fruit blotch)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginaleAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrenneria salicis (watermark)Present, WidespreadGREMMEN and KAM (1970); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusAbsentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella melitensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia caryophylli (bacterial wilt of carnation)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyBradbury (1986); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia pseudomalleiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Hepatobacter penaeiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter africanus (African greening)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (zebra chip)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriacitrus huanglongbing (greening) disease (citrus greening)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaDickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)PresentInvasiveSlawiak et al. (2008); Degefu et al. (2013); Tsror et al. (2013); Wolf et al. (2014); CABI and EPPO (2015)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaErwinia amylovora (fireblight)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveKleijburg (1979); CABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEscherichia coliPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaMannheimia haemolyticaPresentFels-Klerx et al. (2002)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPectobacterium parmentieri (black leg disease of potato)Present, WidespreadHaan et al. (2008); Waleron et al. (2013)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi (oleander knot)Present, LocalizedInvasiveBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1987)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (bacterial canker of kiwifruit)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi (chestnut bleeding canker)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2015)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)Present, LocalizedIntroducedEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)Present, Transient under eradicationCABI and EPPO (1999); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella AbortusequiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella dublinPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella enteritidisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella typhimuriumPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaVibrio parahaemolyticusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (bean blight)Present, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2007); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas fragariae (angular leaf spot)Present, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2013); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXenohaliotis californiensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Bergsma-Vlami et al. (2015)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXylophilus ampelinus (bacterial blight of grapevine)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces astaciAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces invadansAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora alni species complex (alder Phytophthora)PresentBrasier et al. (1999); Brasier et al. (2004); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cambivora (root rot of forest trees)PresentEPPO (2009)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)Present, LocalizedIntroducedUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentUK, CAB International (1982); Tantius et al. (1986); Carter et al. (1990); Andrivon et al. (1994); Goodwin et al. (1999); Knapova and Gisi (2002); Vossen et al. (2003)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora kernoviaeAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora lateralis (Port-Orford-cedar root disease)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveIPPC (2006); Meffert (2007); CABI/EPPO (2012); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); IPPC (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death (SOD))Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); IPPC (2006); CABI/EPPO (2013); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara halstedii (downy mildew of sunflower)Present, Few occurrencesNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew)PresentUK, CAB International (1988)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaAlternaria gaisen (black spot of Japanese pear)Absent, Intercepted onlyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaAlternaria japonica (pod spot of radish)PresentDavid (2000); Neergaard (1945)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaApiognomonia errabunda (anthracnose)PresentPhillips and Burdekin (1992)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); UK, CAB International (1990)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBlumeria graminis (powdery mildew of grasses and cereals)PresentTimmer (1996); CABI and EPPO (2004)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCalonectria pseudonaviculata (Buxus blight)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHenricot et al. (2008); CABI/EPPO (2012); Gehesquière et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis fagacearum (oak wilt)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis platani (canker stain of plane)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCiborinia camelliae (flower blight)Present, WidespreadNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); IPPC (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry)PresentNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Freeman et al. (2000); CABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCrumenulopsis sororiaPresent, WidespreadNativeVloten and Gremmen (1953)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCryphonectria parasitica (blight of chestnut)Present, Transient under eradicationEPPO (2022); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); CABI and EPPO (2015)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDiaporthe eres (apple leaf, branch and fruit fungus)PresentCardinaals et al. (2018); Kerling (1961); Gomes et al. (2013); Dhanushka Udayanga et al. (2014); Lombard et al. (2014)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDidymascella thujina (cedar leaf blight)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDidymella fabae (leaf and pod spot)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1993)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDiplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease)PresentHarteveld et al. (2020)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDiscula destructiva (anthracnose of dogwood)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaElsinoë australis (citrus scab)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaEntoleuca mammataPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (Fusarium wilt)PresentSchroers et al. (2004)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGeosmithia morbida (thousand cankers disease)AbsentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGibberella circinata (pitch canker)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGlomerella acutataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGremmeniella abietina (Brunchorstia disease)PresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Absent, Intercepted onlyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaHymenoscyphus fraxineus (ash dieback)Present, WidespreadOgris et al. (2010); CABI/EPPO (2013); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaLachnellula willkommii (European larch canker)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022); UK, CAB International (1989)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMonilinia fructigena (brown rot)PresentCABI and EPPO (2000); Fulton and Brown (1997); Leeuwen et al. (2000); Côté et al. (2004); Abate et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella dearnessii (brown spot needle blight)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella pini (Dothistroma blight)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); IPPC (2008); CABI and EPPO (2010); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaOphiostoma novo-ulmi (Dutch elm disease)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGibbs (1978)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaOphiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Mitchell and Brasier (1994); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhoma tracheiphila (mal secco)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhyllactinia guttata (powdery mildew of hardwood trees)PresentBraun (1995)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome fungus)PresentPuechmaille et al. (2011); Wibbelt et al. (2013)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSeiridium cardinale (cypress canker)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum (butternut canker)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaAmylostereum areolatumPresentOsieck et al. (2012)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaChrysomyxa rhododendri (European Rhododendron rust)PresentNativeOudemans (1905); CABI/EPPO (2012)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaCronartium kamtschaticum (Japanese white pine rust)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaCronartium ribicola (white pine blister rust)PresentUK, CAB International (1983); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaGymnosporangium yamadae (Japanese apple rust)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaHeterobasidion annosumPresent, WidespreadNativeSchuring (1999)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaHeterobasidion annosum sensu lato (Heterobasidion root rot)Present, WidespreadNativeUK, CAB International (1980); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia graminis (stem rust of cereals)Present, Few occurrencesZadoks (1959)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)Present, LocalizedBOEREMA and VERMEULEN (1964); de Jong and Rademaker (1986); CABI and EPPO (2008); Backer et al. (2011); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Demers et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaTilletia indica (Karnal bunt of wheat)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaUrocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaUromyces limoniiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationCABI (Undated); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMartel et al. (2013)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaSynchytrium endobioticum (wart disease of potato)Present, LocalizedNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaFicopomatus enigmaticus (tubeworm)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWolff (2005); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaHydroides elegansPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaLumbricus rubellusPresentIntroducedGates (1972)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaLumbricus terrestrisPresentIntroducedInvasiveGates (1972)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaMarenzelleria neglecta (red gilled mud worm)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveEssink and Kleef (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaMarenzelleria viridisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaNeodexiospira brasiliensisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcantholyda laricisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcarapis woodi (honeybee mite)PresentEPPO (2022); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcartia tonsaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcrolepiopsis assectella (leek moth)PresentMaan (1945); Oudejans (1971); Nyrop et al. (1989); Minks et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcronicta acerisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAculops fuchsiae (Fuchsia gall mite)Present, Transient under eradicationEPPO (2022); NPPO (2015); IPPC (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAculops lycopersici (tomato russet mite)PresentVan Rossem (1974); Bravenboer (1975); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAdelges piceae (balsam woolly adelgid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSteffan (1972); CABI/EPPO (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes aegyptiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAethina tumidaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgardhiella subulataPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAmphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGittenberger et al. (2010); Waardenburg (1827); Hoek (1876); Bishop (1947); Wolff (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly)Absent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn)Absent, EradicatedCABI and EPPO (2008); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnthocoris butleriPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnthrenocerus australisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1968); Guildemond et al. (1994); Steenis and El-Khawass (1995); Nauen and Elbert (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1969); Furk (1979)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis melliferaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAppendiseta robiniaePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAproceros leucopoda (elm zigzag sawfly)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArchips xylosteanus (apple, leafroller)PresentSchilthuizen et al. (2016); Meijer et al. (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArgiope bruennichiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArgyresthia trifasciataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArgyrotaenia ljungianaPresentRaemakers and Smits (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAromia bungii (red necked longicorn)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAsperogronops inaequalisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAtyaephyra desmarestiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAustrominius modestusPresent, WidespreadIntroducedMeulen (1946); Bassindale (1947); Bishop (1947); Boschma (1948); Leenhouts (1948); Leenhouts (1948); Hartog (1953); Kühl (1963); Wolf (1973); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactericera cockerelli (tomato/potato psyllid)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBalanus amphitrite (striped barnacle)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBalanus eburneusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)Present, WidespreadWilson and Anema (1988); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Botermans et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly)Present, Widespreadde Barro (1995); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly)PresentAhmed et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBlattella germanica (German cockroach)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBombus terrestris (bumble bee)PresentNativeRasmont et al. (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBorkhausenia nefraxPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrachypterolus antirrhiniPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)PresentCABI/EPPO (2013); Beard et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBruchus signaticornisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBythotrephes longimanus (spiny waterflea)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveKetelaars and Gille (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCacoecimorpha pronubana (carnation tortrix)Present, LocalizedHuisman et al. (2005); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCacyreus marshalli (pelargonium butterfly)Present, Transient under eradicationCABI and EPPO (1997); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCaenoscelis subdeplanataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallinectes sapidus (blue crab)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Jensen (2010); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveStigter et al. (2000); CABI and EPPO (2003); Huisman et al. (2004); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCaprella muticaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedCook et al. (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCarcinus maenas (European shore crab)Present, WidespreadNativeRoman and Palumbi (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCephalcia alashanicaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCephalcia erythrogasterPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)Absent, Formerly presentLammers et al. (2007); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeratitis rosa (Natal fruit fly)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCercyon laminatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCerobasis annulataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeutorhynchus obstrictus (cabbage seed pod weevil)PresentNijveldt (1973); Colonnelli (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChaetogammarus ischnusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp)PresentIntroducedBrink et al. (1993); Josens et al. (2005); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth)Present, LocalizedLempke (1982); Vos and Rutten (1995); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysolina americana (rosemary beetle)PresentBeenen and Winkelman (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysolina coerulansPresentFauna Europaea (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysso spiniventrisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCinara cupressi sensu lato (Cypress aphid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWatson et al. (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCinara laporteiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaClosterotomus trivialisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoccinella septempunctata (seven-spot ladybird)PresentNativeKajita et al. (2012); Blom et al. (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaColeophora deauratella (red clover casebearer)PresentFauna Europaea (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaConotrachelus nenuphar (plum curculio)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaContarinia quinquenotata (Hemerocallis gall midge)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCopidothrips octarticulatusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCorophium sextonaePresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCorythucha ciliata (sycamore lace bug)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCrocidosema plebejana (cotton tipworm)PresentHuisman et al. (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCryptamorpha desjardinsiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCryptococcus fagisuga (beech coccus)PresentUK, CAB International (1979); Kosztarab and Kozár (1988); Jansen (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCryptopleurum subtilePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCurculio elephas (chestnut weevil)PresentHeijerman (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveStraten and Muus (2010); CABI/EPPO (2012); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCylas formicarius (sweet potato weevil)Absent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDendroctonus micans (great spruce bark beetle)Present, LocalizedWood and Bright (1992); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDendrolimus pini (pine-tree lappet)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiabrotica virgifera virgifera (western corn rootworm)Absent, EradicatedKiss et al. (2005); IPPC (2006); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDichromothrips corbettiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDichromothrips phalaenopsidisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDichrooscytus gustaviPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBij de Vaate and Klink (1995); Josens et al. (2005); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDinoderus bifoveolatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiplopseustis perieresalisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiprion similis (white pine sawfly)Present, LocalizedNativeRohwer (1916); Coppel et al. (1974); Liston (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDrosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila)Present, LocalizedIntroducedNPPO (2012); Helsen et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); Kenis et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDryocosmus kuriphilus (Oriental chestnut gall wasp)Present, LocalizedNPPO The Netherlands (2010); NPPO The Netherlands (2013); IPPC (2014); CABI and EPPO (2015); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDuponchelia fovealis (Southern European marshland pyralid)Present, Only undercover/indoorsPijnakker (2001); Romeijn (1994); Huisman and Koster (1995); Karsholt and Razowski (1996); CABI and EPPO (2008); Slieker et al. (2021); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEarias vernanaPresentTuinstra (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEchinothrips americanusPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaElatobium abietinum (green spruce aphid)Present, WidespreadIntroducedKloft et al. (1964)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaElophila nymphaeataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEnarmonia formosana (bark tortrix)PresentHuisman et al. (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEpichoristodes acerbella (South African carnation tortrix)Absent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2022); Huisman et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEpitrix tuberis (tuber flea beetle)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEricaphis scammelliPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)PresentIntroducedInvasiveISSG (2004); NHM (2004); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEriosoma lanigerum (woolly aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1975)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEulachnus rileyi (pine needle aphid)PresentNHM (1955)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEupithecia lariciataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEupithecia pulchellataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaExomala orientalis (oriental beetle)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFaxonius limosus (Spiny-cheek crayfish)PresentIntroducedInvasiveGeelen JFM (1978); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFaxonius virilis (virile crayfish)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSoes (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaForficula auricularia (European earwig)PresentAalbers (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCABI and EPPO (1999); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGammarus tigrinusPresentIntroducedInvasiveNijssen and Stock (1966); Pinkster et al. (1977); Pinkster (1978); Pinkster et al. (1980); Dick and Platvoet (2000); Josens et al. (2005); Platvoet et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGeococcus coffeae (coffee root mealybug)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGilpinia hercyniae (spruce sawfly)PresentNativeListon (1995); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGnathotrichus materiariusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGypsonoma aceriana (poplar twig borer)Present, WidespreadNativeBooij and Voerman (1984); Razowski (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHaplaxius crudus (American palm cixiid)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHaplotinea insectellaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHarmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBrown et al. (2008); CABI and EPPO (2007); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)Absent, EradicatedIPPC (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa zea (American cotton bollworm)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)PresentUK, CAB International (1961)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemigrapsus penicilatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemigrapsus sanguineus (Asian shore crab)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Breton et al. (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemigrapsus takanoi (brush-clawed shore crab)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBreton et al. (2002); Wolff (2005); DAISIE (2013); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemimysis anomalaPresentIntroducedInvasiveKelleher et al. (1999); Ketelaars et al. (1999); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHenoticus californicusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHomalodisca vitripennis (glassy winged sharpshooter)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHomarus americanus (American lobster)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHoridiplosis ficifoliiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHylastes ater (black pine bark beetle)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHylobius abietis (large pine weevil)PresentDoom and Frenken (1980); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHylurgops palliatus (lesser spruce shoot beetle)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHylurgus ligniperda (red-haired pine bark beetle)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992); CABI and EPPO (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypoponera punctatissimaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdiopterus nephrelepidisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIllinoia azaleaePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIllinoia rhododendriPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIps cembrae (large larch bark beetle)Present, LocalizedNativeCABI and EPPO (2007); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIps typographus (eight-toothed bark beetle)Present, LocalizedNativeMoraal (1996); BAWBILT (2002); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLasius neglectus (invasive garden ant)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMabelis et al. (2010); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1962); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI and EPPO (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeucoptera malifoliella (pear leaf blister moth)PresentNativeEllis (2005); Jansen (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeucothrips nigripennisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLilioceris lilii (lily leaf beetle)Present, WidespreadCox (2001); Haye and Kenis (2004); CABI and EPPO (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLimnomysis benedeniPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveKelleher et al. (1999); Vaate et al. (2002); Usseglio-Polatera and Beisel (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLimnoria lignorum (gribble)PresentNMNH (2012); Holthuis (1949); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLimnoria quadripunctata (gribble)PresentNativeHolthuis (1949)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLinepithema humile (Argentine ant)PresentIntroducedBoer and Vierbergen (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiposcelis decolorPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza cicerinaPresentMartinez (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)PresentIntroducedGoffau (1991); CABI and EPPO (2002); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner)Absent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1997); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLithocharis nigricepsPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLithophane leautieriPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)PresentIntroducedShrimp News (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)PresentHuisman et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLymantria dispar (gypsy moth)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Meijer et al. (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLymantria monacha (nun moth)PresentNativeInvasiveGrijpma et al. (1987); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacaria liturataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrolophus melanotomaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid)PresentIntroducedUK, CAB International (1984)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMegastigmus spermotrophus (Douglas-fir seed chalcid)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveOudemans (1933); UK, CAB International (1977); Roques and Skrzypczyńska (2003); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMeligethes aeneus (rape beetle)PresentLucht (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMelita nitidaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonarthropalpus flavus (boxwood leafminer)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonochamus alternatus (Japanese pine sawyer)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonochamus sutor (small white-marmorated longicorn)PresentNativeInvasiveAlthoff and Danilevsky (1997); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonocorophium uenoiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMordellistena cattleyanaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyicola ostreaePresentIntroducedStock (1993); Gollasch et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMythimna unipuncta (rice armyworm)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMytilicola intestinalis (mussel red worm)PresentStock (1993); Bol (2002); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMytilicola orientalis (oyster redworm)PresentIntroducedStock (1993); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus cerasi (black cherry aphid)PresentBokx and Piron (1990)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1979); Devine et al. (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNeodiprion sertifer (European pine sawfly)Present, LocalizedNativeHein (1956)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNesothrips propinquusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNesticella mogera (cave-dwelling spider)PresentIntroducedBielak-Bielecki and Rozwalka (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNigma walckenaeriPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNovelsis horniPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaObolodiplosis robiniae (black locust gall midge)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Roskam et al. (2008); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOcnerostoma piniariellaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOecobius navusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOligota parvaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOmonadus floralisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOpogona sacchari (banana moth)Present, LocalizedIntroducedVeenenbos (1981); CABI and EPPO (1999); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOrientus ishidae (mosaic leafhopper)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOrsillus depressusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle)PresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOstrinia nubilalis (European maize borer)PresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOtiorhynchus auriferPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOtiorhynchus crataegiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOtiorhynchus smreczynskiiPresentHeijerman and Burgers (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOtiorhynchus sulcatus (vine weevil)Present, WidespreadTol (1993); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPacifastacus leniusculus (American signal crayfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Kouba et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPalaemon elegans (rock shrimp)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPalaemon macrodactylus (oriental shrimp)Present, WidespreadIntroducedFaasse (2005); Udekem et al. (2005); Tulp (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParanthrene tabaniformis (poplar clearwing moth)Present, WidespreadMoraal (1996); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParthenolecanium persicae (peach scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1979)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPaysandisia archon (South American palm borer)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPealius azaleaePresentCABI Data Mining (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPentarthrum huttoniPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug)Absent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2022); Jansen (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhloeomyzus passerinii (poplar woolly aphid)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhloeosinus rudisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhoracantha semipunctata (eucalyptus longhorned borer)Absent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhradonoma tricolorPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea absoluta (tomato leafminer)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI and EPPO (2013); Huisman et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllonorycter geniculellaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllonorycter issikii (lime leafminer)PresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Huisman et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllonorycter leucographellaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPieris brassicae (large cabbage white)PresentHiggins (1983); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPieris rapae (cabbage white butterfly)PresentUK, CAB International (1952)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPineus pini (pine woolly aphid)Present, WidespreadNativeRavensberg (1954)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPissodes castaneus (small banded pine weevil)Present, LocalizedNativeLucht (1987); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Villemant et al. (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPityogenes chalcographus (sixtoothed spruce bark beetls)Present, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug)PresentVos et al. (1993); Kozár et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)PresentUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentUK, CAB International (1986)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle)Absent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPristiphora laricisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProcambarus acutus acutusPresentIntroducedSoes and Eekelen (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProcambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProcambarus fallax f. virginalis (Marmorkrebs)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedSoes and Eekelen (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProdiplosis violicolaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)PresentJansen (1995); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus elisae (banana mealybug)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)PresentIntroducedGimpel and Miller (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudodiaptomus marinusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPsylliodes chrysocephala (cabbage stem flea beetle)PresentBonnemaison and Jourdheuil (1954); Bromand (1990)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPtinella errabundaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhagoletis completa (walnut husk fly)Present, Few occurrencesIPPC (2016); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhagoletis fausta (black cherry fruit fly)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhagoletis mendax (blueberry fruit fly)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhinocyllus conicus (thistle-head weevil)Present, LocalizedNativeAlonso-Zarazaga and Talamelli (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhithropanopeus harrisii (Harris mud crab)Present, WidespreadIntroducedMaitland (1874); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhizoecus dianthiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhopalapion longirostrePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhyacionia buoliana (European pine shoot moth)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus ferrugineus (red palm weevil)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus palmarum (South American palm weevil)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaissetia oleae (olive scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaitis barbipesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaperda candidaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaperda carcharias (large poplar borer)PresentDoom (1966)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScirtothrips aurantii (South African citrus thrips)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScolytus intricatus (European oak bark beetle)PresentNativeInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScyphophorus acupunctatus (agave weevil)Absent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2022); Rossem et al. (1981)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScytodes venustaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSedina buettneri (Blair's wainscot)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSiphoninus phillyreae (ash whitefly)PresentJansen and Stigter (1996); CABI/EPPO (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitotroga cerealella (grain moth)PresentChamp and Dyte (1977)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSmeringopus pallidusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm)Absent, EradicatedNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)Absent, EradicatedNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSteatoda castaneaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaStephanitis obertiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaStictocephala altaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaStigmella aurellaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaStigmella pyriPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaStricticomus tobiasPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)PresentIntroducedWetterer (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTecia solanivora (potato tuber moth)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTelmatogeton japonicusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTephritis praecoxPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentInternational Institute of Entomology (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetropium castaneum (black spruce beetle)Present, WidespreadNativeDanilevsky (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetropium fuscum (brown spruce longhorn beetle)Present, WidespreadNativeDanilevsky (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThaumatotibia leucotreta (false codling moth (FCM))Absent, EradicatedHuisman and Koster (2000); CABI and EPPO (2002); Potting and van der Straten (2011); IPPC (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThaumetopoea processionea (oak processionary moth)PresentMoraal (1992); Stigter and Romeijn (1992); Moraal et al. (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThripobius javaePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)Absent, EradicatedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTinea pallescentellaPresentHuisman et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTineola bisselliella (webbing clothes moth)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTinocallis nevskyiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTipula paludosa (European crane fly)Present, LocalizedOosterbroek and Theowald (1992); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTomicus piniperda (common pine shoot beetle)Present, WidespreadLuitjes (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTremex fuscicornis (Tremex wasp)PresentWitmond (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes ricini (castor bean whitefly)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse)PresentByrne et al. (1990); Malumphy et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrogoderma granarium (khapra beetle)Absent, Formerly presentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrogoderma megatomoidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTupiocoris rhododendriPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUloborus plumipesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUnaspis citri (citrus snow scale)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUrocerus albicornisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUroleucon erigeronensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespa velutina (Asian hornet)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedSmit et al. (2018); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespula germanica (German wasp)Present, WidespreadNativeHensen (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespula vulgaris (wasp, common)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaViteus vitifoliae (grapevine phylloxera)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaWahlgreniella arbutiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborinus saxesenii (fruit-tree pinhole borer)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus dispar (pear blight beetle)Present, WidespreadNativeFrankenhuyzen (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus germanus (black timber bark beetle)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaYuccaborus frontalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaZeiraphera diniana (douglas fir cone moth (Japan))PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaZeuzera pyrina (wood leopard moth)PresentUK, CAB International (1952)
EukaryotaMetazoaBryozoaBugula neritina (brown bryozoan)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaBryozoaTricellaria inopinataPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBlauwe and Faasse (2001); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAlburnus alburnus (bleak)PresentNativeNijssen and Groot (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAlopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian goose)Present, WidespreadIntroducedBanks et al. (2008); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAmeiurus melas (black bullhead)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAmeiurus nebulosus (brown bullhead)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAnser canagicusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAnser indicus (bar-headed goose)Present, LocalizedIntroducedVoslamber et al. (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAristichthys nobilis (bighead carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); FishBase (2004); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAspius aspius (asp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2004); Froese and Pauly (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBos taurus (cattle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBotrylloides violaceus (violet tunicate)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Gittenberger (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBranta canadensis (Canada goose)Present, WidespreadIntroducedVoslamber et al. (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBranta hutchinsiiPresent, LocalizedIntroducedVoslamber et al. (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubulcus ibis (cattle egret)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCallosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveDijkstra et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCapra hircus (goats)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius gibelio (Prussian carp)PresentNativeBlanc et al. (1971); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCervus elaphus (red deer)PresentNativeIUCN (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias gariepinusPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCoregonus albula (vendace)PresentIntroducedBartley (2006); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCorella eumyota (orange-tipped sea squirt)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCorvus splendens (house crow)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveOttens and Ryall (2003); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)PresentIntroducedDAISIE (2011); Seebens et al. (2017); FAO (2019); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCygnus olor (mute swan)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDidemnum vexillum (carpet sea squirt)PresentInvasiveGittenberger (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDiplosoma listerianumPresentIntroducedGittenberger (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEquus ferusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEsox lucius (pike)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGymnocephalus cernuus (ruffe)PresentNativeNijssen and Groot (1974)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004); Seebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypostomus plecostomus (suckermouth catfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIctalurus punctatus (channel catfish)PresentIntroducedCowx and Nunn (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveKleef et al. (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLepus europaeus (European hare)Present, WidespreadNativeMitchell-Jones et al. (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLeucaspius delineatus (sunbleak)PresentNativeBlanc et al. (1971); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLeuciscus leuciscus (common dace)Present, WidespreadNativeBlanc et al. (1971); Nijssen and Groot (1974)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMauremys leprosaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMicropterus dolomieu (smallmouth bass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMicropterus salmoides (largemouth bass)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMisgurnus anguillicaudatus (oriental weatherloach)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMuntiacus reevesi (Reeves' muntjac)Present, LocalizedIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMustela erminea (ermine)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMyiopsitta monachus (monk parakeet)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMyocastor coypus (coypu)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataNeogobius fluviatilis (monkey goby)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveKessel et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataNeogobius melanostomus (round goby)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveBeek (2006); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataNeovison vison (American mink)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); DAISIE (2015); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataNyctereutes procyonoides (raccoon dog)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedMitchell-Jones et al. (1999); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004); DAISIE (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOndatra zibethicus (muskrat)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedPullin et al. (1997)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedPullin et al. (1997)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOsmerus eperlanusPresentNativeNijssen and Groot (1974)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOvis aries (sheep)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOvis aries musimon (European mouflon)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedWeller (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOxyura jamaicensis (ruddy duck)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPasser domesticus (house sparrow)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPerca fluviatilis (perch)PresentNativeFishbase (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPerophora japonicaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPetromyzon marinus (sea lamprey)Present, Few occurrencesNativeNijssen and Groot (1974)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International (2015); eBird (2015); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPhoxinus phoxinus (European minnow)Present, WidespreadNativeFroese and Pauly (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPimephales promelas (fathead minnow)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia reticulata (guppy)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataProcyon lotor (raccoon)PresentIntroducedInvasiveČirovič and Milenkovič (2003); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataProterorhinus semilunaris (tubenose goby)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasivePollux and Korosi (2006); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet)Present, Localized, Confirmed present by surveyIntroducedAncillotto et al. (2016); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet)Present, LocalizedIntroducedBirdLife International (2009); Strubbe and Matthysen (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRana catesbeiana (American bullfrog)PresentIntroducedZavod Symbiosis (2005); Kraus (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus norvegicus (brown rat)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRhodeus amarusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRutilus rutilus (roach)PresentNativeKottelat and Freyhof (2007); Blanc et al. (1971); Nijssen and Groot (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalmo salar (Atlantic salmon)PresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalmo trutta (sea trout)PresentNativeBlanc et al. (1971); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalvelinus fontinalis (brook trout)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Blanc et al. (1971); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSander lucioperca (pike-perch)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataScardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004); Muus and Dahlström (1968)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSciurus carolinensis (grey squirrel)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSilurus glanis (wels catfish)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFroese R and Pauly D (2012); Copp et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSqualius cephalus (European chub)Present, Few occurrencesNativeBlanc et al. (1971)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove)PresentNativeBirdLife International (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSturnus vulgaris (common starling)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataStyela clava (Asian tunicate)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig)PresentNativeIUCN (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTamias sibiricus (Siberian chipmunk)Present, LocalizedIntroducedDijkstra and Dekker (2008); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataThreskiornis aethiopicus (sacred ibis)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedOttens (2006); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTinca tinca (tench)PresentNativeFishBase (2004); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTridentiger barbatus (Shokihaze goby)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTriturus carnifexPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)PresentNativeBruce (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataUmbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)Present, LocalizedIntroducedVerreycken et al. (2010); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaCordylophora (euryhaline hydroid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveRoch (1924); Vervoort (1964); Wolff (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaCordylophora caspia (freshwater hydroid)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaDiadumene cincta (orange anemone)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaDiadumene lineataPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaGonionemus vertensPresent, LocalizedIntroducedLeloup (1948); Leentvaar (1961); Bakker (1980); Leewis (2002); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaMyxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease agent)PresentHalliday (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaCtenophoraMnemiopsis leidyi (sea walnut)PresentIntroducedFaasse and Bayha (2006); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAethusa cynapiumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaArcuatula senhousia (Asian date mussel)Present, LocalizedIntroducedFaasse (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaArion vulgaris (Spanish slug)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWinter (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCalyptraea chinensis (Chinese hat snail)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCandidula intersecta (wrinkled dune snail)PresentNativeGodan (1983)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCernuella ionicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCipangopaludina chinensis (Chinese mysterysnail)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCorbicula fluminalisPresentIntroducedBij de Vaate and Greijdanus-Klaas (1990); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCorbicula fluminea (Asian clam)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCornu aspersum (common garden snail)Present, WidespreadIntroducedTaylor (1914); Reichling (1950); Godan (1983); Kerney (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCrassostrea virginica (eastern oyster)PresentIntroducedKennedy et al. (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCrepidula fornicata (American slipper limpet)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveAdam and Leloup (1934); Nienhuis (1992); Wolff (2005); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras invadens (tramp slug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFauna Europea (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras laeve (meadow slug)PresentNativeFauna Europea (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras reticulatum (grey field slug)PresentKerney et al. (1979); Ester and Nijënstein (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveKearney and Morton (1970)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMolloy et al. (2007); Schonenberg and Gittenberger (2008); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaEnsis directusPresentIntroducedInvasiveBoer and Bruyne (1983); Seebens et al. (2017);
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaHygromia cinctellaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLimax maximus (leopard slug)Present, WidespreadNativeBank et al. (2002); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLittorina littorea (common periwinkle)Present, WidespreadNativeBrawley et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMagallana gigas (Pacific oyster)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSmaal and Lucas (2000); Nehring (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMelanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedBij Vaate et al. (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMilax nigricansPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel)PresentIntroducedISSG (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaOxychilus alliarius (garlic snail)PresentNativeKerney et al. (1983); GBIF (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPetricolaria pholadiformis (false angel wing)PresentIntroducedInvasiveDenker (1907); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPhysella acutaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPotamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mudsnail)Present, LocalizedIntroducedBerg et al. (1997); Dorgelo (1987); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaRangia cuneataPresentGittenberger and Edmund (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaRapana venosa (veined rapana whelk)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedKerckhof et al. (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaRuditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaTeredo navalis (naval shipworm)PresentInvasiveBorges et al. (2014); de Bruyne (1991); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaTheba pisana (white garden snail)PresentEPPO (2022); Van Dalsum (1964); Gittenberger and Ripken (1987); Bank (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaUrosalpinx cinerea (American oyster drill)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAnguillicoloides crassusPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBorgsteede et al. (1999); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAnguina tritici (wheat seed gall nematode)PresentCHRISTIE and PERRY (1959); CABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)Present, Transient under surveillanceCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides fragariae (strawberry crimp nematode)PresentOostenbrink (1955); Heungens (1985); CABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm)PresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaBursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wilt nematode)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus destructor (potato tuber nematode)Present, LocalizedNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); CABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode)Present, LocalizedNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Heijbroek (1973); Whitehead et al. (1987); Janssen et al. (1993); Wendt et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2009); Jeszke et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)Present, LocalizedIntroducedClapp et al. (2000); Skantar et al. (2007); CABI/EPPO (2011); Janssen (2017); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveBendezu et al. (1998); Bendezu et al. (1998); Clapp et al. (2000); CABI/EPPO (2011); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHeterodera ciceri (chickpea cyst nematode)PresentClapp et al. (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHeterodera goettingiana (pea cyst eelworm)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)PresentBrinkman (1975); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne chitwoodi (columbia root-knot nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2012); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne enterolobii (Pacara earpod tree root-knot nematode)Absent, Intercepted onlyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne fallax (false Columbia root-knot nematode)Present, LocalizedKarssen (1996); CABI and EPPO (2003); Nijs et al. (2004); Runia and Greenberger (2005); Sommen et al. (2005); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)PresentBrinkman (1975); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne mayaguensisAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaXiphinema diversicaudatum (dagger nematode)Present, WidespreadBrown and Taylor (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); Wang XinRong et al. (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus granulosusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus multilocularisPresentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesGyrodactylus salarisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPoriferaCeltodoryx ciocalyptoidesPresentIntroducedInvasiveVan Soest et al. (2007); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila psittaciPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaCodium fragile subsp. tomentosoidesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveTrowbridge (1999); Provan et al. (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva pertusaPresentIntroducedStegenga et al. (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeHaptophytaPrymnesium parvum (golden algae)PresentLiebert and Deerns (1920); Otterstrøm and Steemann-Nielsen (1940)
EukaryotaPlantaeHeterokontophytaPseudochattonella verruculosaPresentIntroducedRiisberg (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaePhaeophytaColpomenia peregrinaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePhaeophytaSargassum muticum (wire weed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePrud'homme van Reine (1977); Nienhuis (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaePhaeophytaUndaria pinnatifida (Asian kelp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Gittenberger and Stegenga (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla cristataPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla filiculoides (water fern)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSculthorpe (1967); Pratt et al. (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla mexicanaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern)PresentIntroducedChristenhusz and Uffelen (2001); Denters (2003); Verloove and Lambinon (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaEquisetum arvense (field horsetail)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaEquisetum hyemale (Horsetail)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaEquisetum palustrePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMatteuccia struthiopterisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteridium aquilinum (bracken)Present, WidespreadNativeTutin and et al. (1964)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia molesta (kariba weed)PresentGBIF (2010); Hussner (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAsparagopsis armata (Harpoon weed)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaBonnemaisonia hamiferaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaDasya baillouvianaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaDasya sessilisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaGrateloupia turuturuPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveStegenga and Otten (1997); Maggs and Stegenga (1999); Marston and Villalard-Bohnsack (2002); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaHeterosiphonia japonicaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaNeosiphonia harveyiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Seebens et al. (2017);
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaPolysiphonia brodieiPresent, WidespreadNativeStegenga and Mol (1983); Stegenga et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaPolysiphonia senticulosaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Netherlands Plantenziektenkundige Dienst (1982); USDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcer negundo (box elder)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcer platanoides (Norway maple)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)Present, PlantedIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBGCI (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchillea millefolium (yarrow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchillea ptarmicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAegilops cylindricaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedSlageren (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave americana (century plant)PresentIntroducedISSG (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgrostis avenacea (Pacific bent grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedEuro+Med (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgrostis capillaris (common bent)PresentNativeTutin (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAilanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAira caryophyllea (silver hairgrass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAjuga chamaepitysPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAjuga reptans (carpet bugle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlchemilla xanthochloraPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllium carinatumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllium oleraceumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllium paradoxumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllium ursinumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlnus glutinosa (European alder)Present, PlantedNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlopecurus myosuroides (black-grass)PresentNativeFlora Europaea (2008); Sijtsma (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlyssum alyssoidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Aellen and Akeroyd (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedEPPO (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Aellen and Akeroyd (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus tuberculatus (rough-fruited water-hemp)Present, LocalizedIntroducedCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)PresentIntroducedAllard (1943); Chauvel et al. (2012); Euro+Med (2016); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia psilostachya (perennial ragweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveTutin et al. (1976); Seebens et al. (2017);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia trifida (giant ragweed)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Euro+Med (2016); USDA-ARS (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmelanchier lamarckii (snowy mespilus)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedWageningen University (2009); Kurtto (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmelanchier spicata (dwarf serviceberry)PresentIntroducedKurtto (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmmophila arenaria (marram grass)PresentNativeClapp et al. (2000); Euro+Med PlantBase (2011); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmsinckia micranthaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnchusa ochroleucaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnemone apenninaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnthemis cotula (dog fennel)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnthemis tinctoriaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAponogeton distachyosPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAquilegia vulgarisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArenaria serpyllifolia (thymeleaf sandwort)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArnoseris minimaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAronia x prunifoliaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWiegers (1983); Wiegers (1984); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass)PresentNativeTutin et al. (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)PresentIntroducedHegi (1929); Euro+Med PlantBase (2011); Meisner et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArum italicum (Italian arum)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGroeneveld et al. (1990)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAster lanceolatus (Narrow-leaved michaelmas daisy)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAtriplex portulacoidesPresentAshrafİ et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAtriplex prostrataPresentAshrafİ et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena brevisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena fatua (wild oat)PresentNaber (1977); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBaldellia ranunculoidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBallota nigraPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarbarea intermediaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBasella alba (malabar spinach)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedZipcodeZoo (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBerberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBerteroa incana (hoary alyssum)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens frondosa (beggarticks)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); USDA-ARS (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens tripartitaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)PresentNativeGBIF (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica juncea (mustard)PresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica nigra (black mustard)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica rapa (field mustard)PresentKell (2011); Euro+Med (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus hordeaceus (soft brome)Present, WidespreadNativeGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus lepidusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus secalinus (rye brome)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus sterilis (barren brome)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); USDA-ARS (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus tectorum (downy brome)PresentIntroducedTutin et al. (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet)PresentIntroducedVerhoeven et al. (2008);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja davidii (butterfly bush)PresentEPPO (2022); GBIF (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuglossoides arvensis (corn gromwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Clapham et al. (1962); Fitter and Peat (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort)Present, Few occurrencesNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalepina irregularisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCamelina microcarpa (smallseed falseflax)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCamelina sativaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCampanula latifoliaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCampanula patulaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCampanula rapunculoides (creeping bellflower)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCampanula rapunculus (rampion)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCampanula rotundifoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCannabis sativa (hemp)PresentKarus et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum annuum (bell pepper)PresentFAO (2009); Verhoeven et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardaminopsis arenosaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarduus crispus (curly plumeless thistle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarduus nutans (nodding thistle)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarex acutiformis (Swamp sedge)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarex crawfordiiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarex ovalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarex pendula (hanging sedge)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarex vulpinoideaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarlina vulgaris (carline thistle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatapodium rigidumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCelastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentaurea debeauxii (meadow knapweed)PresentNativeTutin et al. (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentaurea jacea (brown knapweed)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos (spotted knapweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveOchsmann (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCerastium brachypetalumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratophyllum demersum (coontail)Present, WidespreadCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium album (fat hen)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium botrysPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium foliosumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium glaucum (Oak-leaved goosefoot)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium pumilioPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChionodoxa forbesiiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysanthemum segetumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium arvense (creeping thistle)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium vulgare (spear thistle)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClematis vitalba (old man's beard)PresentNativeTutin et al. (1964)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClematis viticellaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClinopodium vulgarePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCochlearia officinalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConium maculatum (poison hemlock)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConsolida regalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed)PresentStace (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)PresentIntroducedInvasiveReutelingsperger (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCronquist (1976); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCorispermum leptopterumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCorispermum marschalliiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCornus sericea (redosier dogwood)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoronopus squamatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedDickoré and Kasperek (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotula coronopifolia (brassbuttons)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrassula helmsii (Australian swamp stonecrop)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveOEPP/EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrataegus monogyna (hawthorn)Present, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrocus purpureusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrocus tommasinianusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta campestris (field dodder)PresentIntroducedValentine (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta epithymum (alfalfa dodder)PresentNativeValentine (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta europaea (European dodder)PresentNativeValentine (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta gronoviiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbalaria muralis (Kenilworth ivy)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynara cardunculus (cardoon)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Tutin et al. (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynoglossum officinale (hound's tongue)PresentNativeFreijsen et al. (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); DAISIE (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Present, WidespreadNativeHeywood and Ball (1968)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactylis glomerata (cocksfoot)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDanthonia decumbens (heath grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Fitter et al. (1989); Roskov et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura ferox (fierce thornapple)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura stramonium (jimsonweed)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Moore (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDescurainia sophia (flixweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); GBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmazeria marinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDianthus armeria (Deptford pink)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass)PresentNativeTutin et al. (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDiplotaxis tenuifoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDipsacus fullonum (common teasel)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDittrichia graveolens (stinkwort)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)PresentIntroducedDAISIE (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PresentHolm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEgeria densa (leafy elodea)PresentIntroducedInvasiveRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeagnus pungens (thorny olive)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChristenhusz and Uffelen (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChristenhusz and Uffelen (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedvan Ooststroom (1973); Best (1977); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElodea nuttallii (Nuttall's waterweed)PresentIntroducedDAISIE (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElymus repens (quackgrass)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpilobium ciliatum (northern willowherb)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); DAISIE (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); NDFF (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEranthis hyemalisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErigeron annuus (annual fleabane)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); NOBANIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)PresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE (2012); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErodium botrys (long-beaked stork's bill)PresentNativeEuro+Med Plantbase (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErodium cicutarium (common storksbill)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErucastrum gallicumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEupatorium cannabinumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia dulcisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia esula (leafy spurge)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia seguierianaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphrasia strictaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFagopyrum tataricumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFalcaria vulgarisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia baldschuanica (Russian vine)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Bouma et al. (1996); USDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveQ-bank (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE (2008); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFestuca arundinacea (tall fescue)PresentNativeeMonocot (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFestuca heterophyllaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFestuca pratensis (meadow fescue)PresentNativeGrassWorld (2016); Euro+Med (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus carica (common fig)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFilipendula ulmaria (queen-of-the-meadow)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFoeniculum vulgare (fennel)PresentPryor et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFragaria vesca (wild strawberry)PresentNativeDarrow (1966)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFrangula alnus (alder buckthorn)PresentNativeTutin (1968)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFumaria capreolataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGagea pratensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGaleopsis ladanumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGaleopsis segetumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGaleopsis tetrahitPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); DAISIE (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)PresentIntroducedInvasiveKabuce and Priede (2010); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalium saxatilePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGaultheria shallon (salal)PresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium columbinum (longstalk cranesbill)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium dissectum (cutleaf geranium)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium lucidum (shining geranium)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium molle (dovefoot geranium)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium phaeumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium pratensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium purpureumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium pusillumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium pyrenaicumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium robertianum (herb-robert)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGlaucium flavumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGlechoma hederacea (ground ivy)PresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGlyceria declinata (small sweet grass)Present, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGlyceria fluitansPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGlyceria maxima (reed sweet-grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGratiola officinalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGypsophila muralisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedera helix (ivy)Present, WidespreadNativeTutin (1968)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke)PresentIntroducedTutin et al. (1976); Wagenitz (1980); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelictotrichon pratensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelictotrichon pubescensPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue)PresentNativeGreuter (2006); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveBrummitt (1968); Tiley et al. (1996); Ode et al. (2004); Hansen et al. (2006); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHerniaria glabraPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHerniaria hirsutaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHesperis matronalis (damesrocket)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHieracium amplexicaulePresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHirschfeldia incana (shortpod mustard)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHolcus lanatus (common velvet grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHonorius nutansPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHordeum jubatumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHordeum secalinumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHottonia palustrisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrocharis morsus-ranaePresentNativeUSA, USDA-GRIN (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveBaas and Holverda (1996); Baas and Duistermaat (1999); Pot (2000); Meijden et al. (2001); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyoscyamus niger (black henbane)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHypericum canadensePresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHypericum perforatum (St John's wort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHypochaeris radicata (cat's ear)PresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balfouriiPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWeeda et al. (1991); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens parviflora (small balsam)Present, WidespreadIntroducedTrepl (1984); Weeda et al. (1991); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaInula britannica (british yellowhead)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIsatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIva xanthiifolia (marsh-elder)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus canadensisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentNativeKirschner (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus ensifolius (swordleaf rush)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedAdema and Mennema (1976); Meijden and Holverda (1987); Stolwijk and Zijlstra (1995); Werkgroep Florakartering Drenthe (2016); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus tenuis (slender rush)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedKalanchoe Growers (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKnautia arvensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKoeleria macranthaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLactuca salignaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagarosiphon major (African elodea)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Thompson et al. (1995); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagurus ovatus (hare's tail)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLamium galeobdolon (yellow archangel)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus hirsutusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus nigerPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus nissoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus palustrisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna minutaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium densiflorumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium didymum (lesser swine-cress)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium draba (hoary cress)Present, Few occurrencesHolm et al. (1991); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed)PresentGBIF (2016); NDFF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium ruderalePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucojum vernumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeymus arenariusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigustrum vulgare (common privet)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimonium vulgarePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLinaria repensPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLinaria vulgaris (common toadflax)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); USDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLithospermum officinalePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PresentNativeeMonocot (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium temulentum (darnel)PresentIntroducedLoos and Jarvis (1992); Loos (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia grandiflora (water primrose)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); GBIF (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia peploides (water primrose)Present, LocalizedIntroducedUK, Center for Ecology and Hydrology (2007); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Flora Europaea (1968); ILDIS (2015); DAISIE (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLychnis coronaria (rose campion)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLysichiton americanus (American skunk cabbage)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedPeeters-Van der Meijden and Rotteveel (2006); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLythrum hyssopifolium (hyssop loosestrife)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); GBIF (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalva alceaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)PresentUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMarrubium vulgare (horehound)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago lupulina (black medick)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago polymorpha (bur clover)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelilotus albus (honey clover)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMentha aquatica (watermint)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMentha pulegium (pennyroyal)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); USDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMentha suaveolensPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMibora minimaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMiconia calvescens (miconia)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimulus guttatus (Monkeyflower)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMisopates orontiumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMontia sibiricaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorus nigra (black mulberry)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyosotis arvensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyosotis palustris (True forget-me-not)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyosoton aquaticumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum heterophyllum (broadleaf watermilfoil)PresentIntroducedInvasiveQ-bank (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil)PresentNativeFitter (1978)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyrrhis odorataPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNasturtium officinale (watercress)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNigella arvensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008); Velde and Heijden (1981)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOenanthe pimpinelloidesPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOenothera biennis (common evening primrose)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOenothera glazioviana (redsepal evening-primrose)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOenothera oakesianaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOenothera parvifloraPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOnopordum acanthium (scotch thistle)PresentNativeTutin et al. (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrnithopus compressusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrnithopus perpusillusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche crenata (crenate broomrape)Present, LocalizedBorg (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche minor (common broomrape)PresentNativeChater and Webb (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche ramosa (branched broomrape)Present, LocalizedIntroducedChater and Webb (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Valentine (1968); DAISIE (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPapaver argemonePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPapaver dubiumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParentucellia viscosa (yellow glandweed)PresentIntroducedHaperen and Kogel (1981)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenocissus vitaceaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPastinaca sativa (parsnip)PresentNativeEuro+Med PlantBase (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPentaglottis sempervirens (evergreen bugloss)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria maculosa (redshank)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); GBIF (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPetrorhagia proliferaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)PresentVermeer (1986)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris paradoxa (awned canary-grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhleum pratense (timothy grass)PresentNativeKew (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhragmites australis (common reed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllostachys aureosulcata (yellow groove bamboo)PresentIntroducedOhrnberger (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllostachys flexuosa (drooping timber bamboo)PresentIntroducedOhrnberger (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPilosella caespitosa (yellow hawkweed)PresentIntroducedSell and West (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPilosella officinarum (mouse-ear hawkweed)Present, WidespreadNativeSell and West (1976); Meusel and Jäger (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus contorta (lodgepole pine)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1977); Govaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago arenariaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Molgaard (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago mediaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentEdmondson (1980); Holm et al. (1991); Clayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa bulbosa (bulbous bluegrass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa chaixiiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa compressa (Canada bluegrass)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa nemoralis (wood bluegrass)PresentNativeNaumova et al. (1999); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa pratensis (smooth meadow-grass)PresentNativeISSG (2015); Euro+Med (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolycarpon tetraphyllum (fourleaf allseed)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); DAISIE (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum hydropiper (marsh pepper)PresentHolm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedPIER (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPontederia cordata (pickerel weed)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPopulus alba (silver-leaf poplar)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPopulus nigra (black poplar)PresentBieman and Haas (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentIntroducedWalters (1964)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed)PresentNativeEUNIS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla intermediaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla norvegicaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla rectaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla supinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPrimula elatiorPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPrunella vulgaris (self-heal)PresentNativeWCSP (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPrunus serotina (black cherry)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPuccinellia distans (weeping alkali grass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRanunculus bulbosus (bulbous buttercup)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRanunculus flammulaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRanunculus sardousPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRaphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)PresentHolm et al. (1991); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhamnus cathartica (buckthorn)PresentNativeTutin (1968)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhinanthus angustifoliusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhododendron ponticum (rhododendron)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRobinia pseudoacacia (black locust)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRorippa austriaca (Austrian fieldcress)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRosa rugosa (rugosa rose)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBruun (2005); UK, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2009); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry)PresentIntroducedHaveman et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus chlorothyrsosPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus fruticosus (blackberry)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus senticosusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRudbeckia laciniata (cutleaf coneflower)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex conglomeratusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex crispus (curled dock)PresentVisser et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)PresentNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex scutatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex thyrsiflorusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSagina procumbensPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSagittaria latifolia (broadleaf arrowhead)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedLuijten and Odé (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSagittaria sagittifoliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2022); van Loo (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalix cinerea (grey sallow)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalix fragilis (crack willow)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalsola kali (common saltwort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia pratensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia verticillataPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSambucus nigra (elder)PresentNativeJans and Drost (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanguisorba officinalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScilla bifoliaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScilla sibericaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScrophularia auriculataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScrophularia vernalisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScutellaria altissimaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSecurigera varia (crown vetch)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSedum telephiumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenecio inaequidens (South African ragwort)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveAdema and Mennema (1978); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenecio jacobaea (common ragwort)Present, WidespreadNativeReichenbach and Reichenbach (1854); Chater and Walters (1976); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenecio vulgarisPresent, WidespreadNativeReichenbach and Reichenbach (1854); Chater and Walters (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria verticillata (bristly foxtail)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Clayton (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria viridis (green foxtail)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene dioicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene latifolia subsp. alba (white campion)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene vulgaris (bladder campion)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilybum marianum (variegated thistle)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSinapis arvensis (wild mustard)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum carolinense (horsenettle)PresentDirkse et al. (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Golas et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)PresentIntroducedISSG (2020); CABI Data Mining (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum tuberosum (potato)PresentLeite et al. (2014); Clapp et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod)PresentIntroducedInvasiveKabuce and Priede (2010); Royal Botanic Garden (2014); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolidago gigantea (giant goldenrod)PresentIntroducedInvasiveRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentNativeBoulos (1976); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSorghum halepense (Johnson grass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpartina anglica (common cordgrass)PresentIntroducedChristiansen and Møller (1983); Groenendijk (1986); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpergula arvensis (corn spurry)PresentRatter and Akeroyd (1993); Theunissen et al. (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpergula morisonii (Morison's spurry)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpergularia rubraPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachys arvensis (staggerweed)PresentNativeGovaerts (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachys officinalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachys rectaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStellaria gramineaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStellaria media (common chickweed)PresentChater and Heywood (1972); Bouma et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStellaria pallida (common chickweed)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSymphyotrichum novi-belgii (New York aster)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTanacetum vulgare (tansy)Present, WidespreadNativeTutin et al. (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)PresentIntroducedSterk et al. (1987); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTeucrium chamaedrysPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThalictrum minusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThlaspi arvense (field pennycress)PresentNativeClapham (1972); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThlaspi perfoliatumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThymus pulegioidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThymus serpyllumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTragus racemosus (stalker bur grass)PresentIntroducedFasseaux (1949)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrapa natans (waterchestnut)PresentGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrifolium aureum (hop clover)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrifolium mediumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrifolium ornithopodioidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrifolium scabrumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrifolium striatumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTulipa sylvestrisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Coops et al. (2004); Chambers et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha latifolia (broadleaf cattail)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha x glauca (hybrid cattail)PresentNativeOostroom and Reichgelt (1962)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUlex europaeus (gorse)PresentNativeILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrtica dioica (stinging nettle)Present, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Vierbergen and Loomans (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrtica urens (annual nettle)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVallisneria spiralis (eelweed)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Oostroom and Reichgelt (1962)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVentenata dubia (North Africa grass)PresentBioCASE (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbascum thapsus (common mullein)PresentNativeISSG (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica anagallis-aquatica (blue water speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica beccabunga (European speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica chamaedrysPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica filiformisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica officinalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica politaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica prostrataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica serpyllifolia (thymeleaf speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica triphyllosPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia luteaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia parvifloraPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia villosa (hairy vetch)PresentNativeILDIS (2015); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVincetoxicum nigrum (black swallowwort)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia myuros (annual fescue)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthium spinosum (bathurst burr)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthoxalis strictaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZelkova serrata (Japanese selkova)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZiziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeStreptophytaCampylopus introflexusPresentIntroducedSipman (1977); Meulen et al. (1987)
EukaryotaProtistaParamyxeaMarteilia refringensAbsentOIE (2019); Seebens et al. (2017); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaAlexandrium leeiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaAlexandrium tamarensePresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia exitiosaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia ostreaePresentOIE (2019); Engelsma et al. (2010); Seebens et al. (2017); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaGymnodinium catenatumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaHaplosporidium armoricanumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaKarenia mikimotoiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaMikrocystos mackiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaToxoplasma gondiiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiPresentAregawi et al. (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusalcelaphine herpesvirus 1PresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusArterivirusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusavian metapneumovirusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAvipoxvirusPresentJong (1912); Jansen (1942); OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusBarley yellow dwarf viruses (barley yellow dwarf)Present, WidespreadOswald and Thung (1955); UK, CAB International (1969); EPPO (2014)
Virusbluetongue virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine leukemia virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscamelpox virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusChrysanthemum stem necrosis virusAbsent, EradicatedNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Verhoeven et al. (1996); Verhoeven and Roenhorst (1998); EPPO (2022)
VirusCitrus leprosis virus C (leprosis of citrus)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2014)
Virusclassical swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusCowpea aphid-borne mosaic virusAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Bos (1970); CABI and EPPO (2010)
VirusCowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusCucumber green mottle mosaic virusPresentKoot and Dorst (1959); Dorst (1988); Runia (1988); CABI and EPPO (2015)
VirusCucurbit yellow stunting disorder virusAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
Virusduck hepatitis A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Viruseastern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusepizootic haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequid herpesvirus 1PresentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2019)
Virusequine arteritis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine influenzavirusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusfowlpox virusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusGallid herpesvirus 2PresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusHaliotid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious myonecrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious salmon anemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfluenza A virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019);
VirusIris yellow spot virus (iris yellow spot)Present, WidespreadIntroducedDerks and Lemmers (1996); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusmyxoma virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNewcastle disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNipah virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPepino mosaic virusPresent, LocalizedVlugt et al. (2000); Vlugt et al. (2002); Stijger and Vlugt (2006); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
VirusPepper mild mottle virus (PMMV)PresentRast (1979); Boukema (1980); Rast (1982); Tobias et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPlantago asiatica mosaic virusPresentPlant Protection Service of the Netherlands (2010); EPPO (2022)
VirusPlum pox virus (sharka)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedCABI and EPPO (2007); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
VirusPoplar mosaic virusPresentBrunt et al. (1996)
Virusporcine epidemic diarrhea virusPresentPijpers et al. (1993)
VirusPotato spindle tuber viroid (spindle tuber of potato)Present, Few occurrencesElliott et al. (2001); Verhoeven et al. (2004); Serio (2007); Verhoeven et al. (2008); Verhoeven et al. (2010); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); CABI and EPPO (2014); IPPC (2014); IPPC (2014); Milanović et al. (2014); Mackie et al. (2016); Verhoeven et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrabies virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
Virusred sea bream iridovirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusTaura syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusTomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022)
VirusTomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt)PresentUK, CAB International (1978); NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2022)
VirusTomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)Absent, EradicatedNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Botermans et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
Virustransmissible gastroenteritis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicemia virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvisna/maedi virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWest Nile virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWhite spot syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
abalone viral ganglioneuritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
acarapisosis of honey beesAbsentOIE (2019); EPPO (2009); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
actinomycosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
acute hepatopancreatic necrosis diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Aeromonas infection in fishAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
African horse sicknessAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
African swine feverAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
American foul broodAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
anaplasmosisAbsent, No presence record(s)Uilenberg et al. (1980); OIE Handistatus (2005)
anguillicolosisPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBorgsteede et al. (1999)
anthraxAbsentOIE (2019); Food & Agriculture Organization (1972); OIE (2019)
atrophic rhinitis of swinePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian adenoviruses infectionsPresent, WidespreadAkkermans (1985)
avian chlamydiosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
avian encephalomyelitisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
avian infectious bronchitisPresentOIE (2019); Davelaar et al. (1983); Wit et al. (1992); Wit et al. (1998); OIE (2019)
avian influenzaPresentOIE (2020); Hoffrogge et al. (2003); OIE (2004); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019);
avian intestinal spirochaetosisPresentFeberwee et al. (2008)
avian leukosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
avian leukosis sarcoma virus infectionsPresentCABI (Undated)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian tuberculosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
avipoxPresentOIE Handistatus (2005); Jong (1912); Jansen (1942)
babesiosisPresentOIE (2009); Alani and Herbert (1988)
bacterial gill diseasePresentCABI (Undated)
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infectionPresentIntroducedInvasiveMartel et al. (2013)
blacklegPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
bluetongueAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
Bonamia roughleyi (Australian winter disease) of oystersPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
bonamiosis (Bonamia exitiosa)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bonamiosis (Bonamia ostreae)PresentOIE (2019); Engelsma et al. (2010); OIE (2019)
Borrelia anserina infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
botulismPresentChiers et al. (1998); OIE Handistatus (2005)
bovine adenoviruses infectionsPresentRondhuis (1968); Opdenbosch et al. (1986)
bovine anaplasmosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
bovine babesiosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine genital campylobacteriosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine herpesvirus 2 infectionPresentHorner and Raynel (1988)
bovine immunodeficiency virus infectionPresentHorzinek et al. (1991)
bovine papillomatosisPresentMisdorp (1967)
bovine parainfluenza 3 infectionPresent, WidespreadVerhoeff and Nieuwstadt (1984)
bovine respiratory syncytial virus infectionPresentPoel et al. (1999)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine tuberculosisAbsentOIE (2018); OIE (2009); OIE (2018)
bovine venereal trichomonosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
bovine viral diarrhoeaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BP virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella suis)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2000); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
Burkholderia pseudomallei infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
camel poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
caprine arthritis encephalitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
caseous lymphadenitisPresentLaak et al. (1988); OIE Handistatus (2005)
chicken anaemiaPresent, WidespreadSteenhuisen et al. (1994)
chlamydial infections of livestock and poultryPresentAkkermans and Kreeft (1992); Vanrompay et al. (1993)
Chrysomya bezziana infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
ChytridiomycosisPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationCABI (Undated); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
classical swine feverAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Clostridium perfringens enteritis and enterotoxaemiaPresentKlaasen et al. (1999); OIE Handistatus (2005)
coccidiosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cochliomyia hominivorax infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
columnaris diseasePresentBootsma and Clerx (1976)
contagious agalactiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious ecthymaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
contagious equine metritisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
cowpoxPresentWillemse and Egberink (1985)
crayfish plagueAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
cryptosporidiosis in livestock and poultryPresent, WidespreadAsperen et al. (1996); Pilarczyk et al. (2003)
Denman island diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
dermatophilosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Derzsy's diseasePresentCABI (Undated)
Dichelobacter nodosus infectionPresentToussaint and Cornelisse (1971)
Digenean infections of fishPresentBroek and Jong (1979)
dourineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
duck viral enteritisPresentSandhu and Leibovitz (1997); OIE Handistatus (2005)
duck virus hepatitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Echinococcus granulosusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Echinococcus multilocularisPresentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
enzootic abortion of ewesPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
enzootic bovine leukosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
eperythrozoonosis in pigsPresentUilenberg et al. (1981)
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic lymphangitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
epizootic ulcerative syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine encephalomyelitis (Western)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine infectious anaemiaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine influenzaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
equine piroplasmosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine rhinopneumonitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine viral arteritisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
Escherichia coli infectionsPresentNabuurs et al. (1993); Heuvelink et al. (1996); Heuvelink (1999); Heuvelink et al. (1999)
European foul broodPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
fowl choleraPresentOIE (2009)
fowl typhoidAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
fowlpoxPresentOIE Handistatus (2005); CABI (Undated)
Fusobacterium necrophorum infectionsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
giardiasisPresentNieschulz (1924); Franssen et al. (2000)
glandersAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
heartwaterAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
hepatitis E virus infectionPresent, WidespreadBerto et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
horse poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
inclusion body rhinitisPresent, WidespreadRondhuis et al. (1980); CABI (Undated)
infection with Marteilia refringensAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Perkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Perkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Infection with Pseudogymnoascus destructans in bats (white-nose syndrome)PresentPuechmaille et al. (2011); Wibbelt et al. (2013)
Infection with salmonid alphavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious bursal diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious haematopoietic necrosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious laryngotracheitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
infectious myonecrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious salmon anaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Japanese encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced mastitisPresentVecht et al. (1987); Sampimon et al. (2006)
koi herpesvirus diseasePresentOIE (2019); Haenen et al. (2004); OIE (2019)
leishmaniosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
leptospirosisPresentOIE (2009)
listeriosisPresentMulder and Zanen (1986); OIE Handistatus (2005)
lumpy skin diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
lyme borreliosisPresent, WidespreadNohlmans et al. (1995)
malignant catarrhal feverPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Mannheimia haemolytica infectionsPresentFels-Klerx et al. (2002)
Marek's diseasePresentOIE (2009)
Mycoplasma agalactiae infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Mycoplasma bovigenitalium infectionsPresentLaak et al. (1992)
Mycoplasma bovirhinis bovine respiratory diseasePresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)
Mycoplasma bovis infectionsPresent, WidespreadLaak et al. (1992)
Mycoplasma conjunctivae infectionPresentLaak et al. (1988)
Mycoplasma dispar infectionsPresentLaak and Noordergraaf (1987)
Myicola ostreae infestationPresentIntroducedStock (1993); Gollasch et al. (2009)
Mytilicola intestinalis infestation (mussel red worm)PresentStock (1993); Bol (2002)
Mytilicola orientalis infestation (oyster redworm)PresentIntroducedStock (1993)
myxomatosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
Nairobi sheep diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
necrotizing hepatopancreatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
neosporosisPresent, WidespreadWouda et al. (1997); Wouda et al. (1999)
Newcastle diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Nipah virus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Oncorhynchus masou virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infectionPresentVeen et al. (2000); CABI (Undated)
paratuberculosisPresentWhittington et al. (2019); Kalis et al. (2000); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Pasteurella multocida infectionsPresentKouwenhoven et al. (1976); Yadin and Moraal (1978); Bisgaard et al. (1991)
peste des petits ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
pike fry rhabdovirus diseasePresentBootsma (1971)
porcine circovirus infectionsPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)
porcine enterovirus infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
porcine epidemic diarrhoeaPresentPijpers et al. (1993)
porcine parvovirus infectionPresentHuysman (1991)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromePresentOIE (2019); ESAVS (1992); OIE (2019)
proliferative enteropathyPresentHeijden et al. (2004)
pullorum diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Q feverPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rabbit haemorrhagic diseasePresentOIE (2019); Ijzer et al. (2016); OIE (2019)
rabiesAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
Ranavirus infection in amphibiansPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
red sea bream iridoviral diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Rhodococcus equi infectionsPresentMoraal et al. (1990)
Rift Valley feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rinderpestAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rotavirus infections in livestock and poultryPresent, LocalizedRimmelzwaan et al. (1991)
ryegrass staggersPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
scrapieAbsentOIE (2019); Schreuder (1995); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
sheep and goat poxAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
small hive beetle infestationAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
spherical baculovirosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
spring viraemia of carpAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Staphylococcus aureus infectionsPresent, WidespreadMiltenburg et al. (1996); Elbers et al. (1998)
stranglesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in pigs (and ruminants)Present, WidespreadVecht et al. (1985); CABI (Undated)
Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in poultryPresentLandman et al. (1994); Dorrestein et al. (1996); Chamanza et al. (1998); Landman et al. (1998)
summer mastitisPresentSol et al. (1987); Vecht et al. (1988)
surraPresentAregawi et al. (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
swine dysenteryPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
swine erysipelasPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
swine influenzaPresent, WidespreadMasurel et al. (1983); Elbers et al. (1990); Elbers et al. (1992); Loeffen et al. (1999)
Taura syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
tetanusPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)
Theileria orientalis/Theileria buffeli infectionsPresentMohammed (1978)
theileriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
tick-borne feverPresentSiebinga and Jongejan (2000)
torovirus infectionsPresentKoopmans and Horzinek (1994); Weiss and Horzinek (1996)
toxoplasmosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
TrichinellaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
trichomonosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
trypanosomosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
tuberculosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
tularaemiaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
turkey rhinotracheitisPresentOIE (2019); Litjens et al. (1989); Cook et al. (1993); OIE (2019)
varroosis of honey beesPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
vesicular stomatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
visna/maediPresentOIE (2019); Houwers (1980); Pépin et al. (1998); OIE (2019)
West Nile feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
whirling diseasePresentHalliday (1976)
white spot diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
white tail diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Xenohaliotis californiensis infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
yellow head diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Almonds, with shellArea harvested
Production quantity
ApplesArea harvested6,4206,6006,9537,3357,600
Production quantity273,000269,100227,000317,000336,000
Yield425,234 Fc407,727 Fc326,478 Fc432,175 Fc442,105 Fc
ApricotsArea harvested
Production quantity
AsparagusArea harvested2,9503,1003,3222,9942,944
Production quantity18,15019,00020,80018,60017,100
Yield61,525 Fc61,290 Fc62,613 Fc62,124 Fc58,084 Fc
AvocadosArea harvested
Production quantity
BananasArea harvested
Production quantity
BarleyArea harvested33,39035,97029,72034,42832,813
Production quantity242,370247,500204,316236,231229,233
Yield72,588 Fc68,807 Fc68,747 Fc68,616 Fc69,860 Fc
Beans, greenArea harvested4,0003,4903,2913,0523,020
Production quantity49,15038,16039,20033,00033,600
Yield122,875 Fc109,341 Fc119,113 Fc108,126 Fc111,258 Fc
BlueberriesArea harvested1,110930832777737
Production quantity11,0609,3008,935 Im9,081 Im7,751 Im
Yield99,640 Fc100,000 Fc107,392 Fc116,873 Fc105,170 Fc
Broad beans, horse beans, dryArea harvested2,8002,070337 Im336 Im332 Im
Production quantity1,682 Im1,684 Im1,685 Im
Yield49,911 Fc50,119 Fc50,753 Fc
Cabbages and other brassicasArea harvested6,0905,9006,1695,9345,937
Production quantity245,290210,030271,700245,500269,900
Yield402,775 Fc355,983 Fc440,428 Fc413,718 Fc454,607 Fc
Carrots and turnipsArea harvested9,9109,1809,476 Im9,441 Im9,220 Im
Production quantity615,830538,720541,926 Im541,604 Im538,599 Im
Yield621,423 Fc586,841 Fc571,893 Fc573,672 Fc584,164 Fc
Cauliflowers and broccoliArea harvested4,6604,9504,9204,2904,361
Production quantity65,71070,03070,40062,30065,500
Yield141,009 Fc141,475 Fc143,089 Fc145,221 Fc150,195 Fc
Cereals nesArea harvested970920
Cereals, TotalArea harvested178,170 A166,380 A158,359 A174,263 A190,986 A
Production quantity1,541,910 A1,315,250 A1,392,686 A1,355,219 A1,671,654 A
Yield86,542 Fc79,051 Fc87,945 Fc77,769 Fc87,528 Fc
CherriesArea harvested530550814824835
Production quantity7,9408,200337 Im341 Im318 Im
Yield149,811 Fc149,091 Fc4,140 Fc4,138 Fc3,808 Fc
Cherries, sourArea harvested250250
Production quantity4,2704,200
Yield170,800 Fc168,000 Fc
ChestnutArea harvested
Production quantity
Chillies and peppers, greenArea harvested1,5001,3101,3191,3151,280
Production quantity375,000355,000370,000365,000360,000
Yield2,500,000 Fc2,709,924 Fc2,805,155 Fc2,775,665 Fc2,812,500 Fc
Citrus Fruit, TotalArea harvestedAA
Production quantityAA
Cucumbers and gherkinsArea harvested600600580540545
Production quantity410,250410,410400,000370,000405,000
Yield6,837,500 Fc6,840,167 Fc6,896,552 Fc6,851,852 Fc7,431,193 Fc
CurrantsArea harvested530540517540610
Production quantity7,4807,5001,832 Im1,921 Im2,141 Im
Yield141,132 Fc138,889 Fc35,435 Fc35,574 Fc35,098 Fc
Eggplants (aubergines)Area harvested130110103111106
Production quantity64,00055,00053,00054,00053,000
Yield4,923,077 Fc5,000,000 Fc5,145,631 Fc4,864,865 Fc5,000,000 Fc
Fibre Crops PrimaryArea harvested4,170 A4,210 A3,766 A4,677 A4,446 A
Production quantity27,430 A24,100 A19,763 A31,181 A28,787 A
Yield65,779 Fc57,245 Fc52,477 Fc66,669 Fc64,748 Fc
FigsArea harvested
Production quantity
Flax fibre and towArea harvested2,2902,2202,4942,4152,405
Production quantity13,3608,78010,22413,76414,191
Yield58,341 Fc39,550 Fc40,994 Fc56,994 Fc59,006 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested21,290 A21,210 A21,495 A21,517 A21,617 A
Production quantity765,320 A778,140 A650,218 A779,308 A766,484 A
Yield359,474 Fc366,874 Fc302,497 Fc362,182 Fc354,575 Fc
Fruit, citrus nesArea harvested
Production quantity
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea harvested
Production quantity
GarlicArea harvested180170ImImIm
Production quantity2,4702,390ImImIm
Yield137,222 Fc140,588 Fc
Grain, mixedArea harvestedMMM
Production quantityMMM
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Area harvested
Production quantity
GrapesArea harvested16017071 F63 F54 F
Production quantity1,6001,700400 F350 F300 F
Yield100,000 Fc100,000 Fc56,338 Fc55,556 Fc55,556 Fc
Hemp tow wasteArea harvested1,8801,9901,2722,2622,041
Production quantity14,07015,3209,53917,41714,596
Yield74,840 Fc76,985 Fc74,992 Fc76,998 Fc71,514 Fc
HopsArea harvested10
Production quantity
YieldFc
Kiwi fruitArea harvested
Production quantity
Leeks, other alliaceous vegetablesArea harvested2,5402,3702,7292,3282,397
Production quantity92,37082,200104,30082,20086,300
Yield363,661 Fc346,835 Fc382,191 Fc353,093 Fc360,033 Fc
Lemons and limesArea harvested
Production quantity
Lettuce and chicoryArea harvested9,4809,5903,4513,5243,480
Production quantity290,650295,940107,300118,200119,500
Yield306,593 Fc308,592 Fc310,924 Fc335,414 Fc343,391 Fc
MaizeArea harvested19,01013,7608,6718,42411,188
Production quantity148,30089,280116,71184,641121,114
Yield78,012 Fc64,884 Fc134,599 Fc100,476 Fc108,253 Fc
Melons, other (inc.cantaloupes)Area harvested87 Im85 Im83 Im
Production quantity2,143 Im2,156 Im2,184 Im
Yield246,322 Fc253,647 Fc263,133 Fc
Mushrooms and trufflesArea harvested6060635969
Production quantity300,000300,000300,000300,000310,000
Yield50,000,000 Fc50,000,000 Fc47,619,048 Fc50,847,458 Fc44,927,536 Fc
Nuts nesArea harvested
Production quantity
OatsArea harvested1,4301,4101,4551,4751,528
Production quantity8,3606,8906,7287,0788,163
Yield58,462 Fc48,865 Fc46,241 Fc47,986 Fc53,423 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested3,690 A3,860 A4,883 A4,437 A5,118 A
Production quantity6,010 A5,820 A9,746 A7,409 A11,623 A
Yield16,287 Fc15,078 Fc19,959 Fc16,698 Fc22,710 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested3,690 A3,860 A4,883 A4,437 A5,118 A
Production quantity3,606 A3,492 A5,857 A4,465 A7,009 A
Yield9,772 Fc9,047 Fc11,994 Fc10,062 Fc13,695 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested3,690 A3,860 A4,883 A4,437 A5,118 A
Production quantity2,284 A2,212 A3,684 A2,786 A4,370 A
Yield6,189 Fc5,730 Fc7,544 Fc6,279 Fc8,539 Fc
Oilseeds nesArea harvested640550
OlivesArea harvested
Production quantity
Onions, dryArea harvested34,30034,51034,35632,72332,157
Production quantity1,256,2801,264,8001,779,6001,449,4001,504,100
Yield366,262 Fc366,502 Fc517,988 Fc442,930 Fc467,736 Fc
OrangesArea harvested
Production quantity
Peaches and nectarinesArea harvestedMMM
Production quantityMMM
PearsArea harvested10,09010,0009,7419,4349,234
Production quantity373,000402,200330,000374,000349,000
Yield369,673 Fc402,200 Fc338,774 Fc396,438 Fc377,951 Fc
Peas, greenArea harvested3,8303,0903,0423,3243,541
Production quantity25,38019,02021,00015,60017,700
Yield66,266 Fc61,553 Fc69,034 Fc46,931 Fc49,986 Fc
Plums and sloesArea harvested280260259253259
Production quantity6,8706,5005,570 Im5,366 Im5,683 Im
Yield245,357 Fc250,000 Fc215,058 Fc212,095 Fc219,421 Fc
PotatoesArea harvested165,730164,600160,791155,594155,661
Production quantity6,961,2306,025,3707,391,8816,534,3386,651,692
Yield420,034 Fc366,061 Fc459,720 Fc419,961 Fc427,319 Fc
Pulses, TotalArea harvested2,800 A2,070 A2,196 A1,676 A2,424 A
Production quantity8,893 A6,877 A9,701 A
Yield40,496 Fc41,032 Fc40,021 Fc
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsArea harvested1,3301,230374331306
Production quantity32,13030,70026,20016,90018,400
Yield241,579 Fc249,593 Fc700,535 Fc510,574 Fc601,307 Fc
RapeseedArea harvested1,7802,0201,9401,5982,269
Production quantity6,0105,8207,8945,2798,852
Yield33,764 Fc28,812 Fc40,691 Fc33,035 Fc39,013 Fc
RaspberriesArea harvested280290250202151
Production quantity4,5104,6006,500 F6,500 F4,000 F
Yield161,071 Fc158,621 Fc260,000 Fc321,782 Fc264,901 Fc
Rice, paddyArea harvested
Production quantity
Rice, paddy (rice milled equivalent)Production quantityFcFc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested165,730 A164,600 A160,791 A155,594 A155,661 A
Production quantity6,961,230 A6,025,370 A7,391,881 A6,534,338 A6,651,692 A
Yield420,034 Fc366,061 Fc459,720 Fc419,961 Fc427,319 Fc
RyeArea harvested1,4901,5601,3651,5641,628
Production quantity5,3004,3404,3855,4036,161
Yield35,570 Fc27,821 Fc32,125 Fc34,546 Fc37,844 Fc
SorghumArea harvestedMMM
Production quantityMMM
SoybeansArea harvested480540MMM
Production quantityMMM
SpinachArea harvested3,3903,1402,9162,2402,347
Production quantity74,19066,60060,00044,80046,900
Yield218,850 Fc212,102 Fc205,761 Fc200,000 Fc199,830 Fc
StrawberriesArea harvested1,6401,6201,6911,7241,768
Production quantity75,59064,84066,10061,20057,700
Yield460,915 Fc400,247 Fc390,893 Fc354,988 Fc326,357 Fc
Sugar beetArea harvested79,18085,20085,35270,72258,433
Production quantity6,644,7106,506,3107,959,2665,502,2004,868,255
Yield839,190 Fc763,651 Fc932,522 Fc778,004 Fc833,135 Fc
Sugar Crops PrimaryArea harvested79,180 A85,200 A85,352 A70,722 A58,433 A
Production quantity6,644,710 A6,506,310 A7,959,266 A5,502,200 A4,868,255 A
Yield839,190 Fc763,651 Fc932,522 Fc778,004 Fc833,135 Fc
Sunflower seedArea harvested790750
Tangerines, mandarins, clementines, satsumasArea harvested
Production quantity
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea harvested
Production quantity
TomatoesArea harvested1,8001,7901,7901,7751,755
Production quantity910,000910,000910,000900,000890,000
Yield5,055,556 Fc5,083,799 Fc5,083,799 Fc5,070,423 Fc5,071,225 Fc
Treenuts, TotalArea harvestedAA
Production quantityAA
TriticaleArea harvested1,3301,1001,2251,0441,361
Production quantity7,0505,3206,3955,3876,898
Yield53,008 Fc48,364 Fc52,204 Fc51,600 Fc50,683 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested88,560 A86,170 A93,242 A89,266 A88,335 A
Production quantity4,844,600 A4,680,980 A5,431,081 A4,973,340 A5,091,869 A
Yield547,042 Fc543,226 Fc582,472 Fc557,137 Fc576,427 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested1,1901,08012,960 Im12,761 Im12,319 Im
Production quantity12,6209,210307,451 Im308,782 Im308,803 Im
Yield106,050 Fc85,278 Fc237,231 Fc241,973 Fc250,672 Fc
Vegetables, leguminous nesArea harvested620500404585585
Production quantity5,1303,7703,2003,5003,500
Yield82,742 Fc75,400 Fc79,208 Fc59,829 Fc59,829 Fc
WatermelonsArea harvested
Production quantity
WheatArea harvested120,550111,660115,923127,328142,468
Production quantity1,130,530961,9201,054,1511,016,4791,300,085
Yield93,781 Fc86,147 Fc90,935 Fc79,832 Fc91,255 Fc
Anise, badian, fennel, corianderArea harvested225 Im225 Im216 Im
Production quantity339 Im338 Im323 Im
Yield15,067 Fc15,022 Fc14,954 Fc
Beans, dryArea harvested1,3478221,574
Production quantity4,6482,6305,508
Yield34,506 Fc31,995 Fc34,994 Fc
Berries nesArea harvested280 Im280 Im286 Im
Production quantity1,401 Im1,393 Im1,407 Im
Yield50,036 Fc49,750 Fc49,196 Fc
Canary seedArea harvestedMMM
Production quantityMMM
Chicory rootsArea harvested3,2222,8922,952
Production quantity54,80049,10051,700
Yield170,081 Fc169,779 Fc175,136 Fc
GooseberriesArea harvestedMMM
Production quantityMMM
LinseedArea harvested2,4942,4152,405
Production quantity1,4961,7872,405
Yield5,998 Fc7,400 Fc10,000 Fc
Onions, shallots, greenArea harvested1,977 Im1,939 Im1,966 Im
Production quantity45,004 Im43,954 Im43,967 Im
Yield227,638 Fc226,684 Fc223,637 Fc
Peas, dryArea harvested512 Im518 Im518 Im
Production quantity2,563 Im2,563 Im2,508 Im
Yield50,059 Fc49,479 Fc48,417 Fc
Poppy seedArea harvested449 Im424 Im444 Im
Production quantity356 Im343 Im366 Im
Yield7,929 Fc8,090 Fc8,243 Fc
Pulses nesArea harvestedMMM
Production quantityMMM
Flag
No flag = Official data
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
F = FAO estimate
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology
M = Data not available

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea1,822 Q1,819 Q1,815 Q1,846 Q1,839 Q
AgricultureArea1,822 Fc1,819 Fc1,815 Fc1,846 Fc1,839 Fc
Agriculture area certified organicArea59 Q53 Q49 Q47 Q43 Q
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area64 Q59 Q55 Q50 Q45 Q
Arable landArea1,021 Q1,037 Q1,028 Q1,042 Q1,045 Q
Coastal watersArea415 Fm415 Fm415 Fm415 Q419 Q
Country areaArea4,154 Q4,154 Q4,154 Q4,154 Q4,154 Q
CroplandArea1,059 Q1,075 Q1,066 Q1,080 Q1,081 Q
Cropland area certified organicArea29 Fc25 Fc23 Fc20 Fc16 Q
Cropland area under organic agric.Area32 Fc28 Fc25 Fc22 Fc17 Q
Forest landArea368 Q367 Q366 Q365 Q367 Fm
Inland watersArea372 Fm372 Fm372 Fm372 Q366 Q
Land areaArea3,367 Fm3,367 Fm3,367 Fm3,367 Q3,369 Q
Land area equipped for irrigationArea522 Fm522 Fm522 Q515 Fm505 Fm
Land under perm. meadows and pasturesArea764 Q744 Q749 Q766 Q758 Q
Land under permanent cropsArea38 Q38 Q38 Q38 Q36 Q
Land under temp. meadows and pasturesArea223 Q248 Q245 Q242 Q236 Q
Land under temporary cropsArea790 Q782 Q776 Q793 Q801 Q
Land with temporary fallowArea8 Q7 Q7 Q7 Q8 Q
Naturally regenerating forestArea39 Q39 Q40 Q40 Q40 Fm
Other landArea1,177 Fc1,181 Fc1,186 Fc1,156 Fc1,163 Fc
Perm. meadows & pastures - CultivatedArea684 Q680 Q691 Q714 Q706 Q
Perm. meadows & pastures - Nat. growingArea80 Q64 Q58 Q52 Q52 Q
Perm. meadows & pastures area certified organicArea30 Q28 Q26 Q27 Q27 Q
Perm. meadows & pastures area under organic agric.Area32 Q32 Q30 Q29 Q28 Q
Planted ForestArea329 Q328 Q326 Q325 Q326 Fm
Primary ForestArea0 Fm0 Fm0 Q0 Fm
Agriculture area actually irrigatedArea201 Q
Cropland area under conservation tillageArea116 Q
Cropland area under conventional tillageArea633 Q
Cropland area under zero or no tillageArea8 Q
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.