Sitophilus granarius (grain weevil)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Sitophilus granarius Linnaeus, 1785
Preferred Common Name
- grain weevil
Other Scientific Names
- Calandra granaria Linnaeus
- Calendra granaria Linnaeus
- Curculio granarius Linnaeus
International Common Names
- English: granary weevil
- Spanish: gorgojo de los granos; gorgojo del maiz; gorgojo del trigo; picudo de los graneros; picudo de los granos
- French: calandre des grains; charançon des greniers; charançon du ble
- Portuguese: gorgulho do trigo
Local Common Names
- Denmark: kornbille
- Germany: Kaefer, Gemeiner Korn-; Kornkrebs
- Israel: chidkosit haasamim
- Italy: calandra del grano; punteruolo del grano
- Netherlands: Graankalander; Graanklander; Graanskuurkalander
- Norway: kornsnutebille
- Turkey: bugday biti
- CALAGR (Sitophilus granarius)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Dryophthoridae
- Genus: Sitophilus
- Species: Sitophilus granarius
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Sitophilus granarius (Linnaeus) [= Calandra granaria (Linnaeus)] is a typical member of the family Curculionidae. Two other species in this genus, S. oryzae and S. zeamais, are also common grain storage pests.
Adults can be identified using the keys of Haines (1991) and Mound (1989) and both adults and larvae using keys of Gorham (1991).
DescriptionTop of page Eggs, Larvae and Pupae
The developmental stages of S. granarius are all found within tunnels and chambers bored in the grain and are thus not normally seen. The larvae are white and apodous. There are four larval instars. The general appearance of the larva and pupa is similar to that of S. zeamais and S. oryzae.
Adults of Sitophilus granarius can vary considerably in size; between 2.5-5.0 mm in length, although 3 to 4 mm is usual. They have the characteristic rostrum and elbowed antennae of the family Curculionidae. They are uniformly polished chestnut-brown or reddish-brown to shiny black in colour. The body is sparsely covered with short, stout yellow hairs. The head is prolonged into a slender snout. The dorsal surface of the rostrum is more closely and strongly punctured in males than in females. The antennae have eight segments and are often carried in an extended position when the insect is walking. The prothorax has distinctly oval punctures. Adults do not have wings, and therefore cannot fly.
Identification keys have been provided by Haines (1991), Mound (1989) and Gorham (1991).
DistributionTop of page
S. granarius is distributed throughout the temperate regions of the world. In tropical countries it is rare, being limited to cool upland areas. The FAO global survey of insecticide susceptibility recorded it from the UK, France, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Algeria, Iraq, Canada, USA, Chile, Argentina, Swaziland, South Africa, Australia, Russia and Thailand (Champ and Dyte, 1976). It is also known from Yemen (Haines, 1981).
A record of S. granarius in Japan (Morimoto, 1978) published in previous versions of the Compendium has been removed as it refers to interceptions of the pest in Japan. In a more recent publication, Morimoto et al. (2007) state that although S. granarius was detected for the first time on imported rice in 1923, it has not established in Japan.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Algeria||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Egypt||Present||Alfazairy et al. (2003)|
|Eswatini||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|South Africa||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Afghanistan||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: CIE London UK|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||NHM (Undated)|
|Iran||Present||Khormaly et al. (2002)|
|Iraq||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Japan||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: MAFF, Japan, communication to CABI, 2016|
|Kazakhstan||Present||Aĭmanbetov and Azhbenov (2004)|
|Malaysia||Present||Mariana et al. (2009)|
|Saudi Arabia||Present||NHM (1937)|
|Sri Lanka||Present||NHM (1948)|
|Thailand||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||Kljajić and Perić (2007)|
|Czechia||Present||Kučerová et al. (2007)|
|Denmark||Present, Widespread||DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark (2019); Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|France||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Germany||Present||Niedermayer and Steidle (2006); Schöller (2002)|
|Italy||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Poland||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Russia||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Serbia||Present||Kljajić and Perić (2007)|
|Spain||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Sweden||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Ukraine||Present||Mishchenko et al. (2000)|
|United Kingdom||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Canada||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|-Nova Scotia||Present||McCorquodale et al. (2005)|
|Mexico||Present||NHM (Undated a)|
|United States||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Australia||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Argentina||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976)|
|Chile||Present||Champ and Dyte (1976); NHM (Undated)|
|Falkland Islands||Present||Reid (2013)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page Many countries, including those that have exclusively hot climates, have S. granarius as a named quarantine pest. This is presumably because it is not widely recognized that it will only establish itself in temperate climes. Nevertheless this species can cause serious damage to grain stocks under hot conditions even though it will eventually die out.Many countries, including those that have exclusively hot climates, have this species as a named quarantine pest. This is presumably because it is not widely recognized that it will only establish itself in temperate climes. Nevertheless this species can cause serious damage to grain stocks under hot conditions even though it will eventually die out.
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page S. granarius is a frequent pest of wheat and barley. It can attack other cereals such as maize, sorghum and rice, but it does not compete well with the other two Sitophilus species on these grains.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Avena sativa (oats)||Poaceae||Other|
|Cicer arietinum (chickpea)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Hordeum vulgare (barley)||Poaceae||Main|
|Oryza sativa (rice)||Poaceae||Other|
|Pennisetum (feather grass)||Poaceae||Other|
|Secale cereale (rye)||Poaceae||Other|
|Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)||Poaceae||Other|
|stored products (dried stored products)||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
|Vicia faba (faba bean)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage
SymptomsTop of page The developmental stages of S. granarius are not normally seen as they occur inside intact grains. Adult emergence holes with irregular edges are apparent some weeks after initial attack. Adults can be found wandering over the surface of grain especially if the grain has been disturbed.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Seeds / internal feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page The biology and behaviour of S. granarius is similar to the tropical species S. oryzae and S. zeamais (see data on these species), except that it cannot fly. A detailed review of all three species has been prepared by Longstaff (1981).
Adults live for 7 to 8 months on average. Females usually lay around 150 eggs, and up to 300 eggs, throughout their lives. Eggs are laid individually in cavities that the female bores in the grain kernels. Cavities are sealed by a waxy egg plug, which the female secretes. Eggs incubate for about 4-14 days before hatching, depending on temperature and humidity. One larva develops in each infested kernel. Feeding larvae excavate a tunnel and may keep feeding until only the hull remains. There are four larval instars. Pupation occurs inside the grain. The newly emerged adult chews its way out of the grain, leaving a characteristic exit hole. In warm summer conditions the life cycle can be completed within 4 to 6 weeks, but can take as long as 17 to 21 weeks in the winter. Adults can survive for a month or more without food in cooler conditions.
Optimum conditions for development are similar to other tropical species of Sitophilus, about 30°C and 70% RH (Richards, 1947), but in tropical areas it is apparently not able to compete with S. oryzae and S. zeamais. It seems that its distribution is limited more by its commodity associations with cool climate crops (see Host Range) than by its direct response to temperature. However, it can develop at temperatures down to 11°C, and is therefore successful in temperate regions that are too cool for other Sitophilus species (Howe and Hole, 1968). Being flightless, S. granarius cannot usually infest crops in the field before harvest.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis||Pathogen|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Anisopteromalus calandrae, Cephalonomia tarsalis, Lariophagus distinguendus, and Theocolax elegans [Chaetospila elegans] are all known to parasitize the larvae of S. granarius. Steidle (1998) reviewed the literature on L. distinguendus.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Adult S. granarius cannot disperse by flight, although they are very active walkers. They are transported within grain as eggs, larvae or pupae. They can readily spread in grain residues.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
ImpactTop of page S. granarius is a serious pest of stored cereal grains in cool climates, whether in temperate or tropical latitudes. It can also cause serious damage under hot conditions before populations die out. Larval stages feed inside the grain on the kernels, leaving only the hulls. Severe infestations can reduce stored grain to a mass of hulls and frass. It is a severe pest of wheat and barley grains. It also infests rye, rice, maize and other cereal grains. It sometimes infests sunflower seeds, dried beans, chickpeas, groundnuts, acorns, chestnuts, pasta products, ornamental dried corn and birdseed.
Feeding damage by S. granarius can make grains vulnerable to attack by other pests, such as the weevil Caulophilus oryzae, which are unable to penetrate intact grains.
Pajmon (2000) described its economic impact in Slovenia. Trematerra et al. (1999) described infestations in traditional grain storage warehouses in Italy.
Detection and InspectionTop of page Granary weevil infestations in stored cereals are generally difficult to detect, particularly in the initial stages, since the life cycle mainly takes place (from egg to pupa) inside the kernel. Pitfall traps placed on the grain surface and probe traps inserted into grain bulks have been used successfully to detect adult Sitophilus granarius (e.g. Buchelos and Athanassiou, 1999; Wakefield and Cogan, 1999). Larval stages in the grain may be detected using hidden infestation detection techniques. These can involve squashing the grain against indicator papers, testing for changes in specific gravity, or using X-ray machines (Haff and Slaughter, 1999). A novel method using microphones to detect larval movement in grains at temperatures above 15°C was described by Weinard (1998). Rotundo et al. (2000) described a serological method for detecting the immature stages of S. granarius in kernels, while Ridgway and Chambers (1996) described a detection method involving near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page S. granarius can be separated from S. zeamais and S. oryzae by the absence of wings and by the presence of oval, rather than circular, punctures on the prothorax. The larvae cannot be easily separated by superficial features; only characters accessible to a microscope are useful (Gorham, 1991).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Grain may be protected by the admixture of insecticides. S. granarius has a low susceptibility to synthetic pyrethroids but is readily killed by organophosphorus compounds such as fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl. Grain stocks may be fumigated with phosphine to eliminate existing infestation. However, fumigation treatments provide no protection against reinfestation. Fumigation of S. granarius pupae with phosphine at 20°C resulted in a LT95 of 3.9 days (at 0.5 g/m²) and 100% mortality after 10 days (Goto et al., 1996). Carbon dioxide fumigation, in controlled-atmosphere storage, can also be used to control S. granarius in stored grain, although the weevil is more resistant to this treatment than other storage pest species (Kishino et al., 1996). Inadequate fumigation or controlled-atmosphere treatments are likely to result in some survival. Gamma radiation, at doses of 30-500 Gy, prevented the development of eggs and larvae of S. granarius in grain (Aldryhim and Adam, 1999); although this method of control is relatively expensive.
Biological control has not been practised against S. granarius. There may be some potential for the development of pest management strategies that favour the action of natural parasites. Lariophagus distinguendus, an ectoparasitoid that prefers older larvae and pupae as hosts, appears particularly promising as a biocontrol agent (Steidle, 1998).
Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
Good storage hygiene plays an important role in limiting infestation by S. granarius. The removal of infested residues from the previous season's harvest is essential. Ensuring grain is well dried at intake is very important. Moisture content of 10-12% is desirable, but most grain purchasers have an upper limit of 14% and do not find it practical to operate below this limit.
Infested grain can be treated with hot air, at an inlet temperature of 300-350°C, as an alternative to fumigation. Good weevil control has been obtained by this method, with heat exposure times (around 6 seconds) that do not unduly harm the grain (Mourier and Poulsen, 2000).
ReferencesTop of page
Buchelos CT, Athanassiou CG, 1999. Unbaited probe traps and grain trier: a comparison of the two methods for sampling Coleoptera in stored barley. Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(4):397-404; 25 ref
Champ BR, Dyte CE, 1976. Report of the FAO global survey of pesticide susceptibility of stored grain pests. FAO Plant Production and Protection Series No. 5. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark, 2018. Update of pest status in Denmark for specific harmful organisms in relation to export of seeds - part 1. (Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1). Tjele, Denmark: DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Aarhus University.51 pp. https://pure.au.dk/portal/files/141699745/Levering_af_skadeg_rerestatus_del_1_ver5.pdf
Goto M, Kishino H, Imamura M, Hirose Y, Soma Y, 1996. Responses of the pupae of Sitophilus granarius L., Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Sitophilus oryzae L. to phosphine and mixtures of phosphine and carbon dioxide. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 32:63-67; 10 ref
Haff RP, Slaughter DC, 1999. X-ray inspection of wheat for granary weevils. ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 18-21 July, 1999., 11 pp.; [ASAE Paper No. 993060]; 25 ref
Hakbijl T, 2002. The traditional, historical and prehistoric use of ashes as an insecticide, with an experimental study on the insecticidal efficacy of washed ash. Environmental Archaeology, No.7:13-22
Howe RW, Hole BD, 1968. The susceptibility of developmental stages of Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) to moderately low temperatures. Journal of Stored Products Research, 4:147-156
Kishino H, Goto M, Imamura M, Soma Y, 1996. Responses of stored grain insects to carbon dioxide. 2 Effects of temperature and exposure period on the toxicity of carbon dioxide to Sitophilus granarius, Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella, Ephestia cautella and Ephestia kuehniella. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 32:57-61; 6 ref
Kljajic P, Peric I, 2007. Effectiveness of wheat-applied contact insecticides against Sitophilus granarius (L.) originating from different populations. Journal of Stored Products Research, 43(4):523-529. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8Y-4P3M88J-1&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2007&_rdoc=31&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235099%232007%23999569995%23666037%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5099&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=43&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=352c6fcdeaead3286c74e7186a840066
Kucerová Z, Aulický R, Stejskal V, 2007. Sitophilus granarius (Curculionidae): outdoor occurrence in vicinity of a grain store. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group on Integrated Protection of Stored Products Conference, Praque, Czech Republic, 20-23 September 2005.], 30(2):167-171. http://www.iobc-wprs.org
McCorquodale DB, Musgrave BL, Atkins S, Majka C, Anderson RS, 2005. New records of native and introduced weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Nova Scotia from Cape Breton Island. Coleopterists Bulletin, 59(1):27-34
Mishchenko AA, Malinin OA, Mashkei IA, Semernina EE, Rashkovan VM, Basteev AV, Bazima LA, Mazalov YuP, Kutovoi VA, 2000. High voltage technology for grain protection. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.1:38-39
Morimoto K, 1978. Check-list of the family Rhynchophoridae (Coleoptera) of Japan, with descriptions of a new genus and five new species. Esakia, 12:103-108
Morimoto K, et al. , 2007. Iconographia Insectorum Japonicorum Colore Naturali Edita, Vol 2., Japan: Hokuryukan Publishing Co. Ltd., 439
Niedermayer S, Steidle JLM, 2006. Storage conditions and storage pests in grain stores of ecological farming in Baden-Württemberg. (Lagerbedingungen und Vorratsschädlinge in Getreidelagern im Ökologischen Landbau in Baden-Württemberg.) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie [Papers from the Entomological Conference in Dresden, Germany, 21-24 March 2005.], 15:285-288
Pajmon A, 2000. The harmful entomofauna of stored cereals. (II) The main pests of cereal grain. [Skodljiva entomofavna v skladiscih zit. (II) Primarni skodljivci na zrnju zit]. Sodobno Kmetijstvo, 33(6):258-262
Ridgway C, Chambers J, 1996. Detection of external and internal insect infestation in wheat by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 71(2):251-264; 18 ref
Schöller M, 2002. Commercial application of parasitoids to control stored product pests in Germany and Austria. In: COST Action 842 (1999-2004). Biological control of pest insects and mites, with special reference to entomophthorales. Proceedings of the First Meeting of Working Group 4: Bio-control of arthropod pests in the stored products, Lisbon, Portugal, 6-7th September 2001 [ed. by Zd'árková, E.\Hubert, J.\Luká?, J.]. Prague, Czech Republic: Research Institute of Crop Production, 29-32
Steidle JLM, 1998. The biology of Lariophagus distinguendus: a natural enemy of stored product pests and potential candidate for biocontrol. In: Adler C, Schoeller M, eds. Integrated Protection of Stored Products. Proceedings of the meeting at Zurich, Switzerland, 31 August-2 September, 1997. Bulletin OILB SROP, 21(3):103-109
Trematerra P, Sciarretta A, Mancini M, 1999. Insect pests in traditional cereal warehouses. [Infestazioni da insetti in depositi tradizionali di cereali.] Tecnica Molitoria, 50(9):980-989
Wakefield ME, Cogan PM, 1999. The use of a managed bulk of grain for the evaluation of PC, pitfall beaker, insect probe and WBII probe traps for monitoring Sitophilus granarius during the winter and summer in the UK. Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(4):329-338; 18 ref
Weinard W, 1998. Larvae eavesdropper - or where the beetles suddenly appear from. [Larven-Lauscher - oder wo plotzlich die Kafer herkommen]. Muhle and Mischfuttertechnik, 135(20):654
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark, 2019. Update of pest status in Denmark for specific harmful organisms in relation to export of seeds - part 1. (Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1.). In: Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1. [ed. by Nicolaisen M, Justesen A F, Nielsen B J, Enkegaard A, Lövei G, Ravnskov S, Melander B, Jørgensen L N, Hovmøller M S, Skovgǻrd H, Kristensen M]. Tjele, Denmark: DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Aarhus University. 51 pp. https://pure.au.dk/portal/da/publications/opdatering-af-skadegoererstatus-i-danmark-for-specifikke-skadegoerere-i-relation-til-eksport-af-froe--del-1(0270de38-236d-4a8c-a8a5-98f5774b6b0d).html
Hakbijl T, 2002. The traditional, historical and prehistoric use of ashes as an insecticide, with an experimental study on the insecticidal efficacy of washed ash. Environmental Archaeology. 13-22. DOI:10.1179/env.2002.7.1.13
Kljajić P, Perić I, 2007. Effectiveness of wheat-applied contact insecticides against Sitophilus granarius (L.) originating from different populations. Journal of Stored Products Research. 43 (4), 523-529. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8Y-4P3M88J-1&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2007&_rdoc=31&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235099%232007%23999569995%23666037%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5099&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=43&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=352c6fcdeaead3286c74e7186a840066 DOI:10.1016/j.jspr.2007.03.001
McCorquodale D B, Musgrave B L, Atkins S, Majka C, Anderson R S, 2005. New records of native and introduced weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Nova Scotia from Cape Breton Island. Coleopterists Bulletin. 59 (1), 27-34. DOI:10.1649/680
Mishchenko A A, Malinin O A, Mashkeĭ I A, Semernina E E, Rashkovan V M, Basteev A V, Bazima L A, Mazalov Yu P, Kutovoĭ V A, 2000. High voltage technology for grain protection. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. 38-39.
NHM, 1896. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
NHM, 1905. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
NHM, 1927. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
NHM, 1935. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
NHM, 1937. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
NHM, 1948. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
NHM, 1950. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
NHM, 1987. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
NHM, Undated a. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).
Niedermayer S, Steidle J L M, 2006. Storage conditions and storage pests in grain stores of ecological farming in Baden-Württemberg. (Lagerbedingungen und Vorratsschädlinge in Getreidelagern im Ökologischen Landbau in Baden-Württemberg.). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie. 285-288.
Pajmon A, 2000. The harmful entomofauna of stored cereals. (II) The main pests of cereal grain. (Škodljiva entomofavna v skladiščih žit. (II) Primarni škodljivci na zrnju žit.). Sodobno Kmetijstvo. 33 (6), 258-262.
Schöller M, 2002. Commercial application of parasitoids to control stored product pests in Germany and Austria. In: COST Action 842 (1999-2004). Biological control of pest insects and mites, with special reference to entomophthorales. Proceedings of the First Meeting of Working Group 4: Bio-control of arthropod pests in the stored products, Lisbon, Portugal, 6-7th September 2001. [ed. by Žd'árková E, Hubert J, Lukáš J]. Prague, Czech Republic: Research Institute of Crop Production. 29-32.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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