Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Iceland

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Datasheet

Iceland

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  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Dermatophilus congolensisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Renibacterium salmoninarumPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia pseudomalleiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella AbortusequiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXenohaliotis californiensisPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedCrosson et al. (2014)
EukaryotaChromistaBacillariophytaDidymosphenia geminata (didymo)PresentJónssen et al. (2000)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentUK, CAB International (1982)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBlumeria graminis (powdery mildew of grasses and cereals)PresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGremmeniella abietina (Brunchorstia disease)PresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaLachnellula willkommii (European larch canker)PresentRoll-Hansen (1992)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaTricholoma psammopusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaLumbricus terrestrisPresentIntroducedInvasiveGates (1972)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)PresentKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnisodactylus binotatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApamea remissaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBombus hortorumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBombus hypnorumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBombus lucorumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBombus terrestris (bumble bee)PresentNativeHanley-Nicholls (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCarcinus maenas (European shore crab)Present, WidespreadNativeCarlton and Cohen (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaElatobium abietinum (green spruce aphid)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHeie (1992); Sigurdsson et al. (1999); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEristalis intricariaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaForficula auricularia (European earwig)PresentNativeIINH (Icelandic Institute of Natural History) (2015); Tuxen (1938)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Absent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeringocrania unimaculellaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHomarus americanus (American lobster)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypoponera punctatissimaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeistus terminatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLimnoria lignorum (gribble)PresentMenzies (1957); Stephensen (1929); Svavarsson (1982)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid)PresentIntroducedUK, CAB International (1984)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMelangyna lasiophthalmaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMythimna unipuncta (rice armyworm)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNemapogon variatellaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNoctua pronuba (common yellow underwing moth)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)PresentUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTelmatogeton japonicusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUrocerus albicornisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespula germanica (German wasp)Present, LocalizedIntroducedOlafsson (1991)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespula vulgaris (wasp, common)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAnser indicus (bar-headed goose)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedBlair et al. (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBranta canadensis (Canada goose)Present, Few occurrencesBirdLife International (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBranta hutchinsiiPresent, Few occurrencesNativeNOBANIS (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataNeovison vison (American mink)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004); DAISIE (2011); NOBANIS (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOvis aries (sheep)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOxyura jamaicensis (ruddy duck)Absent, Formerly presentCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPetromyzon marinus (sea lamprey)PresentNativeJonsson (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalmo salar (Atlantic salmon)PresentNativeJonsson (1992); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalmo trutta (sea trout)PresentNativeJonsson (1992); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove)PresentNativeBirdLife International (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaArion vulgaris (Spanish slug)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras laeve (meadow slug)PresentNativeFauna Europea (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras reticulatum (grey field slug)PresentKerney et al. (1979)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLimax maximus (leopard slug)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaOxychilus alliarius (garlic snail)PresentNativeRoth and Sadeghian (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaTeredo navalis (naval shipworm)Present, WidespreadDidžiulis (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaZonitoides arboreusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode)Present, Few occurrencesSiggeirsson and Riel (1975); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)Present, LocalizedIntroducedRiel and Mulder (1998); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesArthurdendyus triangulatus (New Zealand flatworm)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBloch (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaEquisetum arvense (field horsetail)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaBonnemaisonia hamiferaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcer platanoides (Norway maple)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchillea millefolium (yarrow)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchillea ptarmicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgrostis capillaris (common bent)PresentNativeTutin (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllium oleraceumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail)PresentInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)PresentIntroducedEuro+Med (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArmeria maritimaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass)PresentNativeTutin et al. (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena fatua (wild oat)PresentHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarbarea strictaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus hordeaceus (soft brome)PresenteMonocot (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalamagrostis epigeiosPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCamelina microcarpa (smallseed falseflax)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCampanula rotundifoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentaurea montanaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium arvense (creeping thistle)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium helenioidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCochlearia officinalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynoglossum officinale (hound's tongue)PresentLOVE and LOVE (1956)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactylis glomerata (cocksfoot)PresentIntroducedBeddows (1959)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDanthonia decumbens (heath grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Roskov et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDeschampsia cespitosaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDescurainia sophia (flixweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElymus repens (quackgrass)Present, LocalizedGunnarsson (1984); Holm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpilobium watsoniiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErodium cicutarium (common storksbill)PresentNativeGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFestuca pratensis (meadow fescue)PresentNativeGrassWorld (2016); Euro+Med (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGaleopsis tetrahitPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalium aparine (cleavers)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium pratensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGlyceria fluitansPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelictotrichon pubescensPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed)PresentIntroducedJahodová et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeracleum persicum (Persian hogweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveJahodová et al. (2007); Fröberg (2010); Wasowicz et al. (2013); NOBANIS (2015); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeracleum sosnowskyi (Sosnowskyi's hogweed)Absent, EradicatedKabuce (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHolcus lanatus (common velvet grass)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentNativeKirschner (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKnautia arvensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLamium hybridumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus japonicusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus palustrisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus pratensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeymus arenariusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigusticum scoticumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLinaria repensPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PresentNativeeMonocot (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLupinus nootkatensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)PresentIntroducedNOBANIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuzula pallidulaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)Absent, Intercepted onlyCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMatricaria perforata (false chamomile)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago lupulina (black medick)PresentIntroducedNOBANIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelilotus albus (honey clover)PresentIntroducedFlora Islands (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimulus guttatus (Monkeyflower)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyosotis discolor (changing forget-me-not)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyosotis palustris (True forget-me-not)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil)PresentNativeFitter (1978)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyrrhis odorataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentDAISIE (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPapaver pseudoorientalePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhleum pratense (timothy grass)PresentNativeKew (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPilosella aurantiaca (orange hawkweed)PresentIntroducedSell and West (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus contorta (lodgepole pine)Present, PlantedIntroducedJuntunen (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentEdmondson (1980); Holm et al. (1991); DAISIE (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa compressa (Canada bluegrass)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa nemoralis (wood bluegrass)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa pratensis (smooth meadow-grass)PresentNativeEuro+Med (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum persicaria (redshank)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla erectaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPuccinellia distans (weeping alkali grass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRaphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)PresentHolm et al. (1991); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRosa rugosa (rugosa rose)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedWeidema (2006); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex crispus (curled dock)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSagina procumbensPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSambucus nigra (elder)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanguisorba alpinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSaxifraga granulataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenecio vulgarisPresentNativeInvasiveChater and Walters (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesleria caeruleaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene dioicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSinapis arvensis (wild mustard)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod)PresentIntroducedKabuce and Priede (2010); Royal Botanic Garden (2014); EPPO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpergula arvensis (corn spurry)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStellaria gramineaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStellaria media (common chickweed)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTanacetum vulgare (tansy)Present, WidespreadNativeTutin et al. (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThlaspi arvense (field pennycress)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrifolium mediumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrtica dioica (stinging nettle)PresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrtica urens (annual nettle)PresentTUTIN et al. (1964)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica chamaedrysPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia sepiumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeStreptophytaCampylopus introflexusPresentIntroducedKlinck (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeStreptophytaCampylopus pyriformisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaMikrocystos mackiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaToxoplasma gondiiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusArterivirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusbluetongue virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusbovine leukemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusduck hepatitis A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusequine arteritis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusequine influenzavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusfowlpox virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusinfluenza A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusmyxoma virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusNewcastle disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusPepper mild mottle virus (PMMV)PresentWetter and Conti (1987); CABI and EPPO (2009); CABI (Undated)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusrabies virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusswine vesicular disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusTaura syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
acarapisosis of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Aeromonas infection in fishAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
African horse sicknessAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
African swine feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
American foul broodAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
anaplasmosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
anthraxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
atrophic rhinitis of swinePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
atypical non-progressive proliferative pneumoniaPresent, WidespreadFriis et al. (1976)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
avian chlamydiosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
avian encephalomyelitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
avian infectious bronchitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
avian influenzaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
babesiosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
bacterial kidney diseasePresentJónsdóttir et al. (1998)
blacklegAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bluetongueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Bonamia roughleyi (Australian winter disease) of oystersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Borrelia anserina infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bovine anaplasmosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
bovine genital campylobacteriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
bovine tuberculosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
bovine venereal trichomonosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bovine viral diarrhoeaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BP virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
brucellosis (Brucella suis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Burkholderia pseudomallei infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
camel poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
caprine arthritis encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
caseous lymphadenitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
chlamydial infections of livestock and poultryPresentWandera (1971)
classical swine feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Clostridium perfringens enteritis and enterotoxaemiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
coccidiosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
contagious agalactiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
contagious equine metritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
contagious ophthalmiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
crayfish plagueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Denman island diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
dermatophilosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
dourineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
duck viral enteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
duck virus hepatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
enzootic abortion of ewesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
enzootic bovine leukosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
epizootic lymphangitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
epizootic ulcerative syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
equine coital exanthemaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
equine infectious anaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
equine influenzaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
equine piroplasmosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
equine rhinopneumonitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
equine viral arteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
European foul broodAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
fowl choleraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
fowl typhoidAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
fowlpoxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
glandersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
haplosporidiosis of pacific oystersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
heartwaterAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
horse poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
infectious bursal diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
infectious haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
infectious laryngotracheitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
infectious salmon anaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Japanese encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
koi herpesvirus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
leishmaniosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
leptospirosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
listeriosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
lumpy skin diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Marek's diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Mycoplasma agalactiae infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
myxomatosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Nairobi sheep diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Newcastle diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Nipah virus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Oncorhynchus masou virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
paratuberculosisPresentOIE (2009); Gunnarsson (1979)
peste des petits ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
porcine enterovirus infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
pullorum diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Q feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
rabbit haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
rabiesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
red sea bream iridoviral diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Rift Valley feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
rinderpestAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
scrapiePresentOIE (2009); Sigurdarson (2000)
sheep and goat poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
small hive beetle infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
spherical baculovirosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
spring viraemia of carpAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
stranglesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
surraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
swine erysipelasPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
swine vesicular diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Taura syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
theileriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
toxoplasmosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
TrichinellaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
trichomonosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
trypanosomosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
tularaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
turkey rhinotracheitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
varroosis of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
vesicular stomatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
visna/maediAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009); Pépin et al. (1998)
West Nile feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
white spot diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Xenohaliotis californiensis infectionPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedCrosson et al. (2014)
yellow head diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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2011-2007 | 2006-2002
crop20112010200920082007
Berries Nes Production Quantity 34 Im 35 Im 34 Im 28 Im 26 Im
Cabbages and other brassicas Area Harvested 19 Im 18 18 18 18
Cabbages and other brassicas Production Quantity 634 589 695 434 340
Cabbages and other brassicas Yield 333684 Fc 327222 Fc 386111 Fc 241111 Fc 188889 Fc
Carrots and turnips Area Harvested 10 Im 9 9 9 9
Carrots and turnips Production Quantity 755 612 720 653 526
Carrots and turnips Yield 755000 Fc 680000 Fc 800000 Fc 725556 Fc 584444 Fc
Cauliflowers and broccoli Area Harvested 11 10 10 10 10
Cauliflowers and broccoli Production Quantity 105 108 102 107 112
Cauliflowers and broccoli Yield 95454.6 Fc 108000 Fc 102000 Fc 107000 Fc 112000 Fc
Cucumbers and gherkins Area Harvested 27 Im 25 25 25 25
Cucumbers and gherkins Production Quantity 1582 1458 1452 1516 1343
Cucumbers and gherkins Yield 585926 Fc 583200 Fc 580800 Fc 606400 Fc 537200 Fc
Fruit excl Melons,Total + (Total) Production Quantity 34 A 35 A 34 A 28 A 26 A
Mushrooms and truffles Production Quantity 583 579 553 526 575
Potatoes Area Harvested 516 712 712 712 712
Potatoes Production Quantity 7222 12460 9500 12500 13000
Potatoes Seed 516 Fc 516 Fc 712 Fc 712 Fc 712 Fc
Potatoes Yield 139961 Fc 175000 Fc 133427 Fc 175562 Fc 182584 Fc
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total) Area Harvested 516 A 712 A 712 A 712 A 712 A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total) Production Quantity 7222 A 12460 A 9500 A 12500 A 13000 A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total) Seed 516 A 516 A 712 A 712 A 712 A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total) Yield 139961 Fc 175000 Fc 133427 Fc 175562 Fc 182584 Fc
Tomatoes Area Harvested 4 4 4 4 4
Tomatoes Production Quantity 1605 1653 1481 1621 1603
Tomatoes Yield 4012500 Fc 4132500 Fc 3702500 Fc 4052500 Fc 4007500 Fc
Vegetables Primary + (Total) Area Harvested 71 A 66 A 66 A 66 A 66 A
Vegetables Primary + (Total) Production Quantity 5264 A 4999 A 5003 A 4857 A 4499 A
Vegetables Primary + (Total) Yield 741408 Fc 757424 Fc 758030 Fc 735909 Fc 681667 Fc
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total) Area Harvested 71 A 66 A 66 A 66 A 66 A
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total) Production Quantity 5264 A 4999 A 5003 A 4857 A 4499 A
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total) Yield 741408 Fc 757424 Fc 758030 Fc 735909 Fc 681667 Fc
Agricultural Production: MT
* = Unofficial figure | A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official or estimated data | F = FAO estimate | Fc = Calculated data | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology | M = Data not available | P = Provisional official data

2011-2007 | 2006-2002
crop20062005200420032002
Berries Nes Production Quantity 22 Im 20 Im 21 Im 19 Im 20 F
Cabbages and other brassicas Area Harvested 18 20 40 35 25
Cabbages and other brassicas Production Quantity 307 346 583 824 558
Cabbages and other brassicas Yield 170556 Fc 173000 Fc 145750 Fc 235429 Fc 223200 Fc
Carrots and turnips Area Harvested 9 22 20 20 20
Carrots and turnips Production Quantity 398 340 374 347 302
Carrots and turnips Yield 442222 Fc 154545 Fc 187000 Fc 173500 Fc 151000 Fc
Cauliflowers and broccoli Area Harvested 10 10 20 15 13
Cauliflowers and broccoli Production Quantity 83 44 83 71 80
Cauliflowers and broccoli Yield 83000 Fc 44000 Fc 41500 Fc 47333.3 Fc 61538.5 Fc
Cucumbers and gherkins Area Harvested 25 30 3 3 3
Cucumbers and gherkins Production Quantity 1124 1147 930 896 1012
Cucumbers and gherkins Yield 449600 Fc 382333 Fc 3100000 Fc 2986670 Fc 3373330 Fc
Fruit excl Melons,Total + (Total) Production Quantity 22 A 20 A 21 A 19 A 20 A
Mushrooms and truffles Production Quantity 488 438 461 465 450
Potatoes Area Harvested 712 750 750 800 800
Potatoes Production Quantity 14240 13800 12000 7090 8800
Potatoes Seed 712 Fc 712 Fc 750 Fc 750 Fc 800 Fc
Potatoes Yield 200000 Fc 184000 Fc 160000 Fc 88625 Fc 110000 Fc
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total) Area Harvested 712 A 750 A 750 A 800 A 800 A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total) Production Quantity 14240 A 13800 A 12000 A 7090 A 8800 A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total) Seed 712 A 712 A 750 A 750 A 800 A
Roots and Tubers,Total + (Total) Yield 200000 Fc 184000 Fc 160000 Fc 88625 Fc 110000 Fc
Tomatoes Area Harvested 4 4 4 4 4
Tomatoes Production Quantity 1724 1508 1318 1074 948
Tomatoes Yield 4310000 Fc 3770000 Fc 3295000 Fc 2685000 Fc 2370000 Fc
Vegetables Primary + (Total) Area Harvested 66 A 86 A 87 A 77 A 65 A
Vegetables Primary + (Total) Production Quantity 4124 A 3823 A 3749 A 3677 A 3350 A
Vegetables Primary + (Total) Yield 624848 Fc 444535 Fc 430920 Fc 477532 Fc 515385 Fc
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total) Area Harvested 66 A 86 A 87 A 77 A 65 A
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total) Production Quantity 4124 A 3823 A 3749 A 3677 A 3350 A
Vegetables&Melons, Total + (Total) Yield 624848 Fc 444535 Fc 430920 Fc 477532 Fc 515385 Fc
Agricultural Production: MT
* = Unofficial figure | A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official or estimated data | F = FAO estimate | Fc = Calculated data | Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology | M = Data not available | P = Provisional official data

Land Usage

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2011-2007 | 2006-2002
land use20112010200920082007
Agricultural area Area 1591 Fm 1591 Fm 1824 Fm 1876 Fm 1876 Fm
Agricultural area certified organic Area 5.9 Q 5.9 Q 5.9 Q 4.7 Q
Agricultural area in conversion to organic Area 2.3 Q 0.8 Q 2.3 Q
Agricultural area organic, total Area 8.2 Q 5.9 Q 6.7 Q 7 Q 6.2 Q
Arable land Area 123 Fm 123 W 124 Fm 125 Fm 125 Fm
Arable land and Permanent crops Area 123 Fm 123 W 124 Fm 125 Fm 125 Fm
Country area Area 10300 Q 10300 Q 10300 Q 10300 W 10300 W
Fallow land Area 1 W 1 Fm 1 Fm 1 Fm
Forest area Area 30.8 Fm 29.9 Q 29 Fm 28.1 Fm 27.2 Fm
Inland water Area 275 Fm 275 Fm 275 Fm 275 Fm 275 Fm
Land area Area 10025 Q 10025 Q 10025 Q 10025 Q 10025 Q
Other land Area 8403.2 Fm 8404.1 Fm 8172 Fm 8120.9 Fm 8121.8 Fm
Perm. meadows & pastures - Cultivated Area 154 W
Perm. meadows & pastures - Nat. grown Area 1314 W
Permanent meadows and pastures Area 1468 Fm 1468 W 1700 Fm 1751 W 1751 W
Temporary crops Area 8 W 7 Q 7 Q 7 Q
Temporary meadows and pastures Area 114 W 116 Fm 117 Fm 117 Fm
Land Usage: (1000 Ha)
E = Expert sources from FAO (including other divisions) | Fm = Manual Estimation | I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc. | Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries | W = Data reported on country official publications or web sites (Official) or trade country files

2011-2007 | 2006-2002
land use20062005200420032002
Agricultural area Area 1881 Fm 1882 Fm 1884 Fm 1885 Fm 1887 Fm
Agricultural area certified organic Area
Agricultural area in conversion to organic Area
Agricultural area organic, total Area 5 Q 5 I
Arable land Area 129 W 129 W 129 W 129 W 129 W
Arable land and Permanent crops Area 129 W 129 W 129 W 129 W 129 W
Country area Area 10300 W 10300 Q 10300 Q 10300 Q 10300 Q
Fallow land Area 1 Fm 1 Fm 1 Fm 1 Fm 1 Fm
Forest area Area 26.3 Fm 25.4 Q 24 Fm 22.6 Fm 21.2 Fm
Inland water Area 275 Fm 275 Fm 275 Fm 275 Fm 275 Fm
Land area Area 10025 Q 10025 Q 10025 Q 10025 Q 10025 Q
Other land Area 8117.7 Fm 8117.6 Fm 8117 Fm 8117.4 Fm 8116.8 Fm
Perm. meadows & pastures - Cultivated Area
Perm. meadows & pastures - Nat. grown Area
Permanent meadows and pastures Area 1752 W 1753 W 1755 W 1756 W 1758 W
Temporary crops Area 7 Q 7 Q 7 Q 7 Q 7 Q
Temporary meadows and pastures Area 121 Fm 121 Fm 121 Fm 121 Fm 121 Fm
Land Usage: (1000 Ha)
E = Expert sources from FAO (including other divisions) | Fm = Manual Estimation | I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc. | Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries | W = Data reported on country official publications or web sites (Official) or trade country files