Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Malaysia

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Datasheet

Malaysia

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 31,949,777 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 11,230 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 358,835.30 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 364,681.37 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 7.26 (2019)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
Dactylosternum hydrophiloidesPresentCABI (Undated)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (sugarcane ratoon stunting disease)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
BacteriaBacteroidetesPaenibacillus larvaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus thuringiensis kurstakiPresentCABI (Undated)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas)PresentKhew et al. (1991); Naderali et al. (2013); Neda Naderali et al. (2014); Neda Naderali et al. (2015)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma)PresentTaylor et al. (2011)
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumAbsentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma synoviaeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAcidovorax citrulli (fruit blotch)PresentCABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginaleAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriablood disease bacterium (blood disease bacterium of banana)Present, LocalizedIPPC (2016)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella melitensisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia pseudomalleiPresentCABI (Undated)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)Present, LocalizedKhairulmazmi Ahmad et al. (2008); CABI/EPPO (2017); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriacitrus huanglongbing (greening) disease (citrus greening)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaErwinia papayaePresentMaktar et al. (2008)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaMannheimia haemolyticaPresentSabri et al. (2013); Chung LimTeik [Chung et al. (2015)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaAbsentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPectobacterium parmentieri (black leg disease of potato)Present, LocalizedCABI (Undated);
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)PresentEPPO (2022); Zulperi and Sijam (2014); Teng SukKuan et al. (2016); CABI (2020)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); Dzarifah Zulperi et al. (2014); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (cassava bacterial blight)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (bean blight)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Lan Bui Thi Ngoc et al. (2010); Farimah Arshadi et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2014)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (bacterial leaf streak of rice)Present, WidespreadGonzalez et al. (2007); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis (bacterial leaf streak of grasses)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2014)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley)Present, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cambivora (root rot of forest trees)PresentCABI/EPPO (2013)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentUK, CAB International (1982)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew)PresentUK, CAB International (1988)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); UK, CAB International (1990)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight)Present, LocalizedSouth and Sharples (1925); Beeley (1929); EPPO (2022); Herb IMI (undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2010); Adebola et al. (2015)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDiplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)PresentNativeInvasiveFourie et al. (2009); CABI and EPPO (2015); Mostert et al. (2017); Czislowski et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4)PresentMolina et al. (2009); Wong et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella fijiensis (black Sigatoka)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022); Ivory (1994)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant)PresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight)PresentPunithalingham and Waterston (1970); Herb IMI (undated); Sutton (undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaTrichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)PresentJagoe and Henderson (1953)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaArmillaria novae-zelandiaePresentNativeCoetzee et al. (2003)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaHeterobasidion annosum sensu lato (Heterobasidion root rot)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaHeterobasidion insularePresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus)PresentOno (2000); CABI and EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora pachyrhizi (soyabean rust)PresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997); Farid et al. (2005); Mohd Farid et al. (2009); Tsai JyhNong et al. (2017)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2008); Backer et al. (2011)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia kuehnii (orange rust)PresentRyan and Egan (1989); Magarey (2000); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaSporisorium sacchari (Asian sugarcane smut)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaUromycladium spp. that cause gall rusts (Acacia gall rusts)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveSato et al. (2010)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcarapis woodi (honeybee mite)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAceria guerreronis (coconut mite)PresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAdoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes aegyptiPresentIntroducedHorwood et al. (2013); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAethina tumidaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1969); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus destructor (coconut whitefly)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAmphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn)Present, LocalizedNativeLingafelter and Hoebeke (2002); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella aurantii (red scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella orientalis (oriental yellow scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidomytilus albus (tapioca scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentWaterhouse (1993); Hussein and Samad (1993); Mohamad Roff et al. (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArtemia (brine shrimp)PresentIntroducedLavens and Sorgeloos (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale)PresentMuniappan et al. (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera carambolae (carambola fruit fly)PresentEPPO (2022); Drew and Hancock (1994); Chua and Khoo (1995); Muraji and Nakahara (2002); Khalid Mahmood (2004); San Jose et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)Present, WidespreadInvasiveCABI and EPPO (2003); Chua et al. (2010); Boontop et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)PresentEPPO (2022); Clarke et al. (2001); Muraji and Nakahara (2002); Smith et al. (2003); Khalid Mahmood (2004); Schutze et al. (2012); Schutze et al. (2012); Leblanc et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera frauenfeldi (mango fruit fly)PresentTan and Lee (1982)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera latifrons (Solanum fruit fly)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Yong (1993); Othman et al. (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera tauPresentWhite and Elson-Harris (1994); Tan and Lee (1982); Drew and Romig (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera umbrosaPresentWhite and Elson-Harris (1994); Yunus and Ho (1980)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)PresentWaterhouse (1993); Rasdi et al. (2009); Idris et al. (2012); Shadmany et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly)PresentShadmany et al. (2019); Mohammad Shadmany et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBlattella germanica (German cockroach)PresentIntroducedAbdullah et al. (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBoophilus microplusPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)PresentCABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrontispa longissima (coconut hispine beetle)PresentWan Khairul Anuar et al. (2019); Kalshoven and Laan (1981); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCalacarus carinatus (purple tea mite)PresentCABI and EPPO (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallosobruchus chinensis (Chinese bruchid)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCerataphis lataniae (palm aphid)PresentNativeCABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis helleriiPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis japonica (lady crab)Present, WidespreadNativeWee and Ng (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish)PresentIntroducedChang (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilades pandavaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveUK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)PresentNativeInvasiveNorris and Murray (1964); Wardhana et al. (2012); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaConopomorpha cramerella (cocoa pod borer)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Day (1989); Beevor et al. (1993); Azhar and Long (1996); Posada et al. (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes (termites)PresentCABI (Undated); Wan-Muhammad-Azrul et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes curvignathus (rubber termite)PresentNativeWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)PresentNativeInvasiveKirton and Brown (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCylas formicarius (sweet potato weevil)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1970); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDactylosternum abdominalePresentGreathead (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)Present, Few occurrencesCABI/EPPO (2011); Leong et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDichromothrips corbettiPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDinoderus minutus (bamboo borer)PresentNativeWu et al. (1986); Chu and Zhang (1997)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentWaterhouse (1993); Ben-Dov (1994); Williams (2004); Palma-Jiménez and Blanco-Meneses (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug)PresentGarcía Morales et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErionota thrax (banana skipper)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErionota torus (banana skipper)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea destruensPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea fornicatus (polyphagous shot-hole borer)PresentNativeSchedl (1942)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea perbrevis (tea shot-hole borer)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea piceusPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentKaydan and Gullan (2012); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGalleria mellonella (greater waxmoth)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGreenidea ficicolaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentJacot-Guillarmod and Brothers (1986)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)PresentLim and Pan (1980); UK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)Present, WidespreadCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentChu and Wood (1990)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale (USA))PresentAPPPC (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeteropsylla cubana (leucaena psyllid)PresentGuan-Soon et al. (1990); Showler and Melcher (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)PresentCristancho et al. (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIcerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1971); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus clypealis (mango leafhopper)PresentViraktamath (1989); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus nitidulus (mango leafhopper)PresentViraktamath (1989); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)PresentCABI and EPPO (1998); CABI and EPPO (2002); Ahya and Liyana (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Present, WidespreadIntroducedCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)PresentNativeWilliams (1996); Williams (2004); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)PresentNativeNew (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid)PresentIntroducedNHM (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium destructor (Singapore ant)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)Present, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1970)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug)PresentWilliams (2004); CABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryctes rhinoceros (coconut rhinoceros beetle)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Huger (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOtiorhynchus sulcatus (vine weevil)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPapilio demoleus (chequered swallowtail)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)PresentIntroducedMastoi et al. (2011); CABI/EPPO (2012); Mastoi et al. (2014); Ahmed et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParaleyrodes mineiPresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)PresentNativeHolthuis (1980); Dore and Frimodt (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPheidole megacephala (big-headed ant)PresentLoke PooiYen and Lee ChowYang (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug)PresentDewi Sartiami et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug)PresentIntroducedSartiami D et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)Present, WidespreadYunus and Ho (1980); UK, CAB International (1986); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPineus pini (pine woolly aphid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug)PresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPrays citri (citrus flower moth)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPrays endocarpa (citrus rind borer)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRastrococcus invadens (fruit tree mealybug)PresentWilliams (1986); CABI and EPPO (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus ferrugineus (red palm weevil)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer)PresentSeth (1975); Muda (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaissetia oleae (olive scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)PresentEPPO (2022); Mound and Palmer (1981); Mound and Azidah (2009); CABI and EPPO (2010); Hamaseh Aliakbarpour and Md Rawi (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitobion miscanthi (indian grain aphid)PresentNativeBlackman and Eastop (2000); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus granarius (grain weevil)PresentMariana et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus oryzae (lesser grain weevil)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil)PresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitotroga cerealella (grain moth)Present, WidespreadChamp and Dyte (1977); Muda (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLee et al. (2002); ISSG (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)PresentIntroducedInvasiveISSG (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera exempta (black armyworm)PresentEPPO (2022); Pogue (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)PresentCABI (Undated); FAO (2019); Jamil et al. (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Intachat and Kirton (1997); Sajap et al. (2000); Zabedah et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil)PresentEPPO (2022); Yunus and Ho (1980); CABI and EPPO (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)Present, WidespreadOkajima et al. (1992); Waterhouse (1993); Kajita et al. (1996); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); CABI and EPPO (1998); Aliakbarpour et al. (2010); Hamaseh Aliakbarpour and Che Salmah (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes ricini (castor bean whitefly)PresentNativeMound and Halsey (1978); Martin (1987); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrirachys holosericeus (apple stem borer)PresentNativeDUFFY (1968); Khan and Maiti (1983); Mitra et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrirachys sartus (city longhorn beetle)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrogoderma granarium (khapra beetle)Absent, EradicatedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsAbsentOIE (2018); Koeniger et al. (2002); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUnaspis citri (citrus snow scale)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa jacobsoni (Varroa mite)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespa velutina (Asian hornet)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus perforans (island pinhole borer)PresentNativeUK, CAB International (1973); Wood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus similisPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus volvulusPresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus aterPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer)PresentNativeWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus discolorPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus mutilatus (camphor shoot beetle)Present, WidespreadNativeCoyle (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcanthogobius flavimanusPresentNativeGBIF (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres cristatellusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres tristis (common myna)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAmphiprionPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAristichthys nobilis (bighead carp)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); FishBase (2004); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBos taurus (cattle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCallosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCapra hircus (goats)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichla ocellaris (peacock cichlid)PresentIntroducedChong et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias batrachus (walking catfish)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias gariepinusPresentIntroducedInvasiveFAO (1997); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCorvus splendens (house crow)PresentCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)AbsentShireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedAlikhuni (1966); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDicrurus macrocercusPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad)PresentNativeDijk et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFroese and Pauly (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGarrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)AbsentFroese and Pauly (2004); FishBase (2005); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypostomus plecostomus (suckermouth catfish)PresentIntroducedBartley (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIctalurus punctatus (channel catfish)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLutjanus kasmira (blueline snapper)Present, WidespreadNativeAllen (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMicropterus salmoides (largemouth bass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedAng and Gopinath (1989); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMonopterus albus (Asian swamp eel)PresentNativeFishbase (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMylopharyngodon piceus (black amur)PresentDepartment of Fisheries (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Ang and Gopinath (1989); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004); Chong et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOvis aries (sheep)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPiaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); FAO (1997)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia reticulata (guppy)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterois volitans (lionfish)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterygoplichthys multiradiatus (Orinoco sailfin catfish)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered bulbul)PresentNativeAvibase (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRachycentron canadum (cobia)PresentNativeIUCN (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRana catesbeiana (American bullfrog)PresentIntroducedHardouin (1997); Teixeira et al. (2001); Flores Nava (2005); Kraus (2009); Santos-Barrera et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus exulans (Pacific rat)PresentMedway Lord (1978); Embi (1980); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus rattus (black rat)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus tanezumi (Asian house rat)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTilapia zillii (redbelly tilapia)Absent, Formerly presentWohlfarth and Hulata (1983); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrichopodus trichopterus (three spot gourami)Present, WidespreadNativeAng and Gopinath (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)Present, Few occurrencesNativeWells (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaTubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaEchinodermataAcanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAchatina fulica (giant African land snail)Present, LocalizedIntroducedMead (1979); Foon et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaEuglandina rosea (rosy predator snail)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMagallana gigas (Pacific oyster)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); DIAS (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytilopsis sallei (Caribbean false mussel)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPerna viridis (Asian green mussel)PresentNativeNACA (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)PresentNativePoutiers (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)PresentIntroducedInvasiveTeo SuSin (2004); Halwart and Bartley (2006); Yahaya et al. (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea insularum (island applesnail)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea maculataPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaRuditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell)PresentNativeScarlato (1981)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus angustus (rice stem nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus destructor (potato tuber nematode)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)PresentMuhammad (1992); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Abdul Rahman et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)Present, WidespreadMadamba (1981); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)Present, WidespreadMuhammad (1992); CABI and EPPO (2000); Abdul Rahman et al. (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); Abdul Rahman et al. (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesBothriocephalus acheilognathiPresentIntroducedFernando and Furtado (1964)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus granulosusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus multilocularisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaPoriferaMycale grandis (orange keyhole sponge)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila psittaciAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaCaulerpa taxifolia (killer algae)PresentNativeGuiry and Guiry (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva pertusaPresentNativePhang and Wee (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAdiantum hispidulum (rosy maidenhair fern)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAngiopteris evecta (king fern)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Ghazali et al. (2014); ISSG (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla pinnata (mosquito fern)Present, LocalizedNativeMansor and Sam (1992); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCeratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)PresentNativeGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)PresentNativeHolttum (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)PresentNativeDash et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)PresentNativeUSDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern)PresentNativeHolttum (1959); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMacrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMarsilea minuta (pepperwort)Present, WidespreadHolttum (1954); Pancho and Soerjani (1978)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaNephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris tripartita (giant brake)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia molesta (kariba weed)Present, WidespreadInvasiveAzmi (1988); Baki et al. (1990); Hakim et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaThelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAcanthophora spiciferaPresentNativeSilva et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaEucheuma spp.PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaGracilaria salicorniaPresentNativeSilva et al. (1996); Yamamoto and Phang (1997); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaKappaphycusPresentNativeDoty (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbrus precatorius (rosary pea)PresentNativePIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)PresentNativeAchigan-Dako (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon indicum (country mallow)PresentNativeCurtis (1894)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia confusaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia crassicarpa (northern wattle)PresentIntroducedThapa (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia longifolia (golden wattle)PresentIntroducedPIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mangium (brown salwood)PresentIntroducedInvasiveAguiar Júnior et al. (2014); Brown (2000); Orchard and Wilson (2001); Orwa et al. (2009); Krisnawati et al. (2011); Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2016); USDA-ARS (2016); Maid et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mearnsii (black wattle)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)Present, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdonidia merrillii (Christmas palm)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene indica (Indian jointvetch)Present, WidespreadHenderson (1959)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave vivipara (Caribbean agave)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedThe Mansfeld’s World Database (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedBarnes and Chandapillai (1972); IRRI (1989); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAilanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)PresentIntroducedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia chinensis (Chinese albizia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentNative and IntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); ILDIS (2016); PIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia procera (white siris)PresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAleurites moluccanus (candlenut tree)Present, PlantedNativeKrisnawati et al. (2011); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationNativeGovaerts (2013); USDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Present, LocalizedParham (1958); Holm et al. (1991); Senterre et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)PresentNativeDuke (1981); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)PresentTownsend (1988); Itoh et al. (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)PresentHakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentIntroducedJansen et al. (1991); Mastoi et al. (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona squamosa (sugar apple)Present, PlantedCABI (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia crenata (coral berry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAreca catechu (betelnut palm)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArenga pinnata (sugar palm)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016); PIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCsurhes (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass)PresentNativeFlora of China (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)PresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)Present, PlantedMastoi et al. (2014); Zulperi et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)Present, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsphodelus tenuifolius (onionweed)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsystasia gangetica (chinese violet)PresentHamaseh Aliakbarpour and Md Rawi (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAverrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)PresentCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus compressus (carpet grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus fissifoliusPresentIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)Present, WidespreadIntroducedNaturalizedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBacopa monnieri (water hyssop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria prionitis (porcupine flower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBasella alba (malabar spinach)PresentUSDA-ARS (2017); WCSP (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)PresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009); ILDIS (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBixa orellana (annatto)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBlyxa aubertii (roundfruit blyxa)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentStemmerik (1964)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBorreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed)Present, LocalizedBarnes and Chan (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)PresentClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica juncea (mustard)PresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica rapa (field mustard)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPROTA (2018); Golkhandan et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBroussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja asiatica (dog tail)PresentNativeLi and Leeuwenberg (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja davidii (butterfly bush)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022); Washington State Department of Ecology (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia decapetala (Mysore thorn)PresentNativePIER (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentIntroducedInvasiveILDIS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis gigantea (Yercum fibre)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCananga odorata (ylang-ylang)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia catharticaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean)PresentIntroducedSauer (1964)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia gladiata (sword bean)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum annuum (bell pepper)PresentMohamad Roff et al. (2006); Golkhandan et al. (2013); Farshid Mahmodi et al. (2014); Nasehi et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentWaterhouse (1993); USDA-ARS (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia grandis (pink shower)PresentIntroducedToruan-Purba (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia javanica (pink shower)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)Present, PlantedNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)PresentCABI (Undated); Nejat et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCedrela odorata (Spanish cedar)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)PresentHitchcock (1971); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentratherum punctatum (lark daisy)PresentIntroducedFlann (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratophyllum demersum (coontail)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaecrista nictitans (sensitive partridge pea)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Englberger (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium acuminatumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris barbata (purpletop chloris)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris gayana (Rhodes grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChromolaena odorata (Siam weed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Kamal-Uddin et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCissus quadrangularis (treebine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantiifolia (lime)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantium (sour orange)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveElffers et al. (1964); Kers (1986); Teng and Teh (1990); Ismail et al. (1995); Waterhouse and Mitchell (1998); Hamaseh Aliakbarpour and Md Rawi (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)PresentNative and IntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016); ILDIS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); PIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)PresentCABI (Undated); Almaliky et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)PresentIntroducedWhyte (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColubrina asiatica (latherleaf)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCombretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina benghalensis (wandering jew)Present, LocalizedWilson (1981); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina paludosaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)PresentIntroducedItoh et al. (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordyline fruticosa (ti plant)Present, WidespreadHinkle (2007); Smithsonian (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCorymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014); Sherff (1932); Siddiqui et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)PresentIntroducedTjitrosoedirdjo (1991); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentNativeILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptocoryne linguaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)PresentIntroducedKiew (2008); Forest Research Institute Malaysia (2015); GBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta campestris (field dodder)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynara cardunculus (cardoon)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus compressus (annual sedge)Present, WidespreadRidley (1925); Waterhouse (1993); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus cyperoidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)Present, WidespreadBarnes and Chan (1990); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus iria (rice flatsedge)PresentBarnes and Chan (1990); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus meyenianus (Meyen's flatsedge)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDalbergia sissooPresentIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDerris elliptica (tuba root)PresentNative and IntroducedUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichrostachys cinerea (sickle bush)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)PresentNativePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass)PresentIntroducedCTAHR (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ischaemumPresentHakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria longiflora (false couch grass)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria setigera (East Indian crabgrass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea bulbifera (air potato)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)PresentIntroducedISSG (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDracaena fragrans (corn plant)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)PresentAzmi (1988); Barnes and Chan (1990); Waterhouse (1993); Hamaseh Aliakbarpour and Md Rawi (2011); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PresentIntroducedMoody (1989); Holm et al. (1991); Hakim et al. (2013); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEclipta prostrata (eclipta)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGopal (1987); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeis guineensis (African oil palm)PresentFAO (2009); Ismail et al. (2017); Nasehi et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleocharis dulcis (Chinese water chestnut)Present, LocalizedMansor and Ahmad (1986)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)PresentCABI (Undated); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed)PresentIntroducedRevilla et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElsholtzia ciliataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); IRRI (1989); Waterhouse (1993); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)PresentNativePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)PresentPIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis unioloides (Chinese lovegrass)PresentNativePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEriobotrya japonica (loquat)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErythrina poeppigiana (coral tree)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEtlingera elatior (torch ginger)PresentNativeGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge)PresentCABI (Undated); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)PresentIsmail and Roslen (2021)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFalcataria moluccana (batai wood)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benghalensis (banyan)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benjamina (weeping fig)PresentNativeCorner (1967); Quattrocchi (2012); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus elastica (rubber plant)PresentQuattrocchi (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis dichotoma (tall fringe rush)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlacourtia indica (governor's plum)PresentOrwa et al. (2009); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia lineata (wild hops)PresentNativeILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia macrophylla (large leaf flemingia)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia strobilifera (wild hops)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (gliricidia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2002); WAC (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGmelina arborea (candahar)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)PresentNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGrevillea robusta (silky oak)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHaematoxylum campechianum (logwood)PresentIntroducedSeegeler (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemigraphis alternata (red ivy)PresentNativeMeyer and Lavergne (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHevea brasiliensis (rubber)PresentFAO (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)PresentMastoi et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHiptage benghalensis (hiptage)PresentNativePIER (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)Present, WidespreadPieterse (1981); Verkleij et al. (1983); Govaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed)PresentNativeFNW Disseminules (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)PresentIntroducedUK, Royal Botanic Gardens (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis suaveolens (pignut)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balsamina (garden balsam)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImperata cylindrica (cogon grass)Present, WidespreadNativeGilliland (1971); Holm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993); Mcdonald and Chandler (1994); Garrity et al. (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)PresentNativePIER (2013); Djarwaningsih (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera spicata (creeping indigo)PresentNativePuy et al. (1993); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera tinctoria (true indigo)PresentNativeBisby et al. (1994); USDA-ARS (2013); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea alba (white moonflower )PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)PresentSubramanyam (1962); Chin and Fong (1978); Mackeen et al. (1997); Ong et al. (2011); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)PresentIntroducedStaples (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedMalaysia Biodiversity Information System (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory)PresentHakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Present, LocalizedGilliland et al. (1971); Hakim et al. (2013); Clayton et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum timorense (centipede grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)Present, PlantedIntroducedCaius (1986); Sulaiman et al. (2012); Mastoi et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)PresentIntroducedPadua et al. (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentWu et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe integra (Never die)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga)PresentNativeKumar (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKyllinga polyphylla (navua sedge)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)PresentIntroducedPFAF (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)PresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)PresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeersia hexandra (southern cut grass)PresentPyrah (1969)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa chinensis (Chinese sprangletop)PresentOhwi (1984); Waterhouse (1993); Chuah et al. (2006); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena diversifoliaPresent, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHughes (1998); Hughes (1998); World Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnocharis flava (yellow bur-head)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMoody (1989); Holm et al. (1991); Waterhouse and Mitchell (1998); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnophila chinensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)PresentBaki Hj Bakar (2004); Hakim et al. (2013); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLitsea glutinosa (Indian laurel)PresentNativePIER (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PresentIntroducedeMonocot (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)PresentNativeInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2012); Moody (1989); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia octovalvis (primrose willow)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia peploides (water primrose)PresentGBIF (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa acutangula (angled luffa)PresentIntroducedSalleh and Yusof (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaesopsis eminii (umbrella tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaManilkara zapota (sapodilla)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); Mastoi et al. (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaranta arundinacea (arrowroot)PresentIntroducedPROSEA (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMartynia annua (tiger's claw)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2013); Moody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelastoma malabathricum (Banks melastoma)Present, LocalizedWaterhouse (1993); Turner et al. (1995); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)PresentNativeWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia peltataPresentOoststroom and Hoogland (1953)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia umbellata (hogvine)PresentNativeStaples (2010); Ooststroom and Hoogland (1953); Barnes and Chan (1990)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMicrostegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania cordataPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977); Waterhouse (1993); Ismail (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania scandensAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Matsubayashi et al. (2007); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992); Waterhouse (1993); PIER (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); Anwar (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedMoody (1989); Waterhouse (1993); Hamaseh Aliakbarpour and Md Rawi (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHamilton and Holttum (1933)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica charantia (bitter gourd)PresentNativeScholz (1988); Holm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Hakim et al. (2013); PIER (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria vaginalis (pickerel weed)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Azmi et al. (1992); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass)PresentNativeKumar (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)PresentNativeGovaerts (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMucuna pruriens (velvet bean)PresentNativeLock and Heald (1994); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMuntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)PresentIntroducedVerheij (1989); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurdannia nudiflora (doveweed)PresentNativeGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurraya paniculata (orange jessamine)PresentNativePROTA (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)PresentIntroducedCreuwels (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather)PresentIntroducedOrchard (1981); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNerium oleander (oleander)PresentNativePROTA (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); Bor (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus)PresentNativePlant Gene Resources of Canada (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNypa fruticans (nipa palm)Present, PlantedNativeHyde and Alias (2000); Rozainah and Aslezaeim (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum gratissimum (African basil)PresentNativeWCSP (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)PresentGovaerts (2018); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza rufipogon (wild rice)PresentMoody (1989); Doi et al. (2000); Zhu et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaederia foetida (skunkvine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPanicum repens (torpedo grass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveRezaul Karim (2014); Karim et al. (2018); Maszura et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Waterhouse (1993); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum distichum (knotgrass)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated); Waterhouse (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass paspalum)Present, LocalizedNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1993); Hakim et al. (2013); Raya et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1993); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPeltophorum pterocarpum (copperpod)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum pedicellatum (deenanath grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum polystachion (mission grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBakar et al. (1990)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PresentWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean)PresentMahmodi et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhragmites australis (common reed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)PresentIntroducedWaterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)PresentIntroducedMorton (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta dioica (allspice)PresentFAO (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus oocarpa (ocote pine)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper aduncum (spiked pepper)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)PresentInvasiveWaterhouse (1993); PIER (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); Govaerts (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); Roslan et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum barbatum (knot grass)PresentMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum hydropiper (marsh pepper)PresentHolm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudelephantopus spicatus (false elephant’s foot)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)PresentIntroducedMorton (1987); Diong (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); FAO (2013); Mastoi et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhizophora mangle (red mangrove)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)Present, WidespreadNativeCsurhes and Hankamer (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)Present, Widespread, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Present, LocalizedNativeMillhollon and Burner (1993); Waterhouse (1993); Hala Alloub et al. (2005); USA, USDA-ARS (2008); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSaccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane)PresentHolm et al. (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass)PresentNativePIER (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSagittaria sagittifoliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)PresentIntroducedMohammadjavad Paydar et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2012); Kee et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScaevola taccada (beach naupaka)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchoenoplectus mucronatus (ricefield bulrush)PresentHakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna alata (candle bush)PresentIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna bacillaris (whitebark senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna hirsuta (hairy senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna multijuga (November shower)Present, PlantedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna obtusifolia (sicklepod)PresentBarnes and Chan (1990); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna siamea (yellow cassia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna spectabilis (whitebark senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna surattensis (golden senna)PresentNativeILDIS (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania grandiflora (sesbania)Present, PlantedNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sesban (sesban)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria palmifolia (palm grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveBarnes and Chan (1990); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida repens (Javanese fanpetals)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFryxell (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum erianthum (potato tree)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum torvum (turkey berry)Present, LocalizedNarikawa et al. (1988); Narikawa et al. (1988); Israf et al. (2004); Wiart et al. (2004); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphenoclea zeylanica (wedgewort)PresentMoody (1989); Hakim et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)PresentIntroducedVeldekamp (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Moldenke (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSterculia foetida (Java olive)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)PresentNativePIER (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStriga asiatica (witch weed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSynedrella nodiflora (synedrella)PresentTasrif et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium cumini (black plum)PresentIntroducedMorton (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium jambos (rose apple)PresentNativeMorton (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTabebuia rosea (pink poui)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarindus indica (tamarind)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTectona grandis (teak)Present, PlantedCABI Data Mining (undated); Farid et al. (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTephrosia candida (white tephrosia)PresentILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTephrosia vogelii (Vogel's tephrosia)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThemeda arguens (Christmas grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThespesia populnea (portia tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona ciliata (toon)PresentNativeHua and Edmonds (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona sinensis (Chinese Toona)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)Present, LocalizedBarnes and Chan (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriphasia trifolia (limeberry)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)PresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentMoody (1989); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha latifolia (broadleaf cattail)PresentIntroducedGlobal Invasive Species Database (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena sinuata (bur mallow)PresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa decumbens (signal grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa distachya (signal grass)PresentNativeSchultze-Kraft (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUtricularia gibbaPresentNativeZhenyu and Cheek (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex parviflora (molave)PresentNativePIER (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex trifoliaPresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYoungia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber officinale (ginger)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2016); Abed-Ashtiani et al. (2016); Ng et al. (2018); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZiziphus mauritiana (jujube)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZoysia matrella (Manila grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Waterhouse (1993)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaAlexandrium minutumPresent, LocalizedUsup et al. (2002)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia caballiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia equiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia gibsoniPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaGymnodinium catenatumPresentAnton and Mohamad-Noor (1996)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPlasmodium relictumPresentNativeLaird (1998)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaToxoplasma gondiiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiAbsentOIE (2018); Luckins (1988); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2018)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusArterivirusPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
Virusavian metapneumovirusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusAvipoxvirusPresentIderis and Ibrahim (1986); Karpinski and Clubb (1986); Reed and Schrader (1989)
VirusBanana bunchy top virus (bunchy top of banana)Present, LocalizedInvasiveCABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
VirusBanana streak diseasePresentNativeInvasiveDiekmann and Putter (1996)
Virusbluetongue virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusbovine leukemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Viruscamelpox virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusclassical swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
VirusCoconut cadang-cadang viroid (cadang cadang disease)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Vadamalai et al. (2006); Vadamalai et al. (2009); Wu et al. (2013); Sathis Sri Thanarajoo et al. (2014)
VirusCowpea aphid-borne mosaic virusPresentBrunt et al. (1990); Dahal and Albrechtsen (1996); CABI and EPPO (2010)
VirusCowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2019)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusduck hepatitis A virusPresentCABI (Undated)
Viruseastern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusequid herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusequine arteritis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusequine influenzavirusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusextra small virusPresentTayebeh Azam Saedi et al. (2012)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
Virusfowlpox virusPresentCABI (Undated)
VirusGallid herpesvirus 2PresentCABI (Undated)
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
Virusinfectious myonecrosis virusPresentOIE (2018)
Virusinfluenza A virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusPresentTayebeh Azam Saedi et al. (2012)
Virusmyxoma virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
VirusNewcastle disease virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
VirusNipah virusAbsentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusPapaya ringspot virusPresentWahab (1991); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusrabies virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusSugarcane mosaic virus (sugarcane mosaic)PresentEPPO (2022)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusTomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt)PresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2022)
Virustransmissible gastroenteritis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusvisna/maedi virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusWest Nile virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
acarapisosis of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Aeromonas infection in fishPresentOIE (2009)
African horse sicknessPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2018)
African swine feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
American foul broodAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
anaplasmosisPresentCABI (Undated)
anthraxAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
atrophic rhinitis of swinePresentCABI (Undated)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avian adenoviruses infectionsPresent, WidespreadDevi and Sam (1983); Abdul-Aziz and Al-Attar (1991)
avian chlamydiosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avian encephalomyelitisPresentCABI (Undated)
avian infectious bronchitisAbsentOIE (2019); Opitz et al. (1979); Babjee (1985); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
avian influenzaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018);
avian intestinal spirochaetosisPresentAmin et al. (2014)
avian leukosis sarcoma virus infectionsPresentCABI (Undated)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avipoxPresentReed and Schrader (1989); Ideris and Ibrahim (1986); Karpinski and Clubb (1986)
babesiosisPresentOIE (2009)
bluetongueAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Bothriocephalus acheilognathi infectionPresentIntroducedFernando and Furtado (1964)
bovine anaplasmosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine babesiosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine ephemeral feverPresentCABI (Undated)
bovine genital campylobacteriosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine tuberculosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009); OIE (2018)
bovine venereal trichomonosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine viral diarrhoeaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BP virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)Present, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018)
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)Present, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018)
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
brucellosis (Brucella suis)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Burkholderia pseudomallei infectionsPresentDance (1991)
camel poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
caprine arthritis encephalitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
chicken anaemiaPresentRozanah et al. (1995)
Chrysomya bezziana infestationPresentNativeInvasiveNorris and Murray (1964); Wardhana et al. (2012); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
ChytridiomycosisPresentCABI (Undated)
classical swine feverAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
coccidiosisPresentCABI (Undated)
Cochliomyia hominivorax infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious agalactiaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious ecthymaPresentZamri-Saad et al. (1993); Fatimah et al. (1994)
contagious equine metritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
crayfish plagueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
cryptosporidiosis in livestock and poultryPresentAhmad et al. (1997)
Dichelobacter nodosus infectionPresentCABI (Undated)
Digenean infections of fishPresentAnderson and Shaharom-Harrison (1986)
dourineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
duck virus hepatitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
EchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Echinococcus granulosusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Echinococcus multilocularisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
enzootic abortion of ewesAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
enzootic bovine leukosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
epizootic haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
epizootic ulcerative syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009); CABI (Undated)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine encephalomyelitis (Western)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine infectious anaemiaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine influenzaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine piroplasmosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine rhinopneumonitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine viral arteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Escherichia coli infectionsPresentBaloda et al. (1992)
European foul broodAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
fibropapillomatosis of sea turtlesPresentHerbst (1994)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
fowl choleraPresentOIE (2009)
fowl typhoidAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
fowlpoxPresentIderis and Ibrahim (1986); Karpinski and Clubb (1986); Reed and Schrader (1989)
glandersAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
heartwaterAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
infectious bursal diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
infectious coryzaPresentZaini and Kanameda (1991)
infectious haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisPresentOIE (2009)
infectious laryngotracheitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
infectious myonecrosisPresentOIE (2018)
infectious salmon anaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Japanese encephalitisAbsentOIE (2018); Bendell (1970); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
koi herpesvirus diseasePresentOIE (2009); Gilad et al. (2003); Haenen et al. (2004)
leishmaniosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
leptospirosisPresentOIE (2009)
leucocytozoonosisPresentZainal-Abidin (1995)
listeriosisPresent, WidespreadArumugaswamy et al. (1994)
lumpy skin diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Mannheimia haemolytica infectionsPresentSabri et al. (2013); Chung LimTeik [Chung et al. (2015)
Marek's diseasePresentOIE (2009)
mycobacteriosis in fishPresentAnderson et al. (1987); Shamsudin et al. (1990)
Mycoplasma agalactiae infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
myxomatosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Nairobi sheep diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
Newcastle diseasePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Nipah virus infectionAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
paratuberculosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
Pasteurella multocida infectionsPresentChandrasekaran et al. (1981)
peste des petits ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Plasmodium relictum infectionPresentNativeLaird (1998)
porcine enterovirus infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
porcine parvovirus infectionPresentCABI (Undated)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
pullorum diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Q feverAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018)
rabbit haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
rabiesPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2009); OIE (2020)
red sea bream iridoviral diseasePresentOIE (2009)
reticuloendotheliosisPresentChai and Yuasa (1989)
Rift Valley feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
rinderpestAbsentOIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
rotavirus infections in livestock and poultryPresentCABI (Undated)
scrapieAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
sheep and goat poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
small hive beetle infestationAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
spherical baculovirosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
spring viraemia of carpAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
surraAbsentOIE (2019); Luckins (1988); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
swine influenzaPresentTAN et al. (1979)
Taura syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
tetanusPresent, WidespreadHabibah et al. (1998)
Theileria orientalis/Theileria buffeli infectionsPresentCABI (Undated)
theileriosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
TrichinellaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
trichomonosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
tropical pulmonary eosinophiliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesAbsentOIE (2019); Koeniger et al. (2002); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
trypanosomosisAbsentOIE (2019); Arunasalam et al. (1995); Cheah et al. (1999); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
tuberculosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019)
tularaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
turkey rhinotracheitisAbsentOIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
varroosis of honey beesAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
vesicular stomatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
visna/maediAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
West Nile feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); Hubálek et al. (1999); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
white spot diseasePresentOIE (2009)
white tail diseasePresentTayebeh Azam Saedi et al. (2012)
yellow head diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

Top of page

Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Areca nutsArea harvested6058948391
Production quantity206177328303339
Yield34,333 Fc30,517 Fc34,894 Fc36,506 Fc37,253 Fc
BananasArea harvested21,36324,21927,56522,29424,858
Production quantity322,732330,957350,493309,508315,500
Yield151,071 Fc136,652 Fc127,151 Fc138,830 Fc126,921 Fc
Bastfibres, otherArea harvested1,7302,0682,2133,1072,805
Production quantity7,18310,0123,26810,34011,602
Yield41,520 Fc48,414 Fc14,767 Fc33,280 Fc41,362 Fc
Cabbages and other brassicasArea harvested2,7403,3003,2793,7748,261
Production quantity66,06480,64177,342101,258277,202
Yield241,109 Fc244,367 Fc235,871 Fc268,304 Fc335,555 Fc
Cashew nuts, with shellArea harvested7,539 Im7,513 Im7,488 Im7,459 Im7,428 Im
Production quantity16,692 Im16,493 Im16,298 Im16,094 Im15,816 Im
Yield22,141 Fc21,953 Fc21,765 Fc21,577 Fc21,292 Fc
CassavaArea harvested2,4461,9712,5663,1483,418
Production quantity42,26734,99744,22961,16167,713
Yield172,800 Fc177,560 Fc172,366 Fc194,285 Fc198,107 Fc
Cereals, TotalArea harvested690,949 A709,528 A696,025 A698,812 A691,589 A
Production quantity2,965,976 A2,708,109 A2,643,074 A2,804,473 A2,803,864 A
Yield42,926 Fc38,168 Fc37,974 Fc40,132 Fc40,542 Fc
Chillies and peppers, dryArea harvested3,500 Im3,394 Im3,292 Im3,195 Im3,102 Im
Production quantity2,370 Im2,345 Im2,321 Im2,296 Im2,279 Im
Yield6,771 Fc6,909 Fc7,050 Fc7,186 Fc7,347 Fc
Chillies and peppers, greenArea harvested2,8432,3902,8353,1762,915
Production quantity27,55524,42827,35843,73847,015
Yield96,922 Fc102,209 Fc96,501 Fc137,714 Fc161,286 Fc
Citrus Fruit, TotalArea harvested3,620 A3,361 A4,077 A4,135 A4,201 A
Production quantity35,732 A35,135 A36,323 A36,466 A36,411 A
Yield98,707 Fc104,537 Fc89,092 Fc88,189 Fc86,672 Fc
ClovesArea harvested1,014 Im1,005 Im996 Im987 Im977 Im
Production quantity228 Im227 Im226 Im225 Im224 Im
Yield2,249 Fc2,259 Fc2,269 Fc2,280 Fc2,293 Fc
Cocoa, beansArea harvested15,00815,00816,87116,73818,122
Production quantity1,0058141,0121,7231,729
Yield670 Fc542 Fc600 Fc1,029 Fc954 Fc
CoconutsArea harvested76,77675,07274,00875,15173,167
Production quantity536,606495,531517,589504,773505,614
Yield69,892 Fc66,007 Fc69,937 Fc67,168 Fc69,104 Fc
Coffee, greenArea harvested1,5761,4772,0762,0301,976
Production quantity3,5593,3698,1097,1705,929
Yield22,582 Fc22,810 Fc39,061 Fc35,320 Fc30,005 Fc
CoirProduction quantity21,488 Im21,556 Im21,624 Im21,369 Im21,036 Im
Area harvested
Cucumbers and gherkinsArea harvested4,9994,1144,4014,3594,371
Production quantity103,35985,13488,49297,621100,817
Yield206,759 Fc206,937 Fc201,072 Fc223,953 Fc230,650 Fc
Fibre Crops PrimaryArea harvested1,730 A2,068 A2,213 A3,107 A2,805 A
Production quantity7,183 A10,012 A3,268 A10,340 A11,602 A
Yield41,520 Fc48,414 Fc14,767 Fc33,280 Fc41,362 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested83,436 A87,501 A93,093 A89,779 A90,218 A
Production quantity1,113,984 A1,146,167 A1,278,867 A1,282,320 A1,328,908 A
Yield133,514 Fc130,989 Fc137,375 Fc142,831 Fc147,300 Fc
Fruit, citrus nesArea harvested670 Im662 Im657 Im655 Im664 Im
Production quantity3,109 Im3,089 Im3,080 Im3,088 Im3,091 Im
Yield46,403 Fc46,662 Fc46,880 Fc47,145 Fc46,551 Fc
Fruit, fresh nesArea harvested14,857 Im14,655 Im14,453 Im14,251 Im14,117 Im
Production quantity115,537 Im113,860 Im112,184 Im110,507 Im109,781 Im
Yield77,766 Fc77,694 Fc77,620 Fc77,543 Fc77,765 Fc
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea harvested14,157 Im14,573 Im14,963 Im15,328 Im15,609 Im
Production quantity61,342 Im65,296 Im69,249 Im73,202 Im77,327 Im
Yield43,330 Fc44,806 Fc46,280 Fc47,757 Fc49,540 Fc
GingerArea harvested761846974940965
Production quantity11,20513,48514,27913,36212,924
Yield147,240 Fc159,397 Fc146,602 Fc142,149 Fc133,927 Fc
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Area harvested8588188929101,044
Production quantity15,10915,28113,03712,85810,196
Yield176,096 Fc186,809 Fc146,155 Fc141,297 Fc97,663 Fc
Groundnuts, with shellArea harvested8766717993
Production quantity262178234231382
Yield30,115 Fc26,970 Fc32,958 Fc29,241 Fc41,075 Fc
Lemons and limesArea harvested8778531,0111,013850
Production quantity6,5046,6256,9617,0727,587
Yield74,162 Fc77,667 Fc68,853 Fc69,812 Fc89,259 Fc
Lettuce and chicoryArea harvested2,8102,7262,3233,0173,182
Production quantity48,73846,11440,35865,26866,006
Yield173,445 Fc169,164 Fc173,732 Fc216,334 Fc207,436 Fc
MaizeArea harvested6,5339,54810,47710,04210,030
Production quantity53,77368,90772,56164,86762,460
Yield82,310 Fc72,169 Fc69,257 Fc64,596 Fc62,273 Fc
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasArea harvested8,4428,0829,5718,3798,344
Production quantity80,84175,901113,824102,04698,315
Yield95,760 Fc93,914 Fc118,926 Fc121,788 Fc117,827 Fc
Manila fibre (abaca)Area harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Nutmeg, mace and cardamomsArea harvested1722232322
Production quantity34105955761
Yield20,000 Fc47,727 Fc41,304 Fc24,783 Fc27,727 Fc
Oil palm fruitArea harvested5,216,8225,189,3445,110,7135,001,4384,859,397
Production quantity99,065,36498,419,438101,740,90086,325,30998,344,073
Yield189,896 Fc189,657 Fc199,074 Fc172,601 Fc202,379 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested5,451,258 A5,421,075 A5,340,380 A5,231,226 A5,087,999 A
Production quantity99,807,815 A99,116,936 A102,456,717 A87,024,512 A99,041,766 A
Yield183,091 Fc182,836 Fc191,853 Fc166,356 Fc194,658 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested5,451,258 A5,421,075 A5,340,380 A5,231,226 A5,087,999 A
Production quantity3,257,217 A3,231,470 A3,334,609 A2,850,339 A3,223,948 A
Yield5,975 Fc5,961 Fc6,244 Fc5,449 Fc6,336 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested5,451,258 A5,421,075 A5,340,380 A5,231,226 A5,087,999 A
Production quantity21,688,135 A21,541,079 A22,265,575 A18,908,337 A21,523,024 A
Yield39,786 Fc39,736 Fc41,693 Fc36,145 Fc42,302 Fc
Oilseeds nesArea harvested157,573 Im156,593 Im155,588 Im154,558 Im155,342 Im
Production quantity205,583 Im201,789 Im197,994 Im194,199 Im191,697 Im
Yield13,047 Fc12,886 Fc12,726 Fc12,565 Fc12,340 Fc
OkraArea harvested3,7813,2503,4113,1273,326
Production quantity58,20452,31853,93749,05750,778
Yield153,938 Fc160,978 Fc158,127 Fc156,882 Fc152,670 Fc
OrangesArea harvested1,2151,0281,5171,5571,643
Production quantity11,01010,14013,24513,44815,537
Yield90,617 Fc98,638 Fc87,310 Fc86,371 Fc94,565 Fc
PapayasArea harvested2,1281,8392,7383,9802,514
Production quantity53,67552,55183,79765,96760,625
Yield252,232 Fc285,759 Fc306,052 Fc165,746 Fc241,150 Fc
Pepper (piper spp.)Area harvested7,2997,17617,08716,76816,333
Production quantity33,94032,29230,43329,24528,300
Yield46,500 Fc45,000 Fc17,811 Fc17,441 Fc17,327 Fc
PineapplesArea harvested10,56111,35610,13110,35410,551
Production quantity299,912322,460340,722391,714452,021
Yield283,981 Fc283,956 Fc336,316 Fc378,321 Fc428,415 Fc
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsArea harvested2,0771,7381,4351,1281,817
Production quantity25,81125,47523,85916,49425,652
Yield124,271 Fc146,577 Fc166,265 Fc146,223 Fc141,178 Fc
Rice, paddyArea harvested684,416699,980685,548688,770681,559
Production quantity2,912,2032,639,2022,570,5132,739,6062,741,404
Yield42,550 Fc37,704 Fc37,496 Fc39,775 Fc40,223 Fc
Rice, paddy (rice milled equivalent)Production quantity1,942,439 Fc1,760,348 Fc1,714,532 Fc1,827,317 Fc1,828,516 Fc
Roots and tubers nesArea harvested325 Im345 Im362 Im667 Im735
Production quantity2,574 Im2,759 Im2,939 Im5,395 Im4,857
Yield79,200 Fc79,971 Fc81,188 Fc80,885 Fc66,082 Fc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested6,088 A5,051 A5,369 A6,407 A7,061 A
Production quantity101,164 A89,981 A88,413 A109,768 A123,177 A
Yield166,170 Fc178,145 Fc164,673 Fc171,325 Fc174,447 Fc
Rubber, naturalArea harvested1,083,9921,082,9921,081,6981,077,9931,074,386
Production quantity639,830603,329740,138673,513722,122
Yield5,903 Fc5,571 Fc6,842 Fc6,248 Fc6,721 Fc
SoybeansArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Spices nesArea harvested75 Im74 Im73 Im72 Im72 Im
Production quantity750 Im739 Im729 Im719 Im722 Im
Yield100,000 Fc99,865 Fc99,863 Fc99,861 Fc100,278 Fc
SpinachArea harvested6,2105,6535,4854,2763,860
Production quantity77,76172,30871,18054,82348,357
Yield125,219 Fc127,911 Fc129,772 Fc128,211 Fc125,277 Fc
Sugar caneArea harvested1,1581,4001,6681,5151,717
Production quantity20,61823,47529,99028,03830,271
Yield178,048 Fc167,679 Fc179,796 Fc185,069 Fc176,302 Fc
Sugar Crops PrimaryArea harvested1,158 A1,400 A1,668 A1,515 A1,717 A
Production quantity20,618 A23,475 A29,990 A28,038 A30,271 A
Yield178,048 Fc167,679 Fc179,796 Fc185,069 Fc176,302 Fc
Sweet potatoesArea harvested3,3172,7352,4412,5922,908
Production quantity56,32352,22541,24543,21250,607
Yield169,801 Fc190,951 Fc168,968 Fc166,713 Fc174,027 Fc
TeaArea harvested1,4402,0831,8452,0031,890
Production quantity6,62110,80810,38511,70811,130
Yield45,979 Fc51,887 Fc56,287 Fc58,452 Fc58,889 Fc
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea harvested1,365 Im1,458 Im1,550 Im1,642 Im1,754 Im
Production quantity1,026 Im1,099 Im1,172 Im1,244 Im1,340 Im
Yield7,516 Fc7,538 Fc7,561 Fc7,576 Fc7,640 Fc
TomatoesArea harvested1,9742,1011,9412,7941,984
Production quantity176,505199,422188,185242,946165,177
Yield894,149 Fc949,177 Fc969,526 Fc869,528 Fc832,545 Fc
Treenuts, TotalArea harvested7,539 A7,513 A7,488 A7,459 A7,428 A
Production quantity16,692 A16,493 A16,298 A16,094 A15,816 A
Yield22,141 Fc21,953 Fc21,765 Fc21,577 Fc21,292 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested58,174 A55,558 A54,915 A54,948 A58,176 A
Production quantity1,286,212 A1,259,226 A1,215,268 A1,286,932 A1,359,632 A
Yield221,097 Fc226,651 Fc221,300 Fc234,209 Fc233,710 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested30,740 Im30,286 Im29,805 Im29,297 Im28,460 Im
Production quantity702,215 Im673,386 Im644,557 Im615,727 Im578,628 Im
Yield228,437 Fc222,342 Fc216,258 Fc210,167 Fc203,313 Fc
WatermelonsArea harvested8,3089,4169,59511,05810,024
Production quantity144,213150,007172,275192,910178,928
Yield173,583 Fc159,311 Fc179,547 Fc174,453 Fc178,500 Fc
Flag
No flag = Official data
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology
M = Data not available

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea8,571 Fm8,571 Fm8,571 Fm8,570 Fm8,089 Fm
AgricultureArea8,571 Fc8,571 Fc8,571 Fc8,570 Fc8,089 Fc
Agriculture area certified organicArea10 I
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area10 I1 I1 I1 I1 I
Arable landArea826 Fm826 Fm826 Fm825 Q804 Fm
Country areaArea33,035 Fm33,035 Fm33,035 Fm33,035 Q33,040 Fm
CroplandArea8,286 Fm8,286 Fm8,286 Fm8,285 Q7,804 Fm
Forest landArea19,214 Q19,264 Q19,315 Q19,464 Q19,361 Fm
Inland watersArea225 Fm225 Fm225 Fm225 Fm225 Fm
Land areaArea32,855 Fm32,855 Fm32,855 Fm32,855 Fm32,855 Fm
Land area equipped for irrigationArea442 Fm442 Fm442 Fm442 Q443 Fm
Land under perm. meadows and pasturesArea285 Fm285 Fm285 Fm285 Fm285 Fm
Land under permanent cropsArea7,460 Fm7,460 Fm7,460 Fm7,460 Q7,000 Fm
Land under temp. meadows and pasturesArea92 Fm92 Fm92 Fm92 Q96 Fm
Land under temporary cropsArea614 Fm614 Fm614 Fm613 Q590 Fm
Land with temporary fallowArea120 Fm120 Fm120 Fm120 Q119 Fm
Naturally regenerating forestArea17,501 Q17,544 Q17,586 Q17,756 Q17,733 Fm
Other landArea5,070 Fc5,020 Fc4,969 Fc4,821 Fc5,405 Fc
Planted ForestArea1,713 Q1,721 Q1,729 Q1,708 Q1,628 Fm
Cropland area actually irrigatedArea442 Fm442 Fm442 Q444 Fm
Primary ForestArea5,041 Fm5,041 Fm5,041 Q5,006 Fm
Coastal waters used for aquac. or holding facilitiesArea19 Q23 Q22 Q
Coastal waters used for capture fisheriesArea6,504 Q6,504 Q6,504 Q
EEZ used for aquac. or holding facilitiesArea37,982 Q37,982 Q37,982 Q
Inland waters used for aquac. or holding facilitiesArea3 Q1 Q1 Q
Land area actually irrigatedArea442 Fm442 Q444 Fm
Land used for aquacultureArea39 Q37 Q28 Q
Agriculture area actually irrigatedArea442 Q
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc.
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.