Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sitophilus granarius
(grain weevil)

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Datasheet

Sitophilus granarius (grain weevil)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius); adult, lateral view. Puerto Rico.
TitleAdult
CaptionGranary weevil (Sitophilus granarius); adult, lateral view. Puerto Rico.
Copyright©Jennifer C. Giron Duque - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius); adult, lateral view. Puerto Rico.
AdultGranary weevil (Sitophilus granarius); adult, lateral view. Puerto Rico.©Jennifer C. Giron Duque - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius); adult, dorsal view. Puerto Rico.
TitleAdult
CaptionGranary weevil (Sitophilus granarius); adult, dorsal view. Puerto Rico.
Copyright©Jennifer C. Giron Duque - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius); adult, dorsal view. Puerto Rico.
AdultGranary weevil (Sitophilus granarius); adult, dorsal view. Puerto Rico.©Jennifer C. Giron Duque - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
S. granarius adult, 2.5-4.5 mm long.
TitleAdult - line drawing
CaptionS. granarius adult, 2.5-4.5 mm long.
CopyrightNRI/MAFF
S. granarius adult, 2.5-4.5 mm long.
Adult - line drawingS. granarius adult, 2.5-4.5 mm long.NRI/MAFF

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sitophilus granarius Linnaeus, 1785

Preferred Common Name

  • grain weevil

Other Scientific Names

  • Calandra granaria Linnaeus
  • Calendra granaria Linnaeus
  • Curculio granarius Linnaeus

International Common Names

  • English: granary weevil
  • Spanish: gorgojo de los granos; gorgojo del maiz; gorgojo del trigo; picudo de los graneros; picudo de los granos
  • French: calandre des grains; charançon des greniers; charançon du ble
  • Portuguese: gorgulho do trigo

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: kornbille
  • Germany: Kaefer, Gemeiner Korn-; Kornkrebs
  • Israel: chidkosit haasamim
  • Italy: calandra del grano; punteruolo del grano
  • Netherlands: Graankalander; Graanklander; Graanskuurkalander
  • Norway: kornsnutebille
  • Turkey: bugday biti

EPPO code

  • CALAGR (Sitophilus granarius)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Dryophthoridae
  •                             Genus: Sitophilus
  •                                 Species: Sitophilus granarius

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Sitophilus granarius (Linnaeus) [= Calandra granaria (Linnaeus)] is a typical member of the family Curculionidae. Two other species in this genus, S. oryzae and S. zeamais, are also common grain storage pests.

Adults can be identified using the keys of Haines (1991) and Mound (1989) and both adults and larvae using keys of Gorham (1991).

Description

Top of page Eggs, Larvae and Pupae

The developmental stages of S. granarius are all found within tunnels and chambers bored in the grain and are thus not normally seen. The larvae are white and apodous. There are four larval instars. The general appearance of the larva and pupa is similar to that of S. zeamais and S. oryzae.

Adult

Adults of Sitophilus granarius can vary considerably in size; between 2.5-5.0 mm in length, although 3 to 4 mm is usual. They have the characteristic rostrum and elbowed antennae of the family Curculionidae. They are uniformly polished chestnut-brown or reddish-brown to shiny black in colour. The body is sparsely covered with short, stout yellow hairs. The head is prolonged into a slender snout. The dorsal surface of the rostrum is more closely and strongly punctured in males than in females. The antennae have eight segments and are often carried in an extended position when the insect is walking. The prothorax has distinctly oval punctures. Adults do not have wings, and therefore cannot fly.

Identification keys have been provided by Haines (1991), Mound (1989) and Gorham (1991).

Distribution

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S. granarius is distributed throughout the temperate regions of the world. In tropical countries it is rare, being limited to cool upland areas. The FAO global survey of insecticide susceptibility recorded it from the UK, France, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Algeria, Iraq, Canada, USA, Chile, Argentina, Swaziland, South Africa, Australia, Russia and Thailand (Champ and Dyte, 1976). It is also known from Yemen (Haines, 1981).

A record of S. granarius in Japan (Morimoto, 1978) published in previous versions of the Compendium has been removed as it refers to interceptions of the pest in Japan. In a more recent publication, Morimoto et al. (2007) state that although S. granarius was detected for the first time on imported rice in 1923, it has not established in Japan. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
CameroonPresentHakbijl (2002)
EgyptPresentAlfazairy et al. (2003)
EswatiniPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
MoroccoPresentNHM (1927)
South AfricaPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: CIE London UK
IndiaPresentNHM (1905)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNHM (Undated)
IranPresentKhormaly et al. (2002)
IraqPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
IsraelPresentNHM (1987)
JapanAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI (Undated)Original citation: MAFF, Japan, communication to CABI, 2016
KazakhstanPresentAĭmanbetov and Azhbenov (2004)
MalaysiaPresentMariana et al. (2009)
Saudi ArabiaPresentNHM (1937)
Sri LankaPresentNHM (1948)
SyriaPresentNHM (1935)
ThailandPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
TurkeyPresentNHM (1948)
YemenPresentHaines (1981)

Europe

AustriaPresentSchöller (2002)
BelgiumPresentDesimpelaere (1996)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentKljajić and Perić (2007)
CroatiaPresentHamel (2007)
CzechiaPresentKučerová et al. (2007)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadDCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark (2019); Champ and Dyte (1976)
FrancePresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
GermanyPresentNiedermayer and Steidle (2006); Schöller (2002)
GreecePresentNHM (1896)
HungaryPresentNHM (Undated)
IrelandPresentCawley (2012)
ItalyPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
PolandPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
RomaniaPresentNHM (1950)
RussiaPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
SerbiaPresentKljajić and Perić (2007)
SloveniaPresentPajmon (2000)
SpainPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
SwedenPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
UkrainePresentMishchenko et al. (2000)
United KingdomPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)

North America

CanadaPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
-Nova ScotiaPresentMcCorquodale et al. (2005)
MexicoPresentNHM (Undated a)
United StatesPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)

South America

ArgentinaPresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
ChilePresentChamp and Dyte (1976); NHM (Undated)
Falkland IslandsPresentReid (2013)

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Many countries, including those that have exclusively hot climates, have S. granarius as a named quarantine pest. This is presumably because it is not widely recognized that it will only establish itself in temperate climes. Nevertheless this species can cause serious damage to grain stocks under hot conditions even though it will eventually die out.Many countries, including those that have exclusively hot climates, have this species as a named quarantine pest. This is presumably because it is not widely recognized that it will only establish itself in temperate climes. Nevertheless this species can cause serious damage to grain stocks under hot conditions even though it will eventually die out.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page S. granarius is a frequent pest of wheat and barley. It can attack other cereals such as maize, sorghum and rice, but it does not compete well with the other two Sitophilus species on these grains.

Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage

Symptoms

Top of page The developmental stages of S. granarius are not normally seen as they occur inside intact grains. Adult emergence holes with irregular edges are apparent some weeks after initial attack. Adults can be found wandering over the surface of grain especially if the grain has been disturbed.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Seeds / internal feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The biology and behaviour of S. granarius is similar to the tropical species S. oryzae and S. zeamais (see data on these species), except that it cannot fly. A detailed review of all three species has been prepared by Longstaff (1981).

Adults live for 7 to 8 months on average. Females usually lay around 150 eggs, and up to 300 eggs, throughout their lives. Eggs are laid individually in cavities that the female bores in the grain kernels. Cavities are sealed by a waxy egg plug, which the female secretes. Eggs incubate for about 4-14 days before hatching, depending on temperature and humidity. One larva develops in each infested kernel. Feeding larvae excavate a tunnel and may keep feeding until only the hull remains. There are four larval instars. Pupation occurs inside the grain. The newly emerged adult chews its way out of the grain, leaving a characteristic exit hole. In warm summer conditions the life cycle can be completed within 4 to 6 weeks, but can take as long as 17 to 21 weeks in the winter. Adults can survive for a month or more without food in cooler conditions.

Optimum conditions for development are similar to other tropical species of Sitophilus, about 30°C and 70% RH (Richards, 1947), but in tropical areas it is apparently not able to compete with S. oryzae and S. zeamais. It seems that its distribution is limited more by its commodity associations with cool climate crops (see Host Range) than by its direct response to temperature. However, it can develop at temperatures down to 11°C, and is therefore successful in temperate regions that are too cool for other Sitophilus species (Howe and Hole, 1968). Being flightless, S. granarius cannot usually infest crops in the field before harvest.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acaropsellina docta Predator
Anisopteromalus calandrae Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults
Cephalonomia tarsalis Parasite Larvae
Choetospila elegens Parasite Larvae
Lariophagus distinguendus Parasite
Lonchaea corticis Parasite
Pteromalus cerealellae Parasite
Theocolax elegans Parasite Larvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Anisopteromalus calandrae, Cephalonomia tarsalis, Lariophagus distinguendus, and Theocolax elegans [Chaetospila elegans] are all known to parasitize the larvae of S. granarius. Steidle (1998) reviewed the literature on L. distinguendus.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Adult S. granarius cannot disperse by flight, although they are very active walkers. They are transported within grain as eggs, larvae or pupae. They can readily spread in grain residues.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

Impact

Top of page S. granarius is a serious pest of stored cereal grains in cool climates, whether in temperate or tropical latitudes. It can also cause serious damage under hot conditions before populations die out. Larval stages feed inside the grain on the kernels, leaving only the hulls. Severe infestations can reduce stored grain to a mass of hulls and frass. It is a severe pest of wheat and barley grains. It also infests rye, rice, maize and other cereal grains. It sometimes infests sunflower seeds, dried beans, chickpeas, groundnuts, acorns, chestnuts, pasta products, ornamental dried corn and birdseed.

Feeding damage by S. granarius can make grains vulnerable to attack by other pests, such as the weevil Caulophilus oryzae, which are unable to penetrate intact grains.

Pajmon (2000) described its economic impact in Slovenia. Trematerra et al. (1999) described infestations in traditional grain storage warehouses in Italy.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Granary weevil infestations in stored cereals are generally difficult to detect, particularly in the initial stages, since the life cycle mainly takes place (from egg to pupa) inside the kernel. Pitfall traps placed on the grain surface and probe traps inserted into grain bulks have been used successfully to detect adult Sitophilus granarius (e.g. Buchelos and Athanassiou, 1999; Wakefield and Cogan, 1999). Larval stages in the grain may be detected using hidden infestation detection techniques. These can involve squashing the grain against indicator papers, testing for changes in specific gravity, or using X-ray machines (Haff and Slaughter, 1999). A novel method using microphones to detect larval movement in grains at temperatures above 15°C was described by Weinard (1998). Rotundo et al. (2000) described a serological method for detecting the immature stages of S. granarius in kernels, while Ridgway and Chambers (1996) described a detection method involving near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page S. granarius can be separated from S. zeamais and S. oryzae by the absence of wings and by the presence of oval, rather than circular, punctures on the prothorax. The larvae cannot be easily separated by superficial features; only characters accessible to a microscope are useful (Gorham, 1991).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Chemical Control

Grain may be protected by the admixture of insecticides. S. granarius has a low susceptibility to synthetic pyrethroids but is readily killed by organophosphorus compounds such as fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl. Grain stocks may be fumigated with phosphine to eliminate existing infestation. However, fumigation treatments provide no protection against reinfestation. Fumigation of S. granarius pupae with phosphine at 20°C resulted in a LT95 of 3.9 days (at 0.5 g/m²) and 100% mortality after 10 days (Goto et al., 1996). Carbon dioxide fumigation, in controlled-atmosphere storage, can also be used to control S. granarius in stored grain, although the weevil is more resistant to this treatment than other storage pest species (Kishino et al., 1996). Inadequate fumigation or controlled-atmosphere treatments are likely to result in some survival. Gamma radiation, at doses of 30-500 Gy, prevented the development of eggs and larvae of S. granarius in grain (Aldryhim and Adam, 1999); although this method of control is relatively expensive.

Biological Control

Biological control has not been practised against S. granarius. There may be some potential for the development of pest management strategies that favour the action of natural parasites. Lariophagus distinguendus, an ectoparasitoid that prefers older larvae and pupae as hosts, appears particularly promising as a biocontrol agent (Steidle, 1998).

Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods

Good storage hygiene plays an important role in limiting infestation by S. granarius. The removal of infested residues from the previous season's harvest is essential. Ensuring grain is well dried at intake is very important. Moisture content of 10-12% is desirable, but most grain purchasers have an upper limit of 14% and do not find it practical to operate below this limit.

Infested grain can be treated with hot air, at an inlet temperature of 300-350°C, as an alternative to fumigation. Good weevil control has been obtained by this method, with heat exposure times (around 6 seconds) that do not unduly harm the grain (Mourier and Poulsen, 2000).

References

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Aimanbetov MZ, Azhbenov VK, 2004. Plant protection in Kazakhstan. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.3:18-21

Aldryhim YN, Adam EE, 1999. Efficacy of gamma irradiation against Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(3):225-232; 16 ref

Alfazairy AA, Hendi R, El-Minshawy AM, Karam HH, 2003. Entomopathogenic agents isolated from 19 coleopteran insect pests in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 13(1/2):125

Buchelos CT, Athanassiou CG, 1999. Unbaited probe traps and grain trier: a comparison of the two methods for sampling Coleoptera in stored barley. Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(4):397-404; 25 ref

Cawley M, 2012. More records for uncommon weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidea), including Omphalapion hookeri Kirby new to Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, No.36:186-189

Champ BR, Dyte CE, 1976. Report of the FAO global survey of pesticide susceptibility of stored grain pests. FAO Plant Production and Protection Series No. 5. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations

DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark, 2018. Update of pest status in Denmark for specific harmful organisms in relation to export of seeds - part 1. (Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1). Tjele, Denmark: DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Aarhus University.51 pp. https://pure.au.dk/portal/files/141699745/Levering_af_skadeg_rerestatus_del_1_ver5.pdf

Desimpelaere P, 1996. Insect pests. Protection of stored grain. Agricontact, No. 287:1-4

Gorham JR, 1991. Insect and mite pests in food. An illustrated key. Vol. 1 and 2. US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook Washington, DC, USA, No. 655:vii + 767 pp

Goto M, Kishino H, Imamura M, Hirose Y, Soma Y, 1996. Responses of the pupae of Sitophilus granarius L., Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Sitophilus oryzae L. to phosphine and mixtures of phosphine and carbon dioxide. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 32:63-67; 10 ref

Haff RP, Slaughter DC, 1999. X-ray inspection of wheat for granary weevils. ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual International Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 18-21 July, 1999., 11 pp.; [ASAE Paper No. 993060]; 25 ref

Haines CP, 1981. Insects and arachnids from stored products: a report on specimens received by the Tropical Stored Products Centre 1973-77. Report of the Tropical Products Institute, L 54:73 pp

Hakbijl T, 2002. The traditional, historical and prehistoric use of ashes as an insecticide, with an experimental study on the insecticidal efficacy of washed ash. Environmental Archaeology, No.7:13-22

Hamel D, 2007. Storing maize in stores and protection from pests. (Cuvanje kukuruza u skladi?tu i za?tita od ?tetnika.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 7(5):344-349

Howe RW, Hole BD, 1968. The susceptibility of developmental stages of Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) to moderately low temperatures. Journal of Stored Products Research, 4:147-156

Khormaly S, Tahery MS, Broomand H, 2002. Faunal investigation of stored pests in Gonbad & Minoodasht. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 70(1):Pe13-Pe23, 3-4

Kishino H, Goto M, Imamura M, Soma Y, 1996. Responses of stored grain insects to carbon dioxide. 2 Effects of temperature and exposure period on the toxicity of carbon dioxide to Sitophilus granarius, Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella, Ephestia cautella and Ephestia kuehniella. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 32:57-61; 6 ref

Kljajic P, Peric I, 2007. Effectiveness of wheat-applied contact insecticides against Sitophilus granarius (L.) originating from different populations. Journal of Stored Products Research, 43(4):523-529. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8Y-4P3M88J-1&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2007&_rdoc=31&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235099%232007%23999569995%23666037%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5099&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=43&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=352c6fcdeaead3286c74e7186a840066

Kucerová Z, Aulický R, Stejskal V, 2007. Sitophilus granarius (Curculionidae): outdoor occurrence in vicinity of a grain store. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group on Integrated Protection of Stored Products Conference, Praque, Czech Republic, 20-23 September 2005.], 30(2):167-171. http://www.iobc-wprs.org

Longstaff BC, 1981. Biology of the grain pest species of the genus Sitophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): a critical review. Protection Ecology, 3(2):83-130

Mariana A, Ho TM, Lau TY, Heah SK, Wong AL, 2009. Distribution of arthropods in rice grains in Malaysia. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2(5):1-7. http://www.apjtm.net

McCorquodale DB, Musgrave BL, Atkins S, Majka C, Anderson RS, 2005. New records of native and introduced weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Nova Scotia from Cape Breton Island. Coleopterists Bulletin, 59(1):27-34

Mishchenko AA, Malinin OA, Mashkei IA, Semernina EE, Rashkovan VM, Basteev AV, Bazima LA, Mazalov YuP, Kutovoi VA, 2000. High voltage technology for grain protection. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.1:38-39

Morimoto K, 1978. Check-list of the family Rhynchophoridae (Coleoptera) of Japan, with descriptions of a new genus and five new species. Esakia, 12:103-108

Morimoto K, et al. , 2007. Iconographia Insectorum Japonicorum Colore Naturali Edita, Vol 2., Japan: Hokuryukan Publishing Co. Ltd., 439

Mourier H, Poulsen KP, 2000. Control of insects and mites in grain using a high temperature/short time (HTST) technique. Journal of Stored Products Research, 36(3):309-318; 15 ref

Niedermayer S, Steidle JLM, 2006. Storage conditions and storage pests in grain stores of ecological farming in Baden-Württemberg. (Lagerbedingungen und Vorratsschädlinge in Getreidelagern im Ökologischen Landbau in Baden-Württemberg.) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für allgemeine und angewandte Entomologie [Papers from the Entomological Conference in Dresden, Germany, 21-24 March 2005.], 15:285-288

Pajmon A, 2000. The harmful entomofauna of stored cereals. (II) The main pests of cereal grain. [Skodljiva entomofavna v skladiscih zit. (II) Primarni skodljivci na zrnju zit]. Sodobno Kmetijstvo, 33(6):258-262

Reid S, 2013. Five species of weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) new to the Falkland Islands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 149(1793-95):267-269. http://www.pemberleybooks.com

Richards OW, 1947. Observations on grain weevils, Calandra (Col., Curculionidae). l. General biology and oviposition. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 117:1-43

Ridgway C, Chambers J, 1996. Detection of external and internal insect infestation in wheat by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 71(2):251-264; 18 ref

Rotundo G, Germinara GS, Cristofaro Ade, 2000. Immuno-osmophoretic technique for detecting Sitophilus granarius (L.) infestations in wheat. Journal of Stored Products Research, 36(2):153-160; 12 ref

Schöller M, 2002. Commercial application of parasitoids to control stored product pests in Germany and Austria. In: COST Action 842 (1999-2004). Biological control of pest insects and mites, with special reference to entomophthorales. Proceedings of the First Meeting of Working Group 4: Bio-control of arthropod pests in the stored products, Lisbon, Portugal, 6-7th September 2001 [ed. by Zd'árková, E.\Hubert, J.\Luká?, J.]. Prague, Czech Republic: Research Institute of Crop Production, 29-32

Steidle JLM, 1998. The biology of Lariophagus distinguendus: a natural enemy of stored product pests and potential candidate for biocontrol. In: Adler C, Schoeller M, eds. Integrated Protection of Stored Products. Proceedings of the meeting at Zurich, Switzerland, 31 August-2 September, 1997. Bulletin OILB SROP, 21(3):103-109

Trematerra P, Sciarretta A, Mancini M, 1999. Insect pests in traditional cereal warehouses. [Infestazioni da insetti in depositi tradizionali di cereali.] Tecnica Molitoria, 50(9):980-989

Wakefield ME, Cogan PM, 1999. The use of a managed bulk of grain for the evaluation of PC, pitfall beaker, insect probe and WBII probe traps for monitoring Sitophilus granarius during the winter and summer in the UK. Journal of Stored Products Research, 35(4):329-338; 18 ref

Weinard W, 1998. Larvae eavesdropper - or where the beetles suddenly appear from. [Larven-Lauscher - oder wo plotzlich die Kafer herkommen]. Muhle and Mischfuttertechnik, 135(20):654

Distribution References

Aĭmanbetov M Z, Azhbenov V K, 2004. Plant protection in Kazakhstan. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. 18-21.

Alfazairy A A, Hendi R, El-Minshawy A M, Karam H H, 2003. Entomopathogenic agents isolated from 19 coleopteran insect pests in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 13 (1/2), 125.

Anon, 1996. Insect pests. Protection of stored grain. (Insectes ravageurs. Protection des grains stockés.). Agricontact. 1-4.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cawley M, 2012. More records for uncommon weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidea), including Omphalapion hookeri Kirby new to Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society. 186-189.

Champ B R, Dyte C E, 1976. Report of the FAO global survey of pesticide susceptibility of stored grain pests. Rome, Italy: FAO. 308 pp.

DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark, 2019. Update of pest status in Denmark for specific harmful organisms in relation to export of seeds - part 1. (Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1.). In: Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1. [ed. by Nicolaisen M, Justesen A F, Nielsen B J, Enkegaard A, Lövei G, Ravnskov S, Melander B, Jørgensen L N, Hovmøller M S, Skovgǻrd H, Kristensen M]. Tjele, Denmark: DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Aarhus University. 51 pp. https://pure.au.dk/portal/da/publications/opdatering-af-skadegoererstatus-i-danmark-for-specifikke-skadegoerere-i-relation-til-eksport-af-froe--del-1(0270de38-236d-4a8c-a8a5-98f5774b6b0d).html

Haines C P, 1981. Insects and arachnids from stored products: a report on specimens received by the Tropical Stored Products Centre 1973-77. In: Report of the Tropical Products Institute, iv + 73 pp.

Hakbijl T, 2002. The traditional, historical and prehistoric use of ashes as an insecticide, with an experimental study on the insecticidal efficacy of washed ash. Environmental Archaeology. 13-22. DOI:10.1179/env.2002.7.1.13

Hamel D, 2007. Storing maize in stores and protection from pests. (Čuvanje kukuruza u skladištu i zaštita od štetnika.). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. 7 (5), 344-349.

Khormaly S, Tahery M S, Broomand H, 2002. Faunal investigation of stored pests in Gonbad & Minoodasht. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 70 (1), Pe13-Pe23, 3-4.

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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