Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

India

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Datasheet

India

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 1,366,417,754 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 2,120 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 2,893,205.30 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 2,868,929.42 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 16.02 (2019)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
Cucumis dipsaceus (hedgehog gourd)PresentIntroducedGeethakumary et al. (2015)
Tetraodon fluviatilis (green-spotted puffer fish)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2009)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Dermatophilus congolensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (sugarcane ratoon stunting disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus thuringiensis kurstakiPresentCABI (Undated)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas)PresentBaiswar et al. (2010); Schneider et al. (1993); Tiwari et al. (2013); Gautam et al. (2015); Tripathi et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma phoeniciumPresentBiswas et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma solani (Stolbur phytoplasma)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022); Chinmay Biswas et al. (2014)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma trifolii (clover proliferation phytoplasma)Present, WidespreadInvasiveManish Kumar et al. (2017); Das et al. (2016); Ekta Khasa et al. (2016); Priya et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusPresentRajpal Singh and Garg (2000); Rana et al. (2012)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutespeach yellows phytoplasma (peach yellows)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesPhytoplasma mali (apple proliferation)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Seemüller (1990); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginalePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma ovisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella melitensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia caryophylli (bacterial wilt of carnation)PresentEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Hepatobacter penaeiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Bové (2006); Gouda et al. (2006); Das et al. (2014); CABI/EPPO (2017); Singh et al. (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriacitrus huanglongbing (greening) disease (citrus greening)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEdwardsiella tardaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaErwinia amylovora (fireblight)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022); CABI/EPPO (2013)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEscherichia coliPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaMannheimia haemolyticaPresentRajesh Chahota et al. (2000)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive)Present, LocalizedSattar et al. (1986); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi (chestnut bleeding canker)PresentCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)PresentEPPO (2022); Chandrashekara and Prasannakumar (2010); Chandrashekara et al. (2011); Chandrashekara et al. (2012); Sumangala et al. (2012); Gopalakrishnan et al. (2016)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999); Antony et al. (2015); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella AbortusequiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella enteritidisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaVibrio parahaemolyticusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (cassava bacterial blight)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (bean blight)PresentBradbury (1986); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. vasculorum (sugarcane gumming disease)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Ricaud et al. (1983); Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)PresentSinha et al. (1972); Kishore and Chand (1973); Pruvost et al. (1992); Pabitra Kalita et al. (1997); Vernière et al. (1998); Li et al. (2007); Lan Bui Thi Ngoc et al. (2010); CABI and EPPO (2014); Katkar et al. (2016); Savitha et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri pv. punicae (bacterial blight of pomegranate)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2014); Upasana Rani and Verma (2002); Manjula et al. (2007); Kumar et al. (2009); Benagi and Kumar (2011); Benagi et al. (2011); Gawate and Papdiwal (2011); Sharma et al. (2011); Subramanyam (2011); Yenjerappa et al. (2011); Ambadkar et al. (2015); CABI (Undated)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (bacterial leaf streak of rice)Present, WidespreadRao (1987); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis (bacterial leaf streak of grasses)PresentEPPO (2014)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley)PresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Jindal and Sharma (1987); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaSpirochaetesLeptospira interrogansPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaChromistaBacillariophytaDidymosphenia geminata (didymo)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces invadansPresent, LocalizedOIE (2018)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPeronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew of maize)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPeronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum downy mildew)Present, WidespreadNativeButler (1907); UK, CAB International (1988); Jensen et al. (1989); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cambivora (root rot of forest trees)PresentCABI/EPPO (2013); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight)Present, WidespreadMartin and Tooley (2004); Nath et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2014); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentUK, CAB International (1982); Arora (2009); Peerzada et al. (2013); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death (SOD))Absent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2022); CABI/EPPO (2013)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora vignae (Phytophthora stem rot of cowpea)Present, LocalizedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara halstedii (downy mildew of sunflower)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Moses (1989); Agrawal et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2014)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew)PresentUK, CAB International (1988); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaAlternaria japonica (pod spot of radish)PresentDavid (2000); Rao (1966)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaAlternaria triticina (leaf blight of wheat)PresentNativePrasada and Prabhu (1962); Borkar et al. (2008)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); UK, CAB International (1990)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBlumeria graminis (powdery mildew of grasses and cereals)PresentBasandrai et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2004); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Vikas Gupta et al. (2016)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight)Present, LocalizedKaushik and Toky (1992); Somasekhara (1999); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated); Herb IMI (undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaClaviceps africana (ergot)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveBogo and Mantle (1999); CABI and EPPO (2006); Navi et al. (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaClaviceps fusiformis (pearl millet ergot)PresentNativeCABI and EPPO (2006); Greathead (undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2010); Rani et al. (2018)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaConiothyrium glycines (red leaf blotch)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Koul (1980); Punithalingam (1990); UK, CAB International (1991)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCryphonectria parasitica (blight of chestnut)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2015)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCyclaneusma minus (Cyclaneusma needle-cast)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDiaporthe eres (apple leaf, branch and fruit fungus)PresentVerma et al. (2007)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDiplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2005); Khan et al. (2009); Dar and Rai (2017)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaElsinoë australis (citrus scab)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveSivamani and Gnanamanickam (1988); Sukhada Mohandas et al. (2010); Thangavelu and Mustaffa (2010); CABI and EPPO (2015); Mostert et al. (2017); Czislowski et al. (2018); Damodaran et al. (2019); Raman Thangavelu et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4)PresentRaman Thangavelu et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (Fusarium wilt)PresentUK, CAB International (1982); Assigbetse et al. (1994); Skovgaard et al. (2001); Abo et al. (2005); Holmes et al. (2009)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGibberella indica (wilt of pigeon pea)PresentCABI (Undated); Kiprop et al. (2002); Pawar et al. (2012); Datta and Lal (2013); Sanjeev Kumar and Upadhyay (2014); Rashmi and Chattannavar (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Present, LocalizedDas et al. (2018); Roy (1965); Baayen et al. (2002); Kumaran et al. (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaHarpophora maydis (late wilt of maize)PresentPAYAK et al. (1970)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaKabatiella zeae (eyespot)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMonilinia fructigena (brown rot)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); Manica Tomar and Harender Raj (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine)PresentEPPO (2022); Ivory (1994)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella pini (Dothistroma blight)PresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaNeofusicoccum mangiferaePresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Phillips et al. (2013)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaOidium anacardii (cashew powdery mildew)PresentIntroducedIntini (1987)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaOphiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant)PresentMathur (1979); CABI and EPPO (2008)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhyllactinia guttata (powdery mildew of hardwood trees)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Engle et al. (2006)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaRaffaelea lauricola (laurel wilt)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight)PresentBhat et al. (2018); CABI (Undated); Sutton (undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaTrichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)PresentUK, CAB International (1984); Anon (1963); Mathur and Neergaard (1970); Kaur and Aggarwal (2015)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Walker (1983); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaCronartium ribicola (white pine blister rust)Present, LocalizedArthur and Cummins (1933); UK, CAB International (1983); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated); Herb IMI (undated)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaHeterobasidion annosum sensu lato (Heterobasidion root rot)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaHeterobasidion insularePresent, LocalizedIvory (1987)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2007)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora pachyrhizi (soyabean rust)Present, LocalizedRamakrishnan and Sundaram (1954); Sarbhoy et al. (1972); Maiti et al. (1981); Kumar and Verma (1985); Satish Chandra et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997); Tsai JyhNong et al. (2017)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia graminis (stem rust of cereals)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)Present, LocalizedDheepa et al. (2015); Sriram et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia kuehnii (orange rust)PresentRyan and Egan (1989); Magarey (2000); CABI and EPPO (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaSporisorium sacchari (Asian sugarcane smut)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaTilletia indica (Karnal bunt of wheat)Present, WidespreadJoshi et al. (1983); Royer and Rytter (1988); Singh et al. (1989); Bonde et al. (1996); UK, CAB International (1996); Riccioni et al. (2006); Singh et al. (2012); Thirumalaisamy and Singh (2012); Shabana Parveen et al. (2015); Rajender Singh and Karwasra (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaUrocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); UK, CAB International (1991)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)PresentCABI (Undated); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaSynchytrium endobioticum (wart disease of potato)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaLumbricus rubellusPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaLumbricus terrestrisPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcarapis woodi (honeybee mite)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAceria guerreronis (coconut mite)PresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAdelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAdoretus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)PresentCABI (Undated); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Mohammad Munib (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Hayat (1984); Sreedevi (2010); Menakadevi and Manickavasagam (2011); Neeti Pandey et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Mani et al. (2003); Mani and Krishnamoorthy (2006); Sakthivel et al. (2009); Kotikal et al. (2011); Boopathi et al. (2014); Ghirtlahre et al. (2014); Vimala et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus rugioperculatus (rugose spiralling whitefly)Present, LocalizedSundararaj and Selvaraj (2017); Selvaraj et al. (2017); Chandrika Mohan et al. (2018); Nur Artikah et al. (2019); Elango and Jeyarajan (2020); Selvaraj et al. (2020); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurothrixus floccosus (woolly whitefly)PresentSundararaj et al. (2020); Selvaraj et al. (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella aurantii (red scale)PresentRose (1990); Verma and Dinabandhoo (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella orientalis (oriental yellow scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1978); Verma and Dinabandhoo (2005); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidomytilus albus (tapioca scale)Present, LocalizedIntroducedSankaran et al. (1984); APPPC (1987); Williams and Williams (1988); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentGreathead and Greathead (1992); Rakesh Pandey (2012); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015); Bhat (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentBasu and Patro (2007); Bagavan et al. (2009); Subharani et al. (2010); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Yogesh Patel (2013); Biswas et al. (2014); Lokeshwari et al. (2014); Lokeshwari et al. (2014); Uikey et al. (2014); Anuj Bhatnagar et al. (2015); Ao (2015); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Srinivasnaik et al. (2016); Lonagre et al. (2020); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1969); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis ceranaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis melliferaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArtemia (brine shrimp)PresentNativeInvasiveVan (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiella hartii (yam scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1966); Kotikal and Kulkarni (2000); Velayudhan and Liji (2003); García Morales et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)PresentCABI (Undated); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAutographa gamma (silver-Y moth)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera carambolae (carambola fruit fly)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Drew and Hancock (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera caryeaePresent, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Drew and Raghu (2002); Jiji et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera correcta (guava fruit fly)Present, WidespreadWhite and Elson-Harris (1992); Jalaluddin et al. (1999); Drew and Raghu (2002); CABI and EPPO (2003); Madhura and Verghese (2004); Mathaji (2009); Satarkar et al. (2009); Galande et al. (2010); David and Ramani (2011); Mondal et al. (2015); Qin YuJia et al. (2016); Yugendra et al. (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveClausen et al. (1965); Mathew et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2003); Dhillon et al. (2005); Kate et al. (2010); Virgilio et al. (2010); Prabhakar et al. (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)Present, WidespreadInvasiveGupta et al. (1990); Mann (1997); Abraham Verghese et al. (2004); Prabhakar et al. (2012); Schutze et al. (2012); Wan XuanWu et al. (2012); CABI/EPPO (2013); Ganie et al. (2013); Sumana Halder et al. (2013); Ukey et al. (2013); Jiji et al. (2016); Akbar et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera latifrons (Solanum fruit fly)PresentClausen et al. (1965); Udayagiri (1987); Prabhakar et al. (2012); Akhila and Jiji (2015); Nair et al. (2017); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera minax (Chinese citrus fly)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly)Present, LocalizedKapoor (1993); Shant (1999); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera tauPresentCABI (Undated); Clausen et al. (1965); Wang (1996); Pal and Choudhuri (2007); David et al. (2008); Singh et al. (2010); Prabhakar (2011); Prabhakar et al. (2012); Prabhakar et al. (2013); Prabhakar et al. (2013); Sumana Halder et al. (2015); Boopathi et al. (2017); Nair et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeGrewal and Malhi (1987); Gupta et al. (1990); Siddiqui et al. (2003); White (2006); Mathaji (2009); Prabhakar et al. (2012); CABI and EPPO (2013); Yugendra et al. (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBagrada hilaris (painted bug)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2016); Rakshpal (1949); Chacko and Katiyar (1961); Gupta and Gupta (1970); Gupta and Sharma (1971); Joshi et al. (1989); Harvir Singh and Malik (1993); Lal and Singh (1993); Verma et al. (1993); Surender Kumar and Yadav (1998); Vekarta and Patel (1999); Dharpure (2002); Rajpal Singh and Joshi (2003); Rohilla et al. (2003); Ghosal et al. (2005); Ahuja et al. (2008); Biswas et al. (2014); Yadav et al. (2014); Divya et al. (2015); Singh et al. (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)Present, WidespreadCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Singh et al. (2001); Abdullahi et al. (2003); Raj et al. (2006); Raj et al. (2006); Raja and Arivudainambi (2008); Sharma and Bisht (2011); Chowda-Reddy et al. (2012); Panduranga et al. (2012); Anirban Roy et al. (2013); Manjunath et al. (2013); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Bikram Saha et al. (2014); Omkar Gavkare and Sharma (2014); Yadav et al. (2014); Hu Jian et al. (2015); Snehi et al. (2016); Sohrab (2016); Srivastava et al. (2016); Manmohan Dhkal et al. (2020); Manmohan Dhkal et al. (2021); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (1999); Banks et al. (2001); Chowda-Reddy et al. (2012); Manjunath et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBlattella germanica (German cockroach)PresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBoophilus microplusPresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrachyponera chinensis (Asian needle ant)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Nelder et al. (2006); Miner (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite)PresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)Present, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2013); Kennedy et al. (1996); Gupta and Shreya Mitra (2014); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015); Debalina Mandal et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBruchophagus roddi (alfalfa seed chalcid)PresentUK, CAB International (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCactoblastis cactorum (cactus moth)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCalacarus carinatus (purple tea mite)PresentCABI and EPPO (2014); Devi et al. (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallosobruchus chinensis (Chinese bruchid)Present, WidespreadHaines (1981); Khandwe et al. (1997); Anand Katti et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil)Present, WidespreadVir and Jindal (1981); Anand Katti et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCarcinus maenas (European shore crab)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Alcock (1899)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCerataphis lataniae (palm aphid)PresentCABI and EPPO (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis helleriiPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilades pandavaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilo partellus (spotted stem borer)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Mahadevan and Chelliah (1986); Ramkumar Singh et al. (2005); Balikai (2009); Mallapur et al. (2012); Manjunath Chouraddi et al. (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveUK, CAB International (1977); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth)PresentCABI (Undated); Rabindra et al. (1975); Jatinder Singh and Gurdip Singh (1998); Sukhpalvir Singh et al. (2003); Sima (2014); Paul et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentKore and Thite (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1969); Verma and Dinabandhoo (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)PresentNativeInvasiveJames (1947); Norris and Murray (1964); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCinara cupressi sensu lato (Cypress aphid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCirrospilus ingenuusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoccidohystrix insolita (eggplant mealybug)PresentVeilleux et al. (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoccinella septempunctata (seven-spot ladybird)PresentNativeKajita et al. (2012); Dobzhansky (1933)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaConopomorpha cramerella (cocoa pod borer)PresentCABI (Undated); Ranjeet Bhatia et al. (2000); Sahoo et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)PresentNativeKirton and Brown (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCrocidosema plebejana (cotton tipworm)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, WidespreadInvasiveBarraud (1934)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)PresentEPPO (2022); Hampson (1896); CABI/EPPO (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCylas formicarius (sweet potato weevil)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1970); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDacus ciliatus (lesser pumpkin fly)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2002); Drew et al. (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDaphnia lumholtziPresentNativeKanaujia (1979)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDendrolimus punctatus (Masson pine caterpillar)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDermestes olivieriPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)Present, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Verma and Dinabandhoo (2005); Verma and Thapa (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDichromothrips corbettiPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDinoderus bifoveolatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDinoderus minutus (bamboo borer)PresentNativeSandhu (1975); Kumar et al. (1985)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDrosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDryocoetes himalayensisPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentBen-Dov (1994); Mani and Thontadarya (1987); Veenakumari et al. (1997); Williams (2004); Devasahayam et al. (2009); Vijay and Suresh (2013); Srinivasnaik et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug)PresentGarcía Morales et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEphestia kuehniella (Mediterranean flour moth)PresentMahla (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErionota thrax (banana skipper)PresentEPPO (2022); Srinivasa Reddy and Hemadri (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErionota torus (banana skipper)PresentCABI (Undated); Jayanthi et al. (2015); Jayashankar et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEriosoma lanigerum (woolly aphid)PresentCABI (Undated); Verma and Thapa (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErschoviella musculana (Asian walnut moth)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErthesina fullo (yellow-spotted stink bug)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEupoecilia ambiguella (grapevine moth)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEurema blanda (three-spot grass yellow butterfly)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea destruensPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea fornicatus (polyphagous shot-hole borer)PresentSmith et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea perbrevis (tea shot-hole borer)PresentCABI and EPPO (2013); Nair and Mathew (1988); Rajesh Kumar et al. (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea piceusPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaExomala orientalis (oriental beetle)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentKaydan and Gullan (2012); Lad et al. (2013); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Vidya et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI and EPPO (1999); Kaomud Tyagi and Vikas Kumar (2015); Rachana and Varatharajan (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGalleria mellonella (greater waxmoth)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGeococcus coffeae (coffee root mealybug)PresentSmitha and Maicykutty (2010); Smitha and Mathew (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGreenidea ficicolaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentJacot-Guillarmod and Brothers (1986)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHaemaphysalis longicornisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)Present, WidespreadNair (1975); Parihar and Singh (1988); McCaffery et al. (1989); Ujagir (1993); UK, CAB International (1993); Tripathy et al. (1999); Aherkar et al. (2000); Pallavi Talmaley et al. (2002); Satpute et al. (2002); Teggelli et al. (2002); Levin et al. (2004); Rajpal Singh et al. (2004); Duraimurugan and Regupathy (2005); Mohapatra (2006); Bharati et al. (2007); Hanumantharaya et al. (2008); Patnaik (2008); Brijesh Singh et al. (2009); Hanumantharaya et al. (2009); Nimbalkar et al. (2009); Sarwan Kumar and Saini (2009); Sireesha et al. (2009); Sharma and Bisht (2011); Byrappa et al. (2012); Rakesh Pandey (2012); Sreekanth and Seshamahalakshmi (2012); Gundannavar et al. (2013); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Girish et al. (2014); Naik et al. (2014); Yadav et al. (2014); Paul et al. (2016); Meena et al. (2017); Harshita et al. (2018); Kukanur et al. (2018); Akhlaq Husain and Wajid Hasan (2020); Snehel Chakravarty and Srivastava (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)PresentUK, CAB International (1961); Bhatti (1990); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1976); Nagarkatti and Sankaran (1990); Verma and Dinabandhoo (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale (USA))PresentMerrill (1953); Devnath (1985); Devnath (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeteropsylla cubana (leucaena psyllid)PresentVeeresh (1990); FAO (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHylurgus ligniperda (red-haired pine bark beetle)Absent, Intercepted onlyCABI and EPPO (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHyphantria cunea (mulberry moth)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)PresentCristancho et al. (2007); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIcerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Kotikal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus clypealis (mango leafhopper)Present, LocalizedViraktamath (1989); Jha et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus nagpurensis (mango leafhopper)PresentViraktamath (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIdioscopus nitidulus (mango leafhopper)PresentViraktamath (1989); Jha et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaImpatientinum asiaticumPresentSunil Joshi and Sangma (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia)PresentSunil Joshi and Sangma (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid)PresentCABI and EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLernaea cyprinaceaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza cicerinaPresentNaresh and Malik (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)Present, LocalizedIntroducedCABI and EPPO (2002); Singh and Singh (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997); Suganthy (2007); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLissorhoptrus oryzophilus (rice water weevil)Present, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Present, LocalizedIntroducedCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLycorma delicatula (spotted lanternfly)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLymantria dispar (gypsy moth)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLymantria mathura (pink gypsy moth)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveBrowne (1968); Dey and Tiwari (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)Present, WidespreadNativeWilliams (2004); Mani and Krishnamoorthy (2008); Rathod et al. (2008); Rathod et al. (2008); Chavan and Kadam (2009); Nagrare et al. (2009); Sunitha et al. (2009); Patil et al. (2010); Lad et al. (2013); Akhilesh Kumar and Nandita Singh (2014); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)PresentNativeNew (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid)PresentIntroducedUK, CAB International (1984); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaliarpha separatella (African white rice borer)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMegaselia tamilnaduensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium destructor (Singapore ant)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium floricolaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMythimna unipuncta (rice armyworm)PresentIntroducedAPPPC (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus cerasi (black cherry aphid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)Present, WidespreadGhosh (1975); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Sharma et al. (2013); Girish et al. (2014); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1970); Radhika and Reddy (2006); Balikai (2009); Bharathimeena and Sudharma (2009); Kotikal et al. (2011); Naik et al. (2012); Girish et al. (2014); Vidya et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus nipae (spiked mealybug)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug)PresentWilliams (2004); CABI and EPPO (2005); Mani and Krishnamoorthy (2008); Babu (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOceanaspidiotus spinosusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryctes rhinoceros (coconut rhinoceros beetle)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Riazuddin et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle)PresentChamp and Dyte (1976); Anand Katti et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOstrinia nubilalis (European maize borer)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOxycarenus hyalinipennis (cotton, seed bug)PresentEPPO (2022); Sandhu and Dhindsa (1982); Rajashekhargouda et al. (1984); Ram and Chopra (1984); Ram and Chopra (1988); Asha Thomas et al. (2008); Nagoshi et al. (2012); Belamkar and Jadesh (2014); Girish et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPapilio demoleus (chequered swallowtail)Present, WidespreadTalbot (1939); APPPC (1987); Prashanth Mohanraj and Veenakumari (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMuniappan (2008); Suresh et al. (2010); CABI/EPPO (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Dhobi et al. (2014); Kirsur et al. (2014); Ahmed et al. (2015); Lalitha et al. (2015); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015); Srinivasnaik et al. (2016); Shivkumara et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParaleyrodes bondariPresentChandrika Mohan et al. (2019); Selvaraj et al. (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParaleyrodes mineiPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParanthrene tabaniformis (poplar clearwing moth)Presentde Freina (1997)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParapoynx crisonalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatachardina pseudolobata (lobate lac scale)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); EPPO (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Lokeshwari et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParthenolecanium persicae (peach scale)PresentRamakrishna Ayyar (1921); Varshney (1985); Shafee et al. (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Husain and Khan (1940); Flint et al. (1979); Legner and Medved (1979); Chakravarthy and Sidhu (1986); Malik and Nandal (1986); Ram and Pathak (1987); Karuppuchamy and Balasubramanian (1990); Kranthi et al. (2002); Rajpal Singh and Joshi (2003); Mohapatra (2007); Patil et al. (2007); Sanyasi Dhurua and Gujar (2011); Wang et al. (2011); Kumar et al. (2012); Ardhendu Chakraborty et al. (2014); Mohan et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)PresentNativeHolthuis (1980); Dore and Frimodt (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug)PresentSunil Joshi et al. (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveTanwar et al. (2007); Abbas et al. (2009); Nagrare et al. (2009); Prishanthini and Vinobaba (2009); Suresh et al. (2010); Hanchinal et al. (2011); CABI/EPPO (2012); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea absoluta (tomato leafminer)Present, LocalizedIntroducedSridhar et al. (2014); Nayana and Kalleshwaraswamy (2015); Rasheed et al. (2017); Sidhu et al. (2017); Balaji et al. (2018); Hadapad and Hire (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea operculella (potato tuber moth)Present, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)Present, WidespreadNarayanan (1960); Pal (1971); UK, CAB International (1986); Shidharan et al. (1989); Jothi et al. (1990); Bhatia and Joshi (1991); Padmanaban (1994); Singh and Singh (1999); Chatterjee et al. (2000); Kalita and Baruah (2001); Rao et al. (2002); Patel and Patel (2003); Sreedevi (2010); Monika Chhetry et al. (2011); Sharma et al. (2015); Anjitha George et al. (2017); Thakre and Soni (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPieris brassicae (large cabbage white)PresentEPPO (2022); Rizvi et al. (2009); Fazil Hasan and Ansari (2011); Fazil Hasan and Ansari (2011); Yadav et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPieris rapae (cabbage white butterfly)PresentMuthukumar et al. (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug)Present, WidespreadKrishnamoorthy and Mani (1994); Mani (1994); CABI and EPPO (1999); Mani and Krishnamoorthy (2007); Rahiman and Naik (2009); Srinivasnaik et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlatypus curtusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlatypus quercivorus (oak ambrosia beetle)PresentNativeBeaver and Shih HsienTzung (2003); Beaver and Sanguansub (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1967); Yadav et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentManjunatha et al. (2001); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Girish et al. (2014); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPopillia japonica (Japanese beetle)Absent, Formerly presentEPPO (2022); Smitha et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPrays citri (citrus flower moth)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPrays endocarpa (citrus rind borer)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProstephanus truncatus (larger grain borer)Absent, Intercepted onlyUK, CAB International (1995); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaonidia duplex (camphor, scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)Present, LocalizedNakahara (1982); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRaoiella indica (red palm mite)PresentCABI and EPPO (2007); Chandra and Channa Basavanna (1984); Jalaluddin and Mohanasundaram (1990); Dowling et al. (2012); Shivanna et al. (2012); Taylor et al. (2012); Debalina Mandal et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRastrococcus invadens (fruit tree mealybug)PresentWilliams (1986); CABI and EPPO (1998); Nagalakshmi et al. (2014); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus ferrugineus (red palm weevil)Present, WidespreadMuralidharan et al. (1999); Jose et al. (2008); Manjunatha et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer)Present, WidespreadSinha and Sinha (1990)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaissetia oleae (olive scale)PresentCABI (Undated); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Raizada (1976); Amin (1979); Mound and Palmer (1981); Sundararaju (1984); Veer and Chandra (1984); Patnaik et al. (1985); Bagle (1993); Prasad et al. (1994); Manjunatha et al. (2001); Dharpure (2002); Sharma and Kashyap (2002); Sridhar and Rani (2003); Kannan et al. (2004); Vikas Singh et al. (2005); Abrol et al. (2006); Suganthy (2007); Ranganath et al. (2008); CABI and EPPO (2010); Farris et al. (2010); Duraimurugan and Jagadish (2011); Kotikal et al. (2011); Sharma and Bisht (2011); Tatagar et al. (2011); Bhat et al. (2012); Meena et al. (2013); Sarkar and Kabir (2013); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Chandra and Rana (2014); Girish et al. (2014); Kaomud Tyagi and Vikas Kumar (2014); Maisnam and Varatharajan (2015); Vidya et al. (2015); Chinthangkhomba and Varatharajan (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSepedon aenescens (snail-killing fly)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSesamia cretica (greater sugarcane borer)Present, LocalizedNativeUK, CAB International (1968); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSiphoninus phillyreae (ash whitefly)PresentMound and Halsey (1978); Kotikal et al. (2011); CABI/EPPO (2013); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitobion miscanthi (indian grain aphid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus granarius (grain weevil)PresentNHM (1905)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus oryzae (lesser grain weevil)PresentKumar et al. (2005); Rajendran et al. (2001); Kumawat (2007); Anand Katti et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil)PresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitotroga cerealella (grain moth)Present, WidespreadChamp and Dyte (1977); Ramashrit and Mishra (1989); Anand Katti et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant)PresentIntroducedGeorge and Narendran (1987); Lakshmikantha et al. (2001); ISSG (2009); Gotzek et al. (2015); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSophonia orientalis (two-spotted leafhopper)PresentNativeAhmed and Mahmood (1970)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera exempta (black armyworm)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)Present, LocalizedIntroducedICAR-NBAIR (2018); Ganiger et al. (2018); Ganiger et al. (2018); Sharanabasappa et al. (2018); Shylesha et al. (2018); Matti and Patil (2019); Dharmpal Kerketta et al. (2020); Gavas Ragesh and Sanju Balan (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm)PresentPrasad and Bhattacharya (1975)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)Present, WidespreadInvasiveSengupta and Behura (1957); Thakur et al. (1974); Mustafee (1977); Rao (1978); Krishnananda and Satyanarayana (1985); Sharma and Tara (1985); Shrivastava et al. (1987); Nandihalli et al. (1989); Das et al. (1990); UK, CAB International (1993); Armes et al. (1997); Ambrose and Claver (1999); Balikai et al. (1999); Kranthi et al. (2001); Sajitha Kumari and Lyla (2001); Pallavi Talmaley et al. (2002); Suganthy (2007); Krishna et al. (2008); Mohammad Monobrullah and Uma Shankar (2008); Sireesha et al. (2009); Bhushan et al. (2010); Kumar et al. (2010); Jadhav et al. (2011); Muthusamy et al. (2011); Sharma and Bisht (2011); Shukla and Patel (2011); Kathirvelu Baskar et al. (2012); Prabhu Nayaka et al. (2012); Firake et al. (2013); Gundannavar et al. (2013); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Girish et al. (2014); Manimanjari et al. (2014); Naik et al. (2014); Pranab Dutta et al. (2014); Sharma and Pathania (2014); Sharma et al. (2014); Yadav et al. (2014); Madhvi Gupta et al. (2015); Sangode and Rathod (2015); Yadav and Shweta Patel (2015); Jaydeep Halder et al. (2016); Ingle et al. (2017); Karuppaiah et al. (2017); Khan et al. (2017); Meena et al. (2017); Pattapu Sreelakshmi et al. (2017); Singh and Ahmad (2017); Suprakash Pal et al. (2017); Singh et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil)Present, WidespreadShukla et al. (1985); Thomas et al. (1995); Abraham Verghese et al. (2005); Verghese et al. (2005); Kannan and Rao (2006); Godase et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2015); Rao (2015); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)PresentWetterer (2009); Lokeshwari et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTechnomyrmex albipes (white-footed ant)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentInternational Institute of Entomology (1996); Arun Gupta et al. (2014); Girish et al. (2014); Vijay Singh and Usha Chauhan (2014); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015); Debalina Mandal et al. (2016); Parmeshwar Gore et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)PresentRajulu and Gowri (1988); Lakshmi et al. (1995); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); CABI and EPPO (1998); Pankaja et al. (2008); Ranganath et al. (2008); Rani et al. (2008); Karimi et al. (2010); Swamy et al. (2010); Swamy et al. (2010); Bhat et al. (2012); Krishnamoorthy and Visalakshi (2012); Kadirvel et al. (2013); Pandey et al. (2013); Kaomud Tyagi and Vikas Kumar (2014); Rebijith et al. (2014); Chinthangkhomba and Varatharajan (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes ricini (castor bean whitefly)PresentNativeMisra (1924); Srivastava et al. (1972); Mound and Halsey (1978); Martin et al. (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse)PresentByrne et al. (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrirachys holosericeus (apple stem borer)PresentNativeCABI (2020); Verma and Thapa (2005); Salve (2014); Jiji et al. (2016); Naik and More (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrirachys sartus (city longhorn beetle)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Sengupta and Sengupta (1981)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrogoderma granarium (khapra beetle)PresentNativeMahla and Ameta (2001); Tripathi and Narendra Kumar (2007); Mandal and Ray (2009); Kataria and Kulkarni (2017); Yadav et al. (2018); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsPresentPadhi and Rath (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelaps clareaePresentCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUroleucon erigeronensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)PresentPhadke et al. (1966)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa jacobsoni (Varroa mite)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespa velutina (Asian hornet)PresentNativeArcher (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespula germanica (German wasp)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespula vulgaris (wasp, common)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaViteus vitifoliae (grapevine phylloxera)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaWahlgreniella nervataPresentCABI (Undated); Sunil Joshi et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborinus saxesenii (fruit-tree pinhole borer)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus glabratus (redbay ambrosia beetle)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus perforans (island pinhole borer)PresentNativeUK, CAB International (1973); Jagginavar and Naik (2002); Jagginavar and Naik (2005); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus similisPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus volvulusPresentIntroducedInvasiveBrowne (1961)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer)PresentNativeCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992); Keshavareddy et al. (2008); CABI and EPPO (2009); Prathapan and Hiremath (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus discolorPresentNativeBeeson (1930); Beeson (1961); Wood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentNativeWood and Bright (1992); Saha et al. (1992); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus mutilatus (camphor shoot beetle)Present, WidespreadNativeCoyle (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaBryozoaBugula neritina (brown bryozoan)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres fuscus (jungle myna)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres tristis (common myna)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAmphiprionPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAnser indicus (bar-headed goose)PresentNativeBirdLife International (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAplocheilus lineatus (striped panchax)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAristichthys nobilis (bighead carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAscidiella aspersa (European sea squirt)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAxis axis (Indian spotted deer)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBos taurus (cattle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationNativeCockrill (1977); Borghese (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubulcus ibis (cattle egret)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCallosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCamelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Present, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCapra hircus (goats)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCettia diphone (Japanese bush-warbler)PresentNativeClement and Juana (2013); Clements et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataChanna marulius (bullseye snakehead)PresentNativeCourtenay and Williams (2004); Froese R and Pauly D (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias batrachus (walking catfish)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias gariepinusPresentIntroducedInvasiveShaji et al. (2000); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCorvus splendens (house crow)Present, WidespreadNativeAli and Ripley (1972); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)PresentIntroducedShireman and Smith (1983); Shetty et al. (1989); FAO (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCygnus olor (mute swan)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFroese and Pauly (2021); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDicrurus macrocercusPresent, WidespreadNativeGrimmett et al. (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad)PresentNativeDijk et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEquus asinus (donkeys)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEquus ferusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedInvasiveDas and Rampal (1966); Froese and Pauly (2008); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHemidactylus frenatus (common house gecko)Present, WidespreadNativeThe Reptile Database (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHerpestes auropunctatus (small Indian mongoose)PresentNativeIUCN (2016); Prater (1965); Corbet and Hill (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004); FishBase (2005); Seebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIctalurus punctatus (channel catfish)PresentIntroducedMolar and Walker (1998); Singh and Lakra (2011); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLeiothrix lutea (red-billed leiothrix)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLutjanus kasmira (blueline snapper)Present, WidespreadNativeKapoor et al. (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca mulatta (rhesus macaque)PresentNativeTimmins et al. (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMicrocosmus squamigerPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMisgurnus anguillicaudatus (oriental weatherloach)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMonopterus albus (Asian swamp eel)PresentNativeFishbase (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Shetty et al. (1989); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOvis aries (sheep)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPasser domesticus (house sparrow)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPavo cristatusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia reticulata (guppy)Present, WidespreadIntroducedFAO (1997); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet)Present, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNativeForshaw (2010); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet)PresentCABI (Undated); Balikai (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterois volitans (lionfish)PresentNativeKumaraguru Vasagam and Rajkumar (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterygoplichthys anisitsi (southern sailfin catfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterygoplichthys disjunctivus (vermiculated sailfin catfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterygoplichthys multiradiatus (Orinoco sailfin catfish)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterygoplichthys pardalis (Amazon sailfin catfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPycnonotus cafer (red-vented bulbul)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered bulbul)Present, WidespreadNativeBirdLife International (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPython bivittatus (Burmese python)Present, LocalizedNativeWall (1912); Whitaker (1993); Das (1996); Whitaker and Captain (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRachycentron canadum (cobia)PresentNativeNazar et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus exulans (Pacific rat)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus rattus (black rat)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus tanezumi (Asian house rat)PresentNativeAplin et al. (2011); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalmo salar (Atlantic salmon)PresentIntroducedFAO (2019); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalmo trutta (sea trout)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalvelinus fontinalis (brook trout)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove)PresentNativeFujisaki et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSuncus murinus (Asian house shrew)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig)PresentNativeIUCN (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTinca tinca (tench)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); FishBase (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrichopodus trichopterus (three spot gourami)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)Present, WidespreadNativeKonig and Weick (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataXiphophorus helleriiPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataXiphophorus maculatus (southern platyfish)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaTubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaEchinodermataAcanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish)PresentInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAchatina fulica (giant African land snail)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMead (1961); Raut and Ghose (1984); Srivastava et al. (1985); Thakur (1998); Shree and Kumar (2002); Jav Aregowda (2004); Sheela Thakur (2004); Reddy and Sreedharan (2006); Vanitha et al. (2008); Naik et al. (2014); Jayashankar et al. (2015); Ayyagari and Krupanidhi Sreerama (2017); Parvate and Liji Thayil (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCorbicula fluminalisPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras laeve (meadow slug)PresentJayashankar et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaEuglandina rosea (rosy predator snail)PresentIntroducedInvasiveGriffiths et al. (1993); Cowie (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLimax maximus (leopard slug)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMelanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania)Present, WidespreadNativeBrot (1860); Pilsbry-Bequaert (1927)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytella charruana (Charru mussel)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMytilopsis sallei (Caribbean false mussel)PresentCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPerna viridis (Asian green mussel)PresentNativeDFAS (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)PresentNativePoutiers (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Ranamukhaarachchi and Wickramasinghe (2006); Wu and Xie (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaRuditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell)PresentNativeQi (1998); Zhuang (1964)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAnguina tritici (wheat seed gall nematode)Present, WidespreadCHRISTIE and PERRY (1959); CABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)Present, WidespreadPrasad et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides fragariae (strawberry crimp nematode)PresentAhmad (1971); CABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm)Present, LocalizedGill (1981); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus angustus (rice stem nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); Prasad and Varaprasad (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus destructor (potato tuber nematode)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Hooper (1972); Maqbool (1991); Sturhan and Brzeski (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasivePrasad (1996); CABI/EPPO (2011); Seenivasan (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasivePrasad (1996); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHeterodera cajani (pigeon pea cyst nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Ali and Sharma (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHeterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003); Poornima et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne enterolobii (Pacara earpod tree root-knot nematode)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Poornima et al. (2016); Suresh et al. (2017); Kumar and Rawat (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); Khan et al. (2007); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)PresentGoyal et al. (1976); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2002); Ali and Sharma (2003); Khan et al. (2007); Mallikarjuna et al. (2010); Poornima et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Ali and Sharma (2003); Khan et al. (2007); Singh and Gupta (2011); Srivastava et al. (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); Khan et al. (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaScutellonema bradys (yam nematode)PresentNADAKAL and THOMAS (1967); CABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaXiphinema diversicaudatum (dagger nematode)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaXiphinema index (fan-leaf virus nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2000); Poornima et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus granulosusPresentOIE (2018); CABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus multilocularisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesGyrodactylus salarisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaPoriferaMycale grandis (orange keyhole sponge)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila psittaciAbsentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaCaulerpa taxifolia (killer algae)PresentNativeUNEP (2004); Guiry and Guiry (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeChlorophytaUlva reticulata (ribbon sea lettuce)PresentSilva et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAdiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAngiopteris evecta (king fern)PresentMali et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla cristataPresent, LocalizedIntroducedAther Masoodi and Khan (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla filiculoides (water fern)PresentParimal Chattopadhyay and Kushari (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla mexicanaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla pinnata (mosquito fern)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Kiran and Rao (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCeratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)PresentCABI (Undated); Haldar and Ray (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveHolttum (1976); Shridhar and Varadaraju (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)Blatter and D'Almeida (1922)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaDeparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)PresentNativeKato (1984)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaDiplazium esculentum (vegetable fern)PresentNativeIrudayaraj (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaEquisetum arvense (field horsetail)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium flexuosum (maidenhair creeper)PresentNativeUSDA-APHIS-PPQ (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern)PresentNativeBeddome (1892); Garrison Hanks (1998); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaLygodium microphyllum (old world climbing fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMacrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMarsilea minuta (pepperwort)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Devi et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaNephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern)PresentGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteridium aquilinum (bracken)Present, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris tripartita (giant brake)Present, Few occurrencesNativeRavi (2016); USDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)PresentUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia molesta (kariba weed)Present, WidespreadInvasiveCook (1976); Thomas (1976); Jayanth and Singh (1993); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaThelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)PresentNativeSubhash Chandra et al. (2008); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAcanthophora spiciferaPresentNativeSahoo et al. (2001); Silva et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaEucheuma spp.PresentMairh et al. (1995); Muñoz and Sahoo (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaGracilaria salicorniaPresentNativeSilva et al. (1996); Sahoo et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaHypnea musciformisPresentNativeSilva et al. (1996); Sahoo et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaKappaphycusPresent, LocalizedIntroducedMairh et al. (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaPolysiphonia brodieiPresentIntroducedSilva et al. (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus esculentus (okra)PresentBasu and Patro (2007); Gracy et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Srivastava et al. (2012); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Vijay Singh and Usha Chauhan (2014); Lalitha et al. (2015); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Patil et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Lonagre et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)PresentNative and IntroducedSakthivel et al. (2012); Sankaran and Suresh (2013); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbrus precatorius (rosary pea)PresentDevi et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)PresentNativeAchigan-Dako (2010); Sakthivel et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon indicum (country mallow)PresentNativeRajwar (1984); Babu (2009); Kadam et al. (2012); Kirsur et al. (2014); Devi et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf)Absent, Formerly presentWood (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia angustissima (prairie acacia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); India Biodiversity Portal (2016); Thite et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia caven (Roman cassie)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia coleiPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia crassicarpa (northern wattle)PresentSharma and Florence (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia dealbata (acacia bernier)PresentIntroducedInvasiveEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia decurrens (green wattle)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016); CSIRO (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)Present, Widespread, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2002); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia glauca (wild dividivi)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia karroo (sweet thorn)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia longifolia (golden wattle)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mangium (brown salwood)PresentIntroducedKrisnawati et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mearnsii (black wattle)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2002); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia melanoxylon (Australian blackwood)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mellifera (blackthorn)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia nilotica (gum arabic tree)PresentNativeInvasiveILDIS (2002); Kadam et al. (2012); Balu et al. (2014); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia polyacantha (hook thorn)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia saligna (coojong)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); ILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Moody (1989); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchillea millefolium (yarrow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)Present, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Kirsur et al. (2014); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes japonica (Japanese chaff flower)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcrocarpus fraxinifolius (shingle tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)Present, PlantedNativeILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdonidia merrillii (Christmas palm)PresentIntroducedNayar et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene americana (shyleaf)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene indica (Indian jointvetch)Present, LocalizedSharma and Das (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave americana (century plant)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave vivipara (Caribbean agave)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedThe Mansfeld’s World Database (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratina adenophora (Croftonweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Trounce and Dyason (2003); Rao et al. (2015); Debalina Mandal et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); IRRI (1989); Basu and Patro (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016); Patil et al. (2017); Thite et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)PresentIntroducedSharma (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgrostis capillaris (common bent)PresentIntroducedNoltie (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAilanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)PresentIntroducedSingh et al. (1992); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAira caryophyllea (silver hairgrass)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia chinensis (Chinese albizia)Present, Widespread, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia julibrissin (silk tree)Present, PlantedNativeILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016); Cook et al. (2005); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Orwa et al. (2009); Srivastava and Singh (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia niopoides (silk tree)PresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia procera (white siris)PresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016); Gupta (1993); ICFRE (1995); ILDIS (2002); Firdousi (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAleurites moluccanus (candlenut tree)Present, PlantedNativeOyen (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlhagi maurorum (camelthorn)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2019); Sakthivel et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentCABI (Undated); Basu and Patro (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlnus glutinosa (European alder)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAloe vera (true aloe)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2017); Mandal and Maiti (2005); Kadam et al. (2012); Shubhi Avasthi et al. (2015); Shubhi Avasthi et al. (2016); Bahekar et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Shubhi Avasthi et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlopecurus myosuroides (black-grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)PresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia purpurata (red ginger)PresentLokeshwari et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera ficoidea (rabbit meat)PresentNayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera paronychioidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera pungens (Khaki weed)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Dangwal et al. (2011); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)Present, LocalizedDatta and Biswas (1979); Holm et al. (1991); Singh et al. (2006); Shukla (2009); Chandra et al. (2011); Narayanan et al. (2011); Misra et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Bjeliš et al. (2013); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Mishra and Narain (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Naidu et al. (2015); Nithya and Ramamoorthy (2015); Wagh and Jain (2015); Kumar and Shiddamallayya (2016); Rama Rao and Leela (2016); Biswas and Biswas (2018); Lalmuanpuii et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)PresentNativeDuke (1981); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlyssum desertorum (desert madwort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Madhusoodanan and Nazeer (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus cruentus (red amaranth)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDas (2012); Grubben (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth)PresentIntroducedTownsend (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedKumar et al. (2014); Holm et al. (1991); Dangwal et al. (2011); Pankaj Sharma et al. (2011); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Devi et al. (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)PresentHooker (1885); Dangwal et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kirsur et al. (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaryllis belladonnaPresentSingh et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia psilostachya (perennial ragweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmmi visnagaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnaphalis margaritaceaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAndropogon gayanusPresentUrvi Sharma et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAndropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)GBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnethum graveolens (dill)PresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona cherimola (cherimoya)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentIntroducedMorton (1987); Hanelt et al. (2001); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona squamosa (sugar apple)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2010); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAntigonon leptopus (coral vine)PresentIntroducedRaju et al. (2001); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAponogeton natansPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Kiran and Rao (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArceuthobium minutissimum (Himalayan dwarf mistletoe)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArceuthobium oxycedri (juniper dwarf mistletoe)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia crenata (coral berry)PresentNativeNiu HongYu et al. (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia crispa (coral berry)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArdisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia)Present, LocalizedNativeUSDA-ARS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAreca catechu (betelnut palm)PresentManimekalai et al. (2010); Ram Dutta et al. (2010); Lad et al. (2013); Manjunatha et al. (2013); Badal Bhattacharyya et al. (2014); Lizanne and Pai (2014); Yeshwanth and Prathapan (2014); Chandrika Mohan et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArenga pinnata (sugar palm)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); GBIF (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)PresentNativeGalani et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristida adscensionisPresentBasu and Patro (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass)PresentNativeShukla (1996); eMonocot (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)PresentSood et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtemisia capillarisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass)PresentNativeFlora of China (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)PresentIntroducedRagone (2006); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)Present, PlantedSakthivel et al. (2012); Prarthna Rajkumari et al. (2013); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Sureshan and Farsana (2014); Jiji et al. (2016); Patel et al. (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundina graminifolia (bamboo orchid)PresentGupta and Shreya Mitra (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)Present, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2007); Kaomud Tyagi and Vikas Kumar (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsparagus falcatus (sicklethorn)PresentNativePROTA (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsphodelus tenuifolius (onionweed)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2014); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAstilbe rivularisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAstragalus hamosusPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsystasia gangetica (chinese violet)PresentNativeISSG (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena fatua (wild oat)PresentSabale (1985); Mustafee (1989); Saraswat and Rabha (1993); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena sterilis (winter wild oat)PresentNativeSahadeva Singh (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAverrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)PresentCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus compressus (carpet grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus fissifoliusPresentIntroducedBor (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)Present, WidespreadNativeParker (1956); Champion et al. (1965); Kadam et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Salve (2014); Hemant Pathak et al. (2015); Moinuddin et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Firdousi (2018); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBacopa monnieri (water hyssop)PresentNativeGhosh and Banerjee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBalanites aegyptiaca (simple-thorned torchwood)PresentIntroducedBooth and Wickens (1988); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2015); Rashmi Dubey and Moonnambeth (2013); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)PresentCABI (Undated); Debalina Mandal et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria cristata (Philippine violet)PresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria lupulina (hophead Philippine violet)PresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarleria prionitis (porcupine flower)PresentCABI (Undated); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBarringtonia asiatica (sea poison tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBasella alba (malabar spinach)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017); Baiswar et al. (2012); WCSP (2017); Meena et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Sakthivel et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia tomentosa (yellow bauhinia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)Present, PlantedBasu and Patro (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens biternataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018); Moody (1989); Raj Singh and Patel (1992); Dangwal et al. (2011); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBixa orellana (annatto)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBlyxa aubertii (roundfruit blyxa)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoehmeria pendulifloraPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentCABI (Undated); Gautam et al. (2012); Kadam et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Kirsur et al. (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBorreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed)Present, LocalizedVerdcourt (1976); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem)PresentNativeCook et al. (2005); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Aasia Rashid et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Present, WidespreadNativeChen ShouLiang and Phillips (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica juncea (mustard)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2019); Babu (2009); Anirban Roy et al. (2013); Manika Sharma et al. (2013); Pankaj Sharma et al. (2013); Sharma et al. (2013); Baiswar et al. (2016); Patil et al. (2017); Prasad et al. (2017); Rathi et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica nigra (black mustard)PresentGBIF (2013); Anirban Roy et al. (2013); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Singh et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica rapa (field mustard)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2018); Vyas et al. (2008); Anirban Roy et al. (2013); Kaomud Tyagi and Vikas Kumar (2014); Singh et al. (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica rapa subsp. oleifera (turnip rape)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica tournefortii (African mustard)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHammer et al. (2013); Biodiversity India (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBriza maxima (large quaking grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromelia pinguin (wild pineapple)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus diandrus (great brome)Present, LocalizedNativeBor (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus japonicus (Japanese brome)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus tectorum (downy brome)Present, LocalizedNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBroussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja asiatica (dog tail)PresentNativeLi and Leeuwenberg (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuglossoides arvensis (corn gromwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort)PresentIntroducedWashington State Department of Ecology (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia bonducPresentDebalina Mandal et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia decapetala (Mysore thorn)PresentNativeILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)Present, PlantedSelvaraj et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis gigantea (Yercum fibre)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis procera (apple of sodom)PresentNativeInvasiveSastry and Kavathekar (1990); Vyas et al. (2008); Kadam et al. (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCananga odorata (ylang-ylang)PresentNativeHanelt et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia catharticaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean)PresentIntroducedSauer (1964); Baiswar et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia gladiata (sword bean)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna flaccidaPresentKumari et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna indica (canna lilly)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008); Gopi et al. (2014); Kumari et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCannabis sativa (hemp)PresentRashtra Vardhana (2017); Dangwal et al. (2011); Pankaj Sharma et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum annuum (bell pepper)PresentFAO (2009); Jain et al. (2005); Khan et al. (2006); Basu and Patro (2007); Senanayake et al. (2007); Sudha and Lakshmanan (2007); Khan et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Byun et al. (2014); Girish et al. (2014); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Meenu Gupta and Gupta (2014); Sukhjeet Kaur et al. (2014); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Sharma et al. (2015); Singh et al. (2015); Saini et al. (2016); Patil et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Sunil Joshi (2017); Sakthivel et al. (2018); Raj Verma et al. (2019); Sakthivel et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentCABI (Undated); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarduus pycnocephalus (Italian thistle)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant)Present, CultivatedUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Govaerts (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)PresentNativeILDIS (2014); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Kaomud Tyagi and Vikas Kumar (2014); Moinuddin et al. (2017); Firdousi (2018); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia grandis (pink shower)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia javanica (pink shower)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2014); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina cunninghamiana (Australian beefwood)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)PresentIntroducedKondas (1983); Pinyopusarerk (1996); Binggeli (1997); World Agroforestry Centre (2002); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina glauca (scaly oak (Australia))PresentIntroducedWAC (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)PresentBasu and Patro (2007); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Pankaj Sharma et al. (2013); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Basavaraj et al. (2017); Daimei et al. (2017); Kaomud Tyagi et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus biflorus (Indian sandbur)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass)PresentNativeCook et al. (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentaurea iberica (Iberian starthistle)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentaurea scabiosaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Dangwal et al. (2011); Kiran and Rao (2013); Devi et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentratherum punctatum (lark daisy)PresentIntroducedFlann (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratocephala testiculata (bur buttercup)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratophyllum demersum (coontail)PresentUK, Kew Herbarium (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum diurnum (day jessamine)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationDeb (1979); Basu and Patro (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaecrista nictitans (sensitive partridge pea)PresentILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaesyce prostrataPresentDangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )PresentNativeGovaerts (2015); Rao et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium album (fat hen)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Dangwal et al. (2011); Ramanuj Patel et al. (2014); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot)Present, WidespreadBhattacharyya and Pandya (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris barbata (purpletop chloris)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris gayana (Rhodes grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris virgata (feather finger grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChromolaena odorata (Siam weed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveGautier (1992); Basu and Patro (2007); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Rao et al. (2015); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015); Jayanthi et al. (2016); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Agrawal (1990); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinchona pubescens (quinine tree)PresentCABI (Undated); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015); Debalina Mandal et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)PresentCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum verum (cinnamon)PresentNativeFAO (2008); Arun Gupta et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium arvense (creeping thistle)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Balyan et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCissus quadrangularis (treebine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); Sakthivel et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantiifolia (lime)PresentFAO (2013); Meena Thakur and Dinabandhoo (2005); Al-Sadi et al. (2012); Das et al. (2014); Das et al. (2016); Ghosh et al. (2017); Poornima et al. (2017); Rani et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantium (sour orange)PresentFAO (2013); Basu and Patro (2007); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015); Debalina Mandal et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClematis montanaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClematis orientalis (oriental virginsbower)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome gynandraPresentNayak and Satapathy (2015); Basu and Patro (2007); Mishra et al. (2011); Devi et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra-Sekar (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)PresentRasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Kiran and Rao (2013); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)PresentNativeFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)PresentWearn and Mabberley (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum lindleyi (clerodendrum)PresentNativeGovaerts (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)PresentNativePOWO (2020); Englberger (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWester and Wood (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Devi et al. (2015); ILDIS (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)PresentCABI (Undated); Devi et al. (2015); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Jiji et al. (2016); Patil et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)PresentIntroducedGovaerts et al. (2014); Jose et al. (2008); Manimekalai et al. (2010); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Lad et al. (2013); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Lizanne and Pai (2014); Prathapan and Shameem (2015); Selvaraj et al. (2016); Selvaraj et al. (2017); Chandrika Mohan et al. (2018); Chandrika Mohan et al. (2019); Selvaraj et al. (2020); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Present, WidespreadNativeJain and Banerjee (1974); CABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColeus blumei (common coleus)PresentJiang et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)PresentCABI (Undated); Ram et al. (2003); Basu and Patro (2007); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Nath et al. (2013); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColubrina asiatica (latherleaf)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCombretum indicum (Rangoon creeper)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina benghalensis (wandering jew)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1977); Dangwal et al. (2011); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Devi et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina coelestisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)PresentCiba Geigy (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina paludosaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConium maculatum (poison hemlock)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConsolida orientalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCopaifera officinalis (copaiba balsam)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordia obliqua (clammy cherry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordyline fruticosa (ti plant)PresentSmithsonian (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoreopsis tinctoriaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCortaderia selloana (pampas grass)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCorymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster acuminatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster adpressusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster hissaricusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster insignisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster nitidusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster roseusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotula anthemoidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotyledon orbiculataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); USDA-ARS (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrataegus monogyna (hawthorn)Present, PlantedCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrypsis schoenoides (swamp pricklegrass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrypsis vaginiflora (African pricklegrass)PresentNativeeMonocot (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptocoryne retrospiralisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia grandiflora (rubber vine)PresentCABI (Undated); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)PresentIntroducedMcFadyen and Harvey (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)PresentKrishnareddy et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCupaniopsis anacardioides (carrotwood)PresentNawa Bahar (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveNaithani and Bennet (1990); Randhawa et al. (2006); Kosaka et al. (2010); Deka and Sarma (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea hyssopifolia (false heather)Present, LocalizedIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress)Present, LocalizedIntroducedBiodiversity India (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta campestris (field dodder)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta europaea (European dodder)PresentNativeGrierson and Long (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta reflexa (dodder)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyathula prostrata (pasture weed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon nardus (citronella grass)Present, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Dangwal et al. (2011); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Debalina Mandal et al. (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Urvi Sharma et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus compressus (annual sedge)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Dangwal et al. (2011); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus cyperoidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)Present, WidespreadMoody (1989); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Govaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus iria (rice flatsedge)PresentCABI (Undated); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Gupta et al. (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus odoratusPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus papyrus (papyrus)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Basu and Patro (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015); Devi et al. (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Urvi Sharma et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveILDIS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactylis glomerata (cocksfoot)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Holm et al. (1979); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDalbergia melanoxylon (African blackwood)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDalbergia sissooPresent, Widespread, PlantedNativeILDIS (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Ojha et al. (2010); Sharma et al. (2012); Durai (2013); Kumar (2013); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Firdousi (2018); Sailesh Chattopadhyay (2019); Sailesh Chattopadhyay (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura ferox (fierce thornapple)PresentIntroducedKhuroo et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura innoxia (downy thorn apple)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Charanjeet Kaur et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura inoxia (Downy Thornapple)PresentNayak and Satapathy (2015); Verma et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura metel (Hindu datura)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Sivalingam and Anupam Varma (2007); Reddy (2008); Kadam et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura stramonium (jimsonweed)PresentHolm et al. (1997); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDaucus carota (carrot)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Arocha et al. (2009); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Saritha et al. (2017); Chandrashekar et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelairea odorata (Cape ivy)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)Present, PlantedMehrotra et al. (1988); ILDIS (2009); Reddy et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)PresentNativeOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Clayton et al. (2015); Yadav et al. (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDerris elliptica (tuba root)PresentUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDescurainia sophia (flixweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmodium uncinatum (Silver-leaf desmodium)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmostachya bipinnata (halfa grass)PresentNativeInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2003); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)PresentCABI (Undated); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium caricosum (nadi blue grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichrostachys cinerea (sickle bush)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitalis lanata (Grecian foxglove)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Yadav and Negi (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria abyssinica (East African couchgrass)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass)PresentIntroducedCTAHR (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria longiflora (false couch grass)Present, WidespreadNativeSingh and Deshpande (1978); Holm et al. (1979); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass)PresentIntroducedMoorthy and Das (1992); Saikia and Sarma (1993); Nedunzhiyan et al. (1996); Saikia and Sarma (1996); Kiran and Rao (2013); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Urvi Sharma et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria setigera (East Indian crabgrass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria violascens (violet crabgrass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDimorphotheca sinuata (Cape marigold)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDinebra retroflexaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Kiran and Rao (2013); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDiodia teres (poorjoe)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)PresentCABI (Undated); Jeeva et al. (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea bulbifera (air potato)PresentNativeGovaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDombeya wallichii (pink ball)PresentIntroducedE-Flora of India (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDopatrium junceumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDracaena fragrans (corn plant)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPROTA (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDuranta erecta (golden dewdrop)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2013); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Jaidi et al. (2015); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016); Selvaraj et al. (2016); Selvaraj et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)PresentCABI (Undated); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)PresentTadulingam and Venkatanarayana (1955); Kapoor and Ramakrishnan (1975); Arora et al. (1976); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)Present, WidespreadMoody (1989); Holm et al. (1991); Shukla (1996); Kiran and Rao (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa pyramidalisPresent, LocalizedIntroducedBor (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEclipta prostrata (eclipta)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Holm et al. (1979); Sivalingam and Anupam Varma (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011); Kadam et al. (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Kirsur et al. (2014); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEhrharta calycina (perennial veldtgrass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)PresentIntroducedInvasiveGopal (1987); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Singh et al. (2016); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016); Parmeshwar Gore et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive)Present, LocalizedNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeis guineensis (African oil palm)Present, PlantedCABI (2005); Nur Artikah et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleocharis dulcis (Chinese water chestnut)Present, LocalizedKern (1974)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)Present, WidespreadUSDA-ARS (2014); Dangwal et al. (2011); Duary and Mukherjee (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Q-bank (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElsholtzia ciliataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElymus repens (quackgrass)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmex australis (Doublegee)PresentIntroducedSteinheil (1838); Kumar and Kumari (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmex spinosa (spiny emex)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)PresentIntroducedNayar et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveKhuroo et al. (2012); IRRI (1989); Holm et al. (1997); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEntada gigas (sea-bean)PresentQuattrocchi (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)PresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis atrovirens (thalia lovegrass)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)PresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis curvula (weeping lovegrass)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis nigraPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis papposaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)PresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis unioloides (Chinese lovegrass)PresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites glomerata (fireweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)PresentIntroducedSharma and Pandey (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEriobotrya japonica (loquat)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErodium cicutarium (common storksbill)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErysimum repandumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptusPresentSunita Chandel and Vijay Kumar (2016); Kaomud Tyagi and Vikas Kumar (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)Present, PlantedIntroducedHussain (2002); Rejmanek and Richardson (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus paniculata (grey ironbark)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus sideroxylon (black ironbark)PresentIntroducedGogate and Dhaundiyal (1988)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)PresentIntroducedMorton (1987); GBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEupatorium cannabinumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEupatorium trapezoideum (crofton weed)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia falcataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)Present, LocalizedKalia and Singh (1993); Dangwal et al. (2011); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Nayak and Babu (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Dangwal et al. (2011); Kadam et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kirsur et al. (2014); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Patil et al. (2017); Nayak and Babu (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia lactea (mottled spurge)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia milii (crown-of-thorns)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia neriifolia (Indian spurge tree)PresentNativeGovaerts (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia trigona (African milk weed)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia umbellata (African milk bush)PresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy (2008); Govaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia virgataPresentKiran and Rao (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFagopyrum tataricumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Mondal et al. (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFalcataria moluccana (batai wood)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia sachalinensis (giant knotweed)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFestuca arundinacea (tall fescue)PresentNativeeMonocot (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benghalensis (banyan)Present, PlantedRasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Kumar (2013); USDA-ARS (2014); Hemant Pathak et al. (2015); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Firdousi (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benjamina (weeping fig)PresentNativeQuattrocchi (2012); Gond et al. (2013); Devkant Singha et al. (2014); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); Flora of Pakistan (2014); Narendra Kumar and Khurana (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus carica (common fig)PresentFAO (2009); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Kumar (2013); Kolla Sreedevi et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus elastica (rubber plant)PresentRasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Pelser et al. (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); Selvaraj et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)PresentNativeWiersema and León (1999); Quattrocchi (2012); Flora of Pakistan (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); Rao et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus pumila (creeping fig)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus religiosa (sacred fig tree)Present, PlantedNativeRojo et al. (1999); Starr et al. (2003); Anju Singh and Monica Basu (2009); Orwa et al. (2009); Kumar (2013); Flora of Pakistan (2014); Firdousi (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis dichotoma (tall fringe rush)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlacourtia indica (governor's plum)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia lineata (wild hops)PresentNativeILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia macrophylla (large leaf flemingia)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia strobilifera (wild hops)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFoeniculum vulgare (fennel)PresentHanelt et al. (2001); Bhat et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFragaria vesca (wild strawberry)PresentNativeDarrow (1966); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFraxinus americana (white ash)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFraxinus uhdei (tropical ash)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFuntumia elastica (West African rubber tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedJyotsna J and Kumar B (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFurcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)Present, WidespreadNeogi and Rao (1980); Nankar et al. (1981); Baiswar et al. (2010); Dangwal et al. (2011); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalphimia gracilis (goldshower)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGamochaeta pensylvanicaPresentNayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium himalayensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium nepalensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium pratensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium robertianum (herb-robert)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium rotundifoliumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGlaucium flavumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (gliricidia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2002); WAC (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGmelina arborea (candahar)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGnaphalium luteoalbum (Jersey cudweed)PresentDangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2015); Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena serrata (arrasa con todo)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGossypium barbadense (Gallini cotton)PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017); Reddy et al. (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGrevillea robusta (silky oak)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); Reddy and Sreedharan (2006); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Reddy et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHalophila stipulacea (halophila seagrass)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily)PresentNativeWCSP (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium flavescens (wild ginger)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelianthus annuus (sunflower)PresentFAO (2009); Bhat et al. (2002); Rathod et al. (2008); Rathod et al. (2008); Srinivasan and Visalakchi (2010); Suresh et al. (2010); Swamy et al. (2010); Bhat et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Jagadish et al. (2013); Arun Gupta et al. (2014); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Rajender et al. (2016); Patil et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelianthus debilis (beach sunflower)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelianthus petiolarisPresentTiwari et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Babu (2017); Patil et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium supinumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemerocallis citrinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemerocallis fulva (tawny daylily)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemigraphis alternata (red ivy)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeteropogon contortus (spear grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)PresentIntroducedKalbag (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHevea brasiliensis (rubber)PresentFAO (2009); Manju et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Basu and Patro (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Aasia Rashid et al. (2014); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Srivastava et al. (2016); Kumawat et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus tiliaceus (coast cottonwood)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus trionum (Venice mallow)PresentRao and Ramayya (1981); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHiptage benghalensis (hiptage)PresentNativePIER (2007); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHolcus lanatus (common velvet grass)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2013); Missouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)Present, LocalizedNativePieterse (1981); Cook and Luond (1982); Buckingham and Bennett (1998); Govaerts (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHygrophila difformisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHygrophila polysperma (Indian swampweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyoscyamus albusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyoscyamus niger (black henbane)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHypericum perforatum (St John's wort)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHypochaeris radicata (cat's ear)PresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis suaveolens (pignut)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balfouriiPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balsamina (garden balsam)PresentNative and IntroducedReddy (2008); Nishat Asif (2012); Sekar (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Patil et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); India Biodiversity Portal (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)Present, LocalizedNativeBeerling and Perrins (1993); USA, USDA-ARS (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImperata cylindrica (cogon grass)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera spicata (creeping indigo)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera tinctoria (true indigo)PresentNativeOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera trita (Asian indigo)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera trita subsp. scabra (Asian Indigo)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaInula britannica (british yellowhead)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)Present, WidespreadNativeSubramanyam (1962); Middleton and Mason (1992); Raju and Reddy (1993); Rai and Sarita Sinha (2001); PIER (2003); Prasad et al. (2006); Barua et al. (2007); Jain et al. (2007); Kiran et al. (2007); Sahu et al. (2007); Kumar et al. (2008); Garg et al. (2009); Sandipan Das et al. (2009); Dhanasekaran Sivaraman and Palayan Muralidaran (2010); Dhanasekaran Sivaraman and Palayan Muralidaran (2010); Manvar (2011); Vishwakarma and Veenapani Dubey (2011); Bhaduri and Fulekar (2012); Datta et al. (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Chanu and Abhik Gupta (2014); Sahu and Gupta (2014); Chander et al. (2015); Dua et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)PresentSwapna Vijayan and Joy (2016); POWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea carneaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Mangle and Patil (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )PresentIntroducedStaples (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)PresentIntroducedStaples (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea obscuraPresentNayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)PresentIntroducedInvasiveNayak and Satapathy (2015); Staples (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory)PresentGunn and Ritchie (1982); Deva and Naithani (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIris xiphiumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIsatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Present, LocalizedNativeGilliland et al. (1971); Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Kiran and Rao (2013); Clayton et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIxora finlaysoniana (white jungle flame)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda)Present, PlantedIntroducedGBIF (2014); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)PresentNativeGreen (2003); Mahadevakumar and Janardhana (2015); Mahadevakumar and Janardhana (2016); Usharani et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum officinalePresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Kadam et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016); Basu and Patro (2007); Goud et al. (2013); Sujitha et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)Present, Widespread, PlantedIntroducedCaius (1986); Raj et al. (2008); Latha et al. (2009); Latha et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Baiswar et al. (2013); Narmadhavathy et al. (2013); Ritesh Kumar et al. (2014); Sweta Srivastava et al. (2014); Seebens et al. (2017); Arghya Banerjee et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)Present, WidespreadIntroducedChopra et al. (1956); Chadhokar (1978); Chatterjee et al. (1980); Prasad et al. (1993); Parsons and Cuthbertson (2001); Sakthivel et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentNativeWu et al. (2000); Kirschner (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus tenuis (slender rush)PresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe blossfeldiana (flaming katy)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe integra (Never die)PresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)PresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKochia indicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKoeleria macranthaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga)PresentNativeKumar (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKyllinga polyphylla (navua sedge)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLablab purpureus (hyacinth bean)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Baiswar et al. (2010); Udayashankar et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Reddy et al. (2013); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Kuiry et al. (2014); Mahadevakumar et al. (2014); Naik et al. (2015); Srivastava and Singh (2016); Das et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLactuca tataricaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018); Raj Verma et al. (2004); Mantri et al. (2005); Basu and Patro (2007); Prabhakar et al. (2012); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Chakraborty et al. (2016); Nayak and Babu (2017); Patil et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Tripathi et al. (2017); Choudhary et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)PresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); Dutta and Krishnendu Acharya (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBurkill (1935); Basu and Patro (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Babu (2009); Dangwal et al. (2011); Reddy et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Rao et al. (2015); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016); Seebens et al. (2017); Sunil Joshi (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus aphacaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus pratensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus sphaericusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLaunaea intybacea (bitter lettuce)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); Sakthivel et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeersia hexandra (southern cut grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentGopal (1990)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonotis nepetifolia (Christmas candlestick)PresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy et al. (2008); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium densiflorumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium didymum (lesser swine-cress)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed)PresentNativeGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium pinnatifidumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa chinensis (Chinese sprangletop)Present, LocalizedOhwi (1984); Kiran and Rao (2013); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop )PresentCABI (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena diversifoliaPresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedInvasiveGhate (1991); Binggeli (1997); ILDIS (2007); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigustrum robustum subsp. walkeri (Sri Lankan privet)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnocharis flava (yellow bur-head)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnophila chinensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLinaria dalmatica (dalmatian toadflax)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)PresentMoody (1989); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLithospermum officinalePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLitsea glutinosa (Indian laurel)PresentRao et al. (2015); Roy et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium rigidum (rigid ryegrass)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium temulentum (darnel)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Chowdhry and Wadhwa (1984); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); Moody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia octovalvis (primrose willow)Present, LocalizedRaven (1963); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia peruviana (primrose willow)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Srikumar et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa acutangula (angled luffa)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Basu and Patro (2007); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Encyclopedia of Life (2016); Alexander Balamurugan et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa aegyptiaca (loofah)PresentZipcode Zoo (2007); Raj Verma et al. (2006); Patil et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Nayak and Bandamaravuri (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLupinus angustifolius (narrow-leaf lupin)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaesopsis eminii (umbrella tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalva neglecta (common mallow)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)PresentYadav et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)PresentCABI (Undated); Meena Thakur and Dinabandhoo (2005); Sushil Kumar et al. (2005); Verma and Dinabandhoo (2005); Basu and Patro (2007); Krishnamoorthy and Visalakshi (2012); Prabhakar et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Kumar (2013); Lad et al. (2013); Badal Bhattacharyya et al. (2014); Ghirtlahre et al. (2014); Jayanthi et al. (2014); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Lizanne and Pai (2014); Nagalakshmi et al. (2014); Sangeetha Chinnusamy et al. (2014); Zala and Bharpoda (2014); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Mazumder et al. (2015); Rakhashiya et al. (2015); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015); Debalina Mandal et al. (2016); Jiji et al. (2016); Vijya Rabari et al. (2016); Hiremath et al. (2017); Jha et al. (2017); Kumud Jarial et al. (2017); Poornima et al. (2017); Selvaraj et al. (2017); Varshnay and Yeshwanth (2018); Kolla Sreedevi et al. (2019); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021); Shukla et al. (2021)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaManilkara zapota (sapodilla)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); Basu and Patro (2007); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Lad et al. (2013); Ghirtlahre et al. (2014); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Ravulapenta Sathish et al. (2014); Selvaraj et al. (2017); Selvaraj et al. (2020); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaranta arundinacea (arrowroot)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMarrubium vulgare (horehound)PresenteFloras (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMartynia annua (tiger's claw)PresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy (2008); Basu and Patro (2007); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago laciniataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago lupulina (black medick)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago monanthaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago polymorpha (bur clover)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelastoma malabathricum (Banks melastoma)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Basu and Patro (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)PresentNativeTroup and Joshi (1981); World Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelilotus albus (honey clover)PresentDangwal et al. (2011); USDA-ARS (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis minutiflora (molasses grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedShukla (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)PresentGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMentha aquatica (watermint)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMentha pulegium (pennyroyal)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose)PresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia cissoides (roadside woodrose)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia peltataPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia tuberosa (woodrose)PresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia umbellata (hogvine)PresentNativeStaples (2010); Ooststroom and Hoogland (1953); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)PresentIntroducedPietschmann et al. (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMicrolaena stipoides (meadow rice grass, meadow ricegrass)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Clayton et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMicrostegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); ISSG (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveChoudhury (1972); Muniappan and Viraktamath (1993); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania scandensAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Singh et al. (1990)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant)Present, LocalizedIntroducedHolm et al. (1977); Thomas and Shantaram (1984); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant)Present, LocalizedIntroducedLonsdale et al. (1989); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al. (1977); Moody (1989); Gaur et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016); ISSG (2017); Borah et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Kumar et al. (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); PROTA (2016); Jaidi et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica balsamina (common balsam apple)PresentNativeInvasiveSingh (2017); Jeffrey (1978); Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica charantia (bitter gourd)PresentNativeScholz (1988); Holm et al. (1997); Rajinimala and Rabindran (2007); Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Prabhakar et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Sharma et al. (2015); Patil et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Suveditha et al. (2017); Nagendran et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)PresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria vaginalis (pickerel weed)Present, WidespreadKaul (1986); Shukla et al. (2010); Chandra et al. (2011); Sukumaran and Jeeva (2011); Manikandan and Lakshminarasimhan (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Deori (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Purshotam Singh et al. (2015); Saini and Kumar (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass)PresentNativeKumar (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)PresentNativeGovaerts (2017); Manjunath Hubballi et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Sarwade et al. (2015); Selvaraj et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Present, PlantedNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2017); Halder and Rai (2014); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Jiji et al. (2016); Thumar et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorus alba (mora)Present, PlantedCABI Data Mining (undated); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Mallikarjuna et al. (2010); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Kirsur et al. (2014); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorus nigra (black mulberry)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014); Lim (2012); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMosla dianthera (miniature beefsteakplant)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMucuna pruriens (velvet bean)PresentNativeBaiswar et al. (2013); ILDIS (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMuntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurdannia nudiflora (doveweed)PresentCABI (Undated); Duary and Mukherjee (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurraya paniculata (orange jessamine)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2020); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)PresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyosoton aquaticumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum spicatum (spiked watermilfoil)PresentMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNandina domestica (Nandina)PresenteFloras (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)PresentNativeRabinarayan Acharya et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNerium oleander (oleander)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Vyas et al. (2008); Kadam et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Jiji et al. (2016); Selvaraj et al. (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeyraudia reynaudiana (burma reed)PresentNativeHooker (1897)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicandra physalodes (apple of Peru)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSudhakar Reddy et al. (2008); Kiran and Rao (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana tabacum (tobacco)Present, WidespreadIntroducedCandolle (1885); Basu and Patro (2007); Karegowda et al. (2009); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Jin Yi et al. (2014); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017); Lingaraj Dip et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)PresentIntroducedFlowers of India (2017); Donkin (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea tetragonaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphoides peltata (yellow floating-heart)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNypa fruticans (nipa palm)Present, PlantedNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum gratissimum (African basil)PresentNativeWCSP (2018); Kumar et al. (2016); Sinha and Samad (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)PresentNativeGovaerts (2014); Basu and Patro (2007); Vyas et al. (2008); Malini Nilamudeen and Nandakumar (2012); Malini Nilamudeen et al. (2013); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015); Srivastava and Singh (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOdontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOdontonema nitidum (shrubby toothedthread)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)RAMAKRISHNAN and SUBRAMANIAN (1961)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)PresentNativeGovaerts (2018); Khuroo et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOlea europaea subsp. cuspidata (wild olive)Present, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Bon et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOnopordum acanthium (scotch thistle)Present, Few occurrencesParsons and Cuthbertson (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOplismenus hirtellus subsp. undulatifolius (wavyleaf basketgrass)PresentNativeInvasiveScholz (1981)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia dillenii (prickly pear)PresentRasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia elatior (red-flower prickly pear)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia monacantha (common prickly pear)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)PresentIntroducedInvasiveKhuroo et al. (2012); Middleton (1999); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche aegyptiaca (Egyptian broomrape)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Sharma et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche cernua (nodding broomrape)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche crenata (crenate broomrape)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche ramosa (branched broomrape)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza punctata (wild rice)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza rufipogon (wild rice)PresentCABI (Undated); Doi et al. (2000); Zhu et al. (2007); Reddy (2012); Jana and Mallick (2013); Balwant Singh et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentIntroducedInvasiveDangwal et al. (2010); Dangwal et al. (2011); Kiran and Rao (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis debilis (pink woodsorrel)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis latifolia (sorrel)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaederia foetida (skunkvine)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPanicum repens (torpedo grass)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1977); Kiran and Rao (2013); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParietaria judaicaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParkinsonia aculeata (Mexican palo-verde)Present, WidespreadIntroducedILDIS (2003); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Kumar and Singh (2000); Sivalingam and Anupam Varma (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011); Kiran Kumari et al. (2011); Saravanane et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kiran and Rao (2013); Kaomud Tyagi and Vikas Kumar (2014); Kirsur et al. (2014); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014); Kaur and Aggarwal (2015); Kaur and Aggarwal (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Vemana et al. (2015); Manpreet Kaur and Aggarwal (2016); Patil et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalidium geminatum (Egyptian paspalidium)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Kiran and Rao (2013); Clayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum distichum (knotgrass)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum notatum (Bahia grass)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass paspalum)Present, LocalizedNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Sarma (2005); Nagaraja et al. (2010); Sanjay Jain et al. (2010); Chandra et al. (2011); Mukherjee et al. (2011); Ahmad et al. (2013); Deepika Bhatt et al. (2014); Mallick et al. (2015); Radhey Shyam and Singh (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)PresentIntroducedHanelt et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)Present, LocalizedNativeBor (1960); IRRI (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2014); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora edulis (passionfruit)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)Present, WidespreadNativePadhye and Deshpande (1960); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora quadrangularis (giant granadilla)PresentIntroducedMorton (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)PresentGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaulownia tomentosa (paulownia)PresentIntroducedVerma et al. (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPeltophorum pterocarpum (copperpod)Present, PlantedRasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Varshnay and Yeshwanth (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedBor (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum flaccidumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum pedicellatum (deenanath grass)Present, LocalizedNativeInvasiveHeper (1972); Poilecot (1995); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum polystachion (mission grass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveReed (1977); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PresentBasu and Patro (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria maculosa (redshank)PresentSefaur Rahaman and Mukherjee (2010); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria perfoliata (mile-a-minute weed)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria punctata (dotted smartweed)PresentGBIF (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPetiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)PresentIntroducedAlegre and Clavo (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Sherpa et al. (2003); Pant et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris minor (littleseed canarygrass)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris paradoxa (awned canary-grass)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Botanical Survey of India (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhleum pratense (timothy grass)PresentNativeKew (2015); Bor (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhormium tenax (New Zealand flax)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHanelt et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhragmites australis (common reed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); USDA-ARS (2003); Flowers of India (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllostachys reticulata (giant timber bamboo)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)PresentRydberg (1896); Reddy et al. (1999); Raju et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)Present, WidespreadIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012); Charanjeet Kaur et al. (2014); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta dioica (allspice)PresentIntroducedParthasarathy et al. (2008); FAO (2009); Arun Gupta et al. (2014); Selvaraj et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PresentIntroducedFAO (2001); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus halepensis (Aleppo pine)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus oocarpa (ocote pine)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus patula (Mexican weeping pine)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus radiata (radiata pine)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Kiran and Rao (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)PresentIntroducedTroup and Joshi (1983); Parrotta (1991); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood)PresentIntroducedCooper (1956)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain)PresentGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Sen and Kasera (1988); Sharma et al. (1994); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)PresentLukhoba et al. (2006); Govaerts (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)PresentCANBR (2014); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); Govaerts (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea indica (Indian camphorweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa bulbosa (bulbous bluegrass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa compressa (Canada bluegrass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa nemoralis (wood bluegrass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa pratensis (smooth meadow-grass)PresentNativeISSG (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa supinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolycarpon tetraphyllum (fourleaf allseed)PresentIntroducedBiodiversity India (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum barbatum (knot grass)PresentMoody (1989); Holm et al. (1991); Basu and Patro (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum hydropiper (marsh pepper)PresentHafliger and Wolf (1988); Holm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum nepalense (Nepal persicaria)Present, WidespreadTadulingam et al. (1955); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum plebeium (small knotweed)PresentDangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolypogon fugaxPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPopulus alba (silver-leaf poplar)Present, LocalizedIntroducedRamesh and Khurana (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPopulus nigra (black poplar)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Holm et al. (1991); Dangwal et al. (2011); Kiran and Rao (2013); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca quadrifida (chickenweed)PresentNativeGBIF (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed)PresentNativeGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla reptans (sulfur cinquefoil)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla supinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis glandulosa (honey mesquite)PresentCABI (Undated); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis juliflora (mesquite)Present, WidespreadIntroducedSakthivel et al. (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis pallida (mesquite)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis velutina (velvet mesquite)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPrunella vulgaris (self-heal)PresentNativeWCSP (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudelephantopus spicatus (false elephant’s foot)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlowers of India (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedMorton (1987); Diong (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); Meena Thakur and Dinabandhoo (2005); Verma and Dinabandhoo (2005); Basu and Patro (2007); Khan et al. (2007); Renu Srivastava and Lal (2009); Awasthi and Tomar (2012); Prabhakar et al. (2012); Sakthivel et al. (2012); FAO (2013); Kumar (2013); Ghirtlahre et al. (2014); Debabrata Sen (2015); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Sunil Joshi and Sangma (2015); Jayanthi et al. (2016); Poornima et al. (2016); Kumawat et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017); Selvaraj et al. (2017); Kolla Sreedevi et al. (2019); Mala et al. (2019); Selvaraj et al. (2020); Yugendra et al. (2020); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPterocarpus indicus (red sandalwood)PresentNativeBarstow (2018); ILDIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPterocarpus macrocarpus (Burma padauk)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPtychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPtychosperma macarthurii (Macarthur palm)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaQuamoclit hederifoliaPresentNayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRanunculus muricatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRaphanus sativus (radish)PresentRashtra Vardhana (2017); Guru et al. (2015); Singh et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaReutealis trisperma (Philippine tung)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhaponticum repens (Russian knapweed)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMaddox et al. (1985); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhodomyrtus tomentosa (Downy rose-myrtle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)PresentCABI (Undated); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Suganthy (2007); Vyas et al. (2008); Kadam et al. (2012); Kaomud Tyagi and Vikas Kumar (2014); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRivina humilis (bloodberry)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGBIF (2013); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRobinia pseudoacacia (black locust)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationNativeHanelt et al. (2001); Flora of Pakistan (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRostraria cristataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Present, LocalizedNativeChristopher et al. (1989); Millhollon and Burner (1993); Valverde et al. (1999); USA, USDA-ARS (2008); Kullaiyan Sathiyadash et al. (2010); Irwin et al. (2015); Pradhan et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRoystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)PresentIntroducedIPK (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus racemosus (black raspberry)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRudbeckia hirtaPresentBaiswar et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex crispus (curled dock)PresentPangtey et al. (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)PresentIntroducedKlimes and Kapahi (1990)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex vesicariusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRusselia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSaccharum ravennae (ravenna grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSaccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane)PresentHolm et al. (1997); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSagittaria sagittifoliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Verma and Pandey (2008); Pranitha et al. (2009); Adhishwar and Choudhary (2013); Wani et al. (2015); Bandyopadhyay and Mukherjee (2016); Deshmukh et al. (2016); Patel and Patel (2016); Prasad and Das (2018); Singh (2018); Tuboi and Hussain (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalix cinerea (grey sallow)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalsola kali (common saltwort)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalsola paulsenii (barbwire Russian thistle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia coccinea (scarlet sage)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia sclareaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)PresentIntroducedTroup and Joshi (1983); ILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSambucus nigra (elder)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)PresentIntroducedFlora of India (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaScaevola taccada (beach naupaka)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)PresentIntroducedFlowers of India (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSechium edule (chayote)PresentIntroducedBaiswar et al. (2010);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenecio vulgarisPresent, WidespreadKomarov et al. (1961); Kakrani and Kalyani (1984)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna alata (candle bush)PresentIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna hirsuta (hairy senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2005); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna italica (Senegal senna)PresentNativeILDIS (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna multijuga (November shower)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna obtusifolia (sicklepod)PresentCABI (Undated); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); IRRI (1989); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); USDA-ARS (2016); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedKumar and Sane (2003); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna siamea (yellow cassia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna spectabilis (whitebark senna)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna surattensis (golden senna)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania cannabina (corkwood tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania grandiflora (sesbania)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2014); Sireesha et al. (2009); Sakthivel et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sericea (silky sesban)PresentNativeIpor and Oyen (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sesban (sesban)Present, WidespreadNativeKhare (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria palmifolia (palm grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria verticillata (bristly foxtail)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria viridis (green foxtail)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSicyos angulatus (burcucumber)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveChaudhary (1976); Basu and Patro (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida repens (Javanese fanpetals)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene gallica (common catchfly)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene vulgaris (bladder campion)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilybum marianum (variegated thistle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSisymbrium irioPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum americanumPresentJamuna et al. (2018); Sivalingam and Anupam Varma (2007); Sudha and Lakshmanan (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Debalina Mandal et al. (2015); Devi et al. (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Poonam Chaudhary et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum capsicastrumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Srivastava et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum carolinense (horsenettle)PresentZutshi and Kaul (1974); Chinnusamy et al. (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Boyd et al. (1984); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum erianthum (potato tree)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)PresentIntroducedMadhavadian (1968); Deb (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mauritianum (tobacco tree)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveRoe (1972)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)PresentIntroducedSom Deva (1976)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020); CABI Data Mining (2011); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum torvum (turkey berry)PresentCABI (Undated); Mahmood et al. (1985); Sajeev and Sasidharan (1997); Utpal Bora et al. (2007); Abhilash et al. (2008); Govindaraju et al. (2010); Gandhi et al. (2011); Muhammad Arif and Sheeba Fareed (2011); Rammohan and Reddy (2011); Sivapriya et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Songachan and Kayang (2012); Deb et al. (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum tuberosum (potato)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014); Basu and Patro (2007); Naim Uddin (2007); Arora (2009); Dutta et al. (2009); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Peerzada et al. (2013); Shakti Khajuria et al. (2013); Tiwari et al. (2013); Kuiry et al. (2014); Sridhar et al. (2014); Sharma et al. (2016); Ranbir Singh et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Mohammad Munib (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum viarum (tropical soda apple)PresentGISIN (2008); Singh et al. (2012); USDA-ARS (2012); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod)PresentCABI (Undated); Dangwal et al. (2011); Thite and Kore (2014); Chavan and Sushilkumar (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Dangwal et al. (2011); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Stewart (1972); Grieson (1980); Dangwal et al. (2011); Rashtra Vardhana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus wightianus (perennial sowthistle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSorghum halepense (Johnson grass)Present, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1991); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpartium junceum (Spanish broom)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathoglottis plicata (Philippine ground orchid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpergula arvensis (corn spurry)PresentJaiswal (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood)PresentIntroducedFlowers of India (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphagneticola trilobata (wedelia)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphenoclea zeylanica (wedgewort)PresentMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpondias purpurea (red mombin)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus africanus (rat’s tail grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus indicus (rat tail grass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Munirathnam and Kumar (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)PresentIntroducedNaturalis (2016); Quattrocchi (2006); JSTOR Global Plants (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015); Swapna Vijayan and Joy (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Pramesh et al. (2020); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail)PresentIntroducedDevi and Singh (2005); Moldenke (1980); Rajendran and Daniel (1992); Reddy (2008); Reddy et al. (2008); Sekar (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStellaria media (common chickweed)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Biodiversity India (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSterculia foetida (Java olive)Present, PlantedRasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)PresentNativePROTA (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStipa capensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStipa capillataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStriga asiatica (witch weed)PresentEPPO (2022); Navi et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStriga densiflora (witchweed)Present, WidespreadCooke (1905); Parker and Riches (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStriga gesnerioides (cowpea witchweed)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStriga hermonthica (witchweed)PresentNavi et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStylosanthes hamata (Caribbean Stylo)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSuaeda maritimaPresentPoorani et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSynedrella nodiflora (synedrella)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium cumini (black plum)Present, WidespreadNativeMorton (1987); Basu and Patro (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rashmi Dubey (2014); Chandrashekar Krishnappa et al. (2021)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium jambos (rose apple)Present, PlantedIntroducedMorton (1987); Selvaraj et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTabebuia rosea (pink poui)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Flowers of India (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTabernaemontana divaricataPresentSivalingam and Anupam Varma (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedKhuroo et al. (2012); Sivalingam and Anupam Varma (2007); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Saroj et al. (2013); Aasia Rashid et al. (2014); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTagetes minuta (stinking Roger)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarindus indica (tamarind)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); Pratap Singh and Mukhtar Ahmed (1989); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Vanitha and Padidasan (2008); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Singh (2014); Moinuddin et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarix aphylla (athel)Present, WidespreadNativeGamble (1921); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)PresentHolm et al. (1997); Avdhesh Kumar and Alexander Lall (1998)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Orwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma stans (yellow bells)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSeeman (1863); Sakthivel et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTectona grandis (teak)Present, PlantedCABI Data Mining (undated); Engle et al. (2006); Javaregowda and Naik (2007); Suresh et al. (2010); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Kondaiah and Sreeramulu (2014); Lizanne and Pai (2014); Sushil Kumar et al. (2014); Hemant Pathak et al. (2015); Sailesh Chattopadhyay (2015); Firdousi (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTephrosia candida (white tephrosia)Present, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); ILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Selvaraj et al. (2017); Selvaraj et al. (2020); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThalictrum minusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThemeda arguens (Christmas grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThemeda quadrivalvis (grader grass)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThespesia populnea (portia tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Selvaraj et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThlaspi arvense (field pennycress)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020); Basu and Patro (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia fragrans (whitelady)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThymophylla tenuiloba (Dahlberg daisy)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlowers of India (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)Present, WidespreadIntroducedBlake (1921); Baiswar et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona ciliata (toon)PresentRasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Hua and Edmonds (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona sinensis (Chinese Toona)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrachomitum venetumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTragus racemosus (stalker bur grass)PresentNativeKnowlton et al. (1913)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrapa natans (waterchestnut)PresentNativeInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTribulus cistoides (false puncture vine)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTribulus terrestris (puncture vine)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Kirsur et al. (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Basu and Patro (2007); Dangwal et al. (2011); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Kirsur et al. (2014); Devi et al. (2015); Lokeshwari et al. (2015); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrigonella balansaePresentDangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)PresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy (2008); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTropaeolum majus (common nasturtium)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTulipa clusianaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurgenia latifoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)PresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentMoody (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha domingensis (southern cattail)Present, WidespreadNativeChakraborty (1996); Nayak and Satapathy (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha latifolia (broadleaf cattail)PresentKiran and Rao (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUlex europaeus (gorse)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Holm et al. (1979); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena sinuata (bur mallow)PresentNativeMaiti (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa distachya (signal grass)PresentNativeJSTOR (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa panicoides (liverseed grass)Present, LocalizedNativeUSDA-ARS (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrtica dioica (stinging nettle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Dangwal et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUtricularia gibbaPresentNativeZhenyu and Cheek (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVallisneria spiralis (eelweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbascum thapsus (common mullein)PresentNativeISSG (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbena rigida (stiff verbena)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica anagallis-aquatica (blue water speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica beccabunga (European speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica biloba (twolobe speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica serpyllifolia (thymeleaf speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia villosa (hairy vetch)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex agnus-castus (chaste tree)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex parviflora (molave)PresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex rotundifolia (beach vitex)PresentNativeMunir (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex trifoliaPresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia myuros (annual fescue)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaWaltheria indicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaWisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaWolffia arrhizaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthium spinosum (bathurst burr)PresentIntroducedBaburaj et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Duary and Mukherjee (2013); Nayak and Satapathy (2015); Patil et al. (2017); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); Thite et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYoungia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)PresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy (2008); CABI Data Mining (2011); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZaleya pentandra (African purslane)PresentRasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber officinale (ginger)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2016); Pawar et al. (2008); Sagar et al. (2008); Singh and Gupta (2011); Najitha Ummer et al. (2015); Rashtra Vardhana (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZiziphus mauritiana (jujube)Present, Widespread, PlantedNativeCABI (2005); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Rasthra Vardhana (2007); Sakthivel et al. (2012); Kumar (2013); Mazumder et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZiziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube)Present, PlantedOrwa et al. (2009); USDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZoysia matrella (Manila grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaAlexandrium minutumPresent, Few occurrencesGodhe et al. (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia bigeminaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia motasiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia ostreaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaGymnodinium catenatumPresent, LocalizedGodhe et al. (1996)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus olseniPresentOIE (2018)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPlasmodium relictumPresentNativeBeadell et al. (2006); Ishtiaq et al. (2007); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTheileria annulataPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTheileria hirciPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaToxoplasma gondiiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiAbsentOIE (2019); Hoare (1972); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusAfrican cassava mosaic virus (African cassava mosaic)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2020)
Virusalcelaphine herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusArterivirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusAvipoxvirusPresentMathur et al. (1972); Pandey and Mallick (1974)
VirusBanana bunchy top virus (bunchy top of banana)Present, LocalizedInvasiveCABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
VirusBanana streak diseasePresentNativeInvasiveDiekmann and Putter (1996)
VirusBarley yellow dwarf viruses (barley yellow dwarf)Present, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1969); Tandon et al. (1990); EPPO (2014)
Virusbluetongue virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusbovine leukemia virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Viruscamelpox virusPresentChauhan and Kaushik (1987)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusCassava mosaic disease (African cassava mosaic)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveMathew and Muniyappa (1992); CABI and EPPO (1998)
Virusclassical swine fever virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusCotton leaf curl disease complex (leaf curl disease of cotton)PresentButtar and Sekhon (2017); Varma et al. (1993); Hussain et al. (2003); Reddy et al. (2005); Arora and Paramjit Singh (2020)
VirusCowpea aphid-borne mosaic virusPresentMali and Kulthe (1980); Mali et al. (1988); Mali et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated)
VirusCowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)PresentEPPO (2022); Nain et al. (1994); Naidu et al. (1998); Yadav et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2019)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusPresentPatel et al. (2011); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018)
VirusCucumber green mottle mosaic virusPresentNariani et al. (1977); Verma and Verma (1979); Rashmi et al. (2005); Sharma et al. (2014); CABI and EPPO (2015); Nagendran et al. (2015); Nagendran et al. (2017)
VirusCucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows)PresentInvasiveSuveditha et al. (2017);
Virusduck hepatitis A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusepizootic haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
Virusequid herpesvirus 1Present, LocalizedOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusequine arteritis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusequine influenzavirusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusextra small virusPresentHameed et al. (2004)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusGoatpox virusPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
VirusHaliotid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
VirusIndian cassava mosaic virus (Indian cassava mosaic)PresentNativeMatthew (1989); Were et al. (2003); Patil et al. (2005); Rajinimala and Rabindran (2007)
VirusIndian citrus ringspot virusPresent, WidespreadAhlawat (1997); Ahlawat (1997); Pant and Ahlawat (1998); CABI and EPPO (2015)
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
Virusinfectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2018)
Virusinfectious myonecrosis virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2018)
Virusinfluenza A virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
VirusIris yellow spot virus (iris yellow spot)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2014); Kumar and Rawal (1999); Pawan Kumar and Poonam Dhawan (2013); EPPO (2022)
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2020)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusPresentHameed et al. (2004)
VirusMaize dwarf mosaic virus (dwarf mosaic of maize)PresentPaliwal and Raychaudhuri (1966); PALIWAL et al. (1968); Rishi and Ram (1976); Singh (1983); Rao et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (2003)
VirusMaize streak virus (streak disease of maize)PresentEPPO (2022)
Virusmyxoma virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
VirusNewcastle disease virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusPapaya ringspot virusPresentCapoor and Varma (1948); CABI and EPPO (2003); Singh et al. (2010); Reddy et al. (2011)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusPlantago asiatica mosaic virusPresentCABI (Undated)
VirusPlum pox virus (sharka)Present, LocalizedIntroducedCABI and EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022)
VirusPotato spindle tuber viroid (spindle tuber of potato)Present, Few occurrencesHe et al. (1987); Owens et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2014); Shilpa Natarajamurthy et al. (2021); EPPO (2022)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusrabies virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusred sea bream iridovirusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusSheeppox virusPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
VirusSugarcane mosaic virus (sugarcane mosaic)PresentEPPO (2022)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusSweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato)PresentKumar et al. (1991); Jain et al. (1993); Jeeva et al. (2004); Prasanth and Hegde (2008)
Virusswine vesicular disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusTaura syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
VirusTomato brown rugose fruit virus (Tomato brown rugose fruit virus)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
VirusTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)PresentSivalingam et al. (2011); Raj et al. (2005); Khan et al. (2006); Bikram Saha et al. (2014); Khan et al. (2014); Swarnalatha and Reddy (2014); Sharma et al. (2015); Snehi et al. (2016); Srivastava et al. (2016); Manmohan Dhkal et al. (2020); Monika Karn et al. (2020); Manmohan Dhkal et al. (2021); EPPO (2022)
VirusTomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt)Present, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); Renukadevi et al. (2015); Senthilraja et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
VirusTomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)PresentEPPO (2022)
Virustransmissible gastroenteritis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusTuberose mild mottle virus (tuberose mild mottle virus)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSaurabh Kulshrestha et al. (2005)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
Virusvisna/maedi virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusWest Nile virusPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
VirusWhite spot syndrome virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2018); CABI Data Mining (2001)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
abalone viral ganglioneuritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
acarapisosis of honey beesPresentEPPO (2009)
acute hepatopancreatic necrosis diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
Aeromonas infection in fishPresentOIE (2009)
African horse sicknessAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
African swine feverPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2020)
anaplasmosisPresentMohan and Pathak (1967); Miranpuri (1988); Chitravel et al. (1998); OIE Handistatus (2005)
anthraxPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Food & Agriculture Organization (1972); Nair (1997); OIE (1997); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
atrophic rhinitis of swineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avian adenoviruses infectionsPresent, WidespreadOberoi et al. (1996); Maiti and Sarkar (1997); Maiti and Sarkar (1997)
avian chlamydiosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avian encephalomyelitisPresentJana et al. (2005)
avian infectious bronchitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
avian influenzaPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
avian leukosis sarcoma virus infectionsPresentCABI (Undated)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)Present, LocalizedOIE (2009)
avian nephritisPresent, LocalizedSumitra Panigrahi et al. (2019)
avian trichomoniasisPresentBhattacharya et al. (1997)
avipoxPresentPandey and Mallick (1974); Mathur et al. (1972)
babesiosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
blacklegPresentSingh and Roychoudhury (1982); OIE Handistatus (2005)
bluetonguePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bonamiosis (Bonamia ostreae)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
Borrelia anserina infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bovine anaplasmosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine babesiosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine ephemeral feverPresentSen (1931); Prasad et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
bovine genital campylobacteriosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine immunodeficiency virus infectionPresentBhatia et al. (2008)
bovine papillomatosisPresentPattanayak and Nayak (1972); Prasad et al. (1980); Bhowmik and Nandi (1986); Wadhwa et al. (1996)
bovine parainfluenza 3 infectionPresent, LocalizedSingh (1991)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine tuberculosisAbsentOIE (2018); OIE (2009); OIE (2018)
bovine venereal trichomonosisPresentCABI (Undated)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)Present, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)OIE (2009); Katoch et al. (1996)
buffalopoxPresentLAL and SINGH (1977)
Burkholderia pseudomallei infectionsPresentDas and Paranjape (1986); Dance (1991)
caprine arthritis encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
caseous lymphadenitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
cercarial dermatitisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
chicken anaemiaPresentBhatt et al. (2011)
chlamydial infections of livestock and poultryPresentGupta et al. (1976)
Chrysomya bezziana infestationPresentNativeInvasiveJames (1947); Norris and Murray (1964); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
ChytridiomycosisPresentCABI (Undated); OIE (2018)
classical swine feverPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Clostridium novyi infectionsPresent, WidespreadRamachandran and Harbola (1997)
coccidiosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cochliomyia hominivorax infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious agalactiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaAbsentOIE (2019); Lefèvre (1991); Laak (1992); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious equine metritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
contagious ophthalmiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverPresentPatel et al. (2011); OIE (2018)
cryptosporidiosis in livestock and poultryPresent, WidespreadPande et al. (1972); Mathan et al. (1985); Pal (1991); Morgan et al. (2000); Sehgal et al. (2001); Kava Mohandas et al. (2002); Kumar et al. (2002); Nighot et al. (2002); Clark et al. (2003); Shalani Shenoy et al. (2003); CABI (Undated)
cysticercosisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Dichelobacter nodosus infectionPresentCABI (Undated)
Digenean infections of fishPresentMadhavi (1979); Madhavi and Rukmini (1991); Madhavi and Rukmini (1992); Mohan et al. (1999)
dourineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
duck viral enteritisPresentSandhu and Leibovitz (1997); OIE Handistatus (2005)
duck virus hepatitisAbsentOIE (2019); Rao and Gupta (1967); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Echinococcus granulosusPresentOIE (2018); CABI Data Mining (2001)
Echinococcus multilocularisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Edwardsiella septicaemia (Edwardsiella tarda infection)PresentCABI (Undated)
encephalomyocarditisPresentTesh and Wallace (1977)
enzootic abortion of ewesAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)OIE (2009)
enzootic bovine leukosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
epizootic lymphangitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
epizootic ulcerative syndromePresent, LocalizedOIE (2018)
equine coital exanthemaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009); Alstad and Pearson (1995)
equine encephalomyelitis (Western)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine infectious anaemiaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine influenzaAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine piroplasmosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine rhinopneumonitisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
equine viral arteritisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Escherichia coli infectionsPresentKapur et al. (1982); Tripathi and Soni (1984); Arora et al. (1986); Sanjiv Kumar et al. (1996); Pal et al. (1999)
European foul broodPresentRajpal Singh and Garg (2000); Rana et al. (2012)
fibropapillomatosis of sea turtlesPresentSilas et al. (1984)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Kitching (1998); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
fowl choleraPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
fowl typhoidAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
fowlpoxPresentMathur et al. (1972); Pandey and Mallick (1974); OIE Handistatus (2005)
Fusobacterium necrophorum infectionsPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
gangrenous cholecystitisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
giardiasisPresentPadmavathi et al. (1978)
glandersPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
heartwaterAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
hepatitis E virus infectionPresent, WidespreadArankalle et al. (2003); Kulkarni and Arankalle (2008)
Hirudinea as vectors and disease agents in fishPresentSinghal et al. (1986); Shanavas et al. (1989); Shanavas (1991)
horse poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
infection with Perkinsus olseniPresentSanil et al. (2010); OIE (2018)
infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitisPresent, WidespreadBedford (1992)
infectious bursal diseasePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); CABI (Undated)
infectious coryzaPresentCABI (Undated)
infectious haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2018)
infectious laryngotracheitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (1997); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
infectious myonecrosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2018)
Japanese encephalitisAbsentOIE (2018); Daniels et al. (2002); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumoniaPresentKaushik and Kalra (1983); CABI (Undated)
koi herpesvirus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
leishmaniosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
leptospirosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
leucocytozoonosisPresentSamaddar et al. (1978)
listeriosisPresentGugnani (1999); OIE Handistatus (2005)
lumpy skin diseasePresentOIE (2020); OIE (2018); OIE (2020)
malignant catarrhal feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Mannheimia haemolytica infectionsPresentRajesh Chahota et al. (2000)
Marek's diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Mycoplasma agalactiae infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009); Konsam et al. (1989); Sikdar and Uppal (1996)
Mycoplasma bovigenitalium infectionsPresentKumar et al. (1992)
Mycoplasma bovirhinis bovine respiratory diseasePresent, WidespreadKumar et al. (1992)
Mycoplasma bovis infectionsPresent, WidespreadGarg et al. (1999)
Mycoplasma iowae infectionsPresentPrasad and Kumar (1975)
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (LC) infectionsPresent, WidespreadNayak and Bhowmik (1990)
myxomatosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Nairobi sheep diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
necrotizing hepatopancreatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
Newcastle diseasePresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Alexander (1997); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
nocardiosis of fishPresentChakrabarty and Dastidar (1991)
oomycete infections in fishPresentSinghal et al. (1990); Khulbe (1992); CABI (Undated);
paratuberculosisPresentJuneja et al. (1991); Datta (1934); OIE (2009); OIE (2018)
Pasteurella multocida infectionsPresentCABI (Undated)
peste des petits ruminantsPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Plasmodium relictum infectionPresentNativeBeadell et al. (2006); Ishtiaq et al. (2007); CABI (Undated)
porcine enterovirus infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromePresent, LocalizedOIE (2018); OIE (2009)
pullorum diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
pulmonary adenomatosisAbsent, No presence record(s)Damodaran (1960); OIE Handistatus (2005)
Q feverPresent, WidespreadNativeMalik and Yadav (2002); Malik and Vaidya (2005); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
rabbit haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
rabiesPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); Kandavel et al. (1989); Singh et al. (1999); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Ranavirus infection in amphibiansAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
red sea bream iridoviral diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
reticuloendotheliosisPresentSwain et al. (1997)
Rhodococcus equi infectionsPresentMoitra (1972); Rao et al. (1982); Wani et al. (2003); CABI (Undated);
Riemerella anatipestifer infectionPresentSarma et al. (1985); Murthy et al. (undated)
Rift Valley feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
rinderpestAbsentOIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
rotavirus infections in livestock and poultryPresentS. V. S. Malik et al. (1995); Gulati et al. (1999); Varshney et al. (2002)
scrapieAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
sheep and goat poxPresent, LocalizedOIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
sickle cell anaemiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
spring viraemia of carpAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
Staphylococcus aureus infectionsPresent, WidespreadMishra et al. (1996); Muhammad et al. (1997); Umakanthan (1997)
stranglesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in pigs (and ruminants)PresentSingh et al. (1994)
Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in poultryPresentLakshmanachar and Raja Rajeswari (1992); Rajesh Chahota et al. (2001)
surraAbsentOIE (2019); Hoare (1972); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
swine dysenteryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
swine influenzaPresentSingh et al. (1978); Das and Mallick (1981)
swine vesicular diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Taura syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
tetanusPresent, WidespreadUtpal Das et al. (1997); Bhikane and Kulkarni (1998)
Theileria annulata infectionsPresentOIE (1998)
Theileria orientalis/Theileria buffeli infectionsPresentShastri et al. (1985)
theileriosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
tick-borne feverPresentRaghavachari and Reddy (1959)
Tilapia lake virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Tilapia lake virus diseasePresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
torovirus infectionsPresentKoopmans and Horzinek (1994)
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
TrichinellaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesPresentPadhi and Rath (2012)
trypanosomosisPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
trypanosomosis in freshwater fishPresentQadri (1962)
tuberculosisPresentThoen (1999); OIE (2019)
Ureaplasma infectionsPresentKapoor and Garg (1989)
varroosis of honey beesPresentPhadke et al. (1966)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
vesicular stomatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018)
visna/maediAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
West Nile feverPresentHayes (1989)
white spot diseasePresent, LocalizedOIE (2018)
white tail diseasePresentHameed et al. (2004)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Anise, badian, fennel, corianderArea harvested1,587,0001,564,0001,546,000884,000683,055 Im
Production quantity1,448,0001,503,0001,529,000632,000546,000
Yield9,124 Fc9,610 Fc9,890 Fc7,149 Fc7,993 Fc
ApplesArea harvested308,000301,000305,000277,000319,000
Production quantity2,316,0002,327,0002,265,0002,521,0002,134,000
Yield75,195 Fc77,309 Fc74,262 Fc91,011 Fc66,897 Fc
ApricotsArea harvested5,690 Im5,585 Im5,480 Im5,390 Im5,021 Im
Production quantity16,145 Im15,843 Im15,541 Im15,280 Im14,186 Im
Yield28,374 Fc28,367 Fc28,359 Fc28,349 Fc28,253 Fc
Areca nutsArea harvested522,000497,000455,000474,000450,000
Production quantity901,000833,000723,000714,000747,000
Yield17,261 Fc16,761 Fc15,890 Fc15,063 Fc16,600 Fc
BananasArea harvested866,000884,000860,000841,000822,000
Production quantity30,460,00030,808,00030,477,00029,135,00029,221,000
Yield351,732 Fc348,507 Fc354,384 Fc346,433 Fc355,487 Fc
BarleyArea harvested575,600660,800656,250590,000707,000
Production quantity1,633,0701,780,8101,747,4501,440,0001,613,000
Yield28,372 Fc26,949 Fc26,628 Fc24,407 Fc22,815 Fc
Bastfibres, otherArea harvested58,939 Im64,243 Im69,593 Im74,990 Im81,031 Im
Production quantity71,967 Im78,106 Im84,245 Im90,384 Im98,543 Im
Yield12,210 Fc12,158 Fc12,105 Fc12,053 Fc12,161 Fc
Beans, dryArea harvested12,690,696 Im14,895,604 Im15,213,726 Im14,191,848 Im10,289,384 Im
Production quantity5,310,0006,220,0006,340,0005,890,0004,260,000
Yield4,184 Fc4,176 Fc4,167 Fc4,150 Fc4,140 Fc
Beans, greenArea harvested256,271 Im250,966 Im245,648 Im240,317 Im234,199 Im
Production quantity725,998 Im710,119 Im694,241 Im678,362 Im661,863 Im
Yield28,329 Fc28,295 Fc28,262 Fc28,228 Fc28,261 Fc
Berries nesArea harvested324 Im320 Im317 Im313 Im306 Im
Production quantity2,438 Im2,381 Im2,324 Im2,267 Im2,200 Im
Yield75,247 Fc74,406 Fc73,312 Fc72,428 Fc71,895 Fc
Cabbages and other brassicasArea harvested400,000399,000395,000394,000386,000
Production quantity9,127,0009,037,0008,807,0008,806,0008,585,000
Yield228,175 Fc226,491 Fc222,962 Fc223,503 Fc222,409 Fc
Carrots and turnipsArea harvestedMM37,155 Im36,445 Im35,955 Im
Production quantityMM575,630 Im562,983 Im553,911 Im
Yield154,927 Fc154,475 Fc154,057 Fc
Cashew nuts, with shellArea harvested1,105,0001,062,000978,0001,036,0001,030,000
Production quantity743,000817,000745,000671,000745,000
Yield6,724 Fc7,693 Fc7,618 Fc6,477 Fc7,233 Fc
CassavaArea harvested163,000173,000199,000204,000208,000
Production quantity4,976,0004,950,0004,171,0004,344,0004,373,000
Yield305,276 Fc286,127 Fc209,598 Fc212,941 Fc210,240 Fc
Castor oil seedArea harvested751,320824,130807,9201,037,0001,089,000
Production quantity1,196,6801,567,5601,376,4201,376,0001,752,000
Yield15,928 Fc19,021 Fc17,037 Fc13,269 Fc16,088 Fc
Cauliflowers and broccoliArea harvested465,000453,000454,000426,000411,000
Production quantity9,083,0008,668,0008,557,0008,090,0007,926,000
Yield195,333 Fc191,347 Fc188,480 Fc189,906 Fc192,847 Fc
Cereals, TotalArea harvested95,244,530 A98,093,520 A99,566,890 A99,020,000 A99,533,000 A
Production quantity324,300,640 A321,556,400 A310,782,330 A297,850,000 A284,333,000 A
Yield34,049 Fc32,781 Fc31,213 Fc30,080 Fc28,567 Fc
CherriesArea harvested3,595 Im3,567 Im3,539 Im3,528 Im3,599 Im
Production quantity11,107 Im10,976 Im10,845 Im10,765 Im10,945 Im
Yield30,896 Fc30,771 Fc30,644 Fc30,513 Fc30,411 Fc
Chick peasArea harvested9,547,03010,560,4309,626,1608,399,0008,251,000
Production quantity9,937,99011,379,1909,377,5607,058,0007,332,000
Yield10,410 Fc10,775 Fc9,742 Fc8,403 Fc8,886 Fc
Chillies and peppers, dryArea harvested780,000752,000840,000811,140761,000
Production quantity1,743,0002,149,0002,096,0001,520,3901,605,000
Yield22,346 Fc28,577 Fc24,952 Fc18,744 Fc21,091 Fc
Chillies and peppers, greenArea harvested9,892 Im9,581 Im9,274 Im8,969 Im8,644 Im
Production quantity81,837 Im79,630 Im77,422 Im75,214 Im72,849 Im
Yield82,730 Fc83,112 Fc83,483 Fc83,860 Fc84,277 Fc
Citrus Fruit, TotalArea harvested1,073,000 A1,002,000 A985,000 A1,001,421 A1,025,300 A
Production quantity14,013,000 A12,545,000 A11,419,000 A11,581,000 A11,702,000 A
Yield130,596 Fc125,200 Fc115,929 Fc115,646 Fc114,132 Fc
Cocoa, beansArea harvested94,00089,00083,00081,00078,000
Production quantity24,00020,00019,00017,00016,000
Yield2,553 Fc2,247 Fc2,289 Fc2,099 Fc2,051 Fc
CoconutsArea harvested2,151,0002,097,0002,081,0002,082,0002,088,500
Production quantity14,682,00016,413,00011,166,77211,344,30611,209,641
Yield68,257 Fc78,269 Fc53,661 Fc54,488 Fc53,673 Fc
Coffee, greenArea harvested416,741413,020449,357434,436423,270
Production quantity319,500316,000312,000348,000327,000
Yield7,667 Fc7,651 Fc6,943 Fc8,010 Fc7,726 Fc
CoirProduction quantity581,641 Im576,492 Im571,428 Im562,974 Im560,480 *
Area harvested
Cucumbers and gherkinsArea harvested31,776 Im30,978 Im30,185 Im29,395 Im28,545 Im
Production quantity199,018 Im194,474 Im189,930 Im185,385 Im180,568 Im
Yield62,632 Fc62,778 Fc62,922 Fc63,067 Fc63,257 Fc
Eggplants (aubergines)Area harvested727,000730,000733,000663,000673,000
Production quantity12,680,00012,801,00012,510,00012,515,00012,589,000
Yield174,415 Fc175,356 Fc170,668 Fc188,763 Fc187,058 Fc
Fibre Crops PrimaryArea harvested16,761,996 A13,099,993 A13,205,663 A11,638,704 A12,724,031 A
Production quantity1,781,427 A1,804,486 A1,962,005 A1,940,894 A1,887,743 A
Yield1,063 Fc1,377 Fc1,486 Fc1,668 Fc1,484 Fc
FigsArea harvested5,734 Im5,700 Im5,665 Im5,632 Im5,649 Im
Production quantity14,914 Im14,737 Im14,561 Im14,387 Im14,295 Im
Yield26,010 Fc25,854 Fc25,703 Fc25,545 Fc25,305 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested7,065,860 A6,929,767 A6,764,594 A6,642,040 A6,699,761 A
Production quantity104,165,543 A101,897,338 A98,031,613 A92,006,390 A90,792,024 A
Yield147,421 Fc147,043 Fc144,919 Fc138,521 Fc135,515 Fc
Fruit, citrus nesArea harvested112,000103,000136,00099,150 Im60,000 F
Production quantity1,022,0001,030,0001,408,0001,171,500 *781,500
Yield91,250 Fc100,000 Fc103,529 Fc118,154 Fc130,250 Fc
Fruit, fresh nesArea harvested1,181,0001,167,0001,108,0001,234,380 Im1,328,881 Im
Production quantity10,755,00010,605,00010,515,0009,899,665 Im10,000,000 F
Yield91,067 Fc90,874 Fc94,901 Fc80,199 Fc75,251 Fc
Fruit, stone nesArea harvested598 Im595 Im593 Im590 Im591 Im
Production quantity2,460 Im2,401 Im2,342 Im2,284 Im2,247 Im
Yield41,137 Fc40,353 Fc39,494 Fc38,712 Fc38,020 Fc
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea harvested457,919 Im454,000452,000452,000437,000
Production quantity6,080,479 Im5,916,0005,630,0005,901,0005,861,000
Yield132,785 Fc130,308 Fc124,558 Fc130,553 Fc134,119 Fc
GarlicArea harvested358,000317,000321,000281,000262,000
Production quantity2,910,0001,611,0001,693,0001,617,0001,425,000
Yield81,285 Fc50,820 Fc52,741 Fc57,544 Fc54,389 Fc
GingerArea harvested164,000165,000168,000165,000142,000
Production quantity1,788,0001,762,0001,070,0001,109,000760,000
Yield109,024 Fc106,788 Fc63,690 Fc67,212 Fc53,521 Fc
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Area harvestedMMM16,271 F11,300 F
Production quantityMMM390,500 *260,500
Yield239,998 Fc230,531 Fc
GrapesArea harvested140,000139,000137,000122,000120,000
Production quantity3,041,0002,920,0002,922,0002,590,0002,602,000
Yield217,214 Fc210,072 Fc213,285 Fc212,295 Fc216,833 Fc
Groundnuts, with shellArea harvested4,730,7704,887,7005,338,0405,310,0004,560,000
Production quantity6,727,1809,252,5707,461,5307,462,0006,733,000
Yield14,220 Fc18,930 Fc13,978 Fc14,053 Fc14,765 Fc
Hemp tow wasteArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
JuteArea harvested665,300685,750706,070733,714 Im773,000
Production quantity1,709,4601,726,3801,877,7601,850,510 Im1,789,200
Yield25,695 Fc25,175 Fc26,595 Fc25,221 Fc23,146 Fc
Lemons and limesArea harvested305,000286,000248,000245,000268,000
Production quantity3,482,0003,148,0002,364,0002,438,0002,950,000
Yield114,164 Fc110,070 Fc95,323 Fc99,510 Fc110,075 Fc
LentilsArea harvested1,362,7201,549,2101,461,1401,276,0001,469,000
Production quantity1,227,8201,621,8101,223,850976,0001,035,000
Yield9,010 Fc10,469 Fc8,376 Fc7,649 Fc7,046 Fc
Lettuce and chicoryArea harvested199,778 Im195,251 Im190,734 Im186,225 Im181,630 Im
Production quantity1,262,702 Im1,235,326 Im1,207,951 Im1,180,575 Im1,152,479 Im
Yield63,205 Fc63,269 Fc63,332 Fc63,395 Fc63,452 Fc
LinseedArea harvested172,710326,180325,220298,000285,000
Production quantity99,070173,760184,250125,000155,000
Yield5,736 Fc5,327 Fc5,665 Fc4,195 Fc5,439 Fc
MaizeArea harvested9,027,1309,380,0709,633,2009,900,0008,690,000
Production quantity27,715,10028,752,88025,899,87025,900,00022,570,000
Yield30,702 Fc30,653 Fc26,886 Fc26,162 Fc25,972 Fc
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasArea harvested2,572,0002,527,0002,472,0002,209,0002,163,000
Production quantity25,631,00024,966,00023,332,00018,643,00018,527,000
Yield99,654 Fc98,797 Fc94,385 Fc84,396 Fc85,654 Fc
Melons, other (inc.cantaloupes)Area harvested57,00054,00050,00045,00042,000
Production quantity1,266,0001,231,0001,097,000935,000863,000
Yield222,105 Fc227,963 Fc219,400 Fc207,778 Fc205,476 Fc
MilletArea harvested8,449,7209,221,1609,093,7208,840,0009,116,000
Production quantity10,235,83011,633,08011,556,89010,280,00011,630,000
Yield12,114 Fc12,616 Fc12,709 Fc11,629 Fc12,758 Fc
Mushrooms and trufflesProduction quantity182,000134,000101,690 Im76,00051,000
Nutmeg, mace and cardamomsArea harvested105,000108,000108,000107,00092,000
Production quantity38,00043,00043,00038,00022,000
Yield3,619 Fc3,981 Fc3,981 Fc3,551 Fc2,391 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested42,960,603 A38,937,870 A40,656,122 A39,296,806 A40,197,500 A
Production quantity64,750,350 A62,522,080 A59,852,242 A58,707,306 A51,954,641 A
Yield15,072 Fc16,057 Fc14,722 Fc14,939 Fc12,925 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested42,209,283 A38,113,740 A39,848,202 A38,259,806 A39,108,500 A
Production quantity26,282,082 A23,904,812 A25,189,479 A24,440,055 A19,888,667 A
Yield6,227 Fc6,272 Fc6,321 Fc6,388 Fc5,086 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested42,960,603 A38,937,870 A40,656,122 A39,296,806 A40,197,500 A
Production quantity12,621,611 A12,699,968 A11,916,907 A11,471,806 A10,309,578 A
Yield2,938 Fc3,262 Fc2,931 Fc2,919 Fc2,565 Fc
Oilseeds nesArea harvested133,986 Im201,440 Im224,412 Im279,806 Im252,000
Production quantity42,00063,00070,00085,00074,000
Yield3,135 Fc3,127 Fc3,119 Fc3,038 Fc2,937 Fc
OkraArea harvested513,000509,000507,000511,000504,000
Production quantity6,176,0006,095,0006,003,0005,849,0005,709,000
Yield120,390 Fc119,745 Fc118,402 Fc114,462 Fc113,274 Fc
Onions, dryArea harvested1,220,0001,285,0001,306,0001,320,0001,173,000
Production quantity22,819,00023,262,00022,427,00020,931,00018,927,000
Yield187,041 Fc181,027 Fc171,723 Fc158,568 Fc161,355 Fc
OrangesArea harvested656,000613,000601,000641,000686,000
Production quantity9,509,0008,367,0007,647,0007,581,0007,710,000
Yield144,954 Fc136,493 Fc127,238 Fc118,268 Fc112,391 Fc
PapayasArea harvested149,000138,000134,000132,000115,000
Production quantity6,050,0005,989,0005,940,0005,667,0004,913,000
Yield406,040 Fc433,986 Fc443,284 Fc429,318 Fc427,217 Fc
Peaches and nectarinesArea harvestedMMM38,346 Im37,702 Im
Production quantityMMM270,499 Im264,318 Im
Yield70,542 Fc70,107 Fc
PearsArea harvested42,00044,00044,00040,00042,000
Production quantity300,000318,000346,000323,000303,000
Yield71,429 Fc72,273 Fc78,636 Fc80,750 Fc72,143 Fc
Peas, dryArea harvested606,720825,2101,058,880903,000975,000
Production quantity811,690993,2501,011,190742,000889,000
Yield13,378 Fc12,036 Fc9,550 Fc8,217 Fc9,118 Fc
Peas, greenArea harvested552,000540,000530,000498,000476,000
Production quantity5,562,0005,422,0005,345,0004,811,0004,652,000
Yield100,761 Fc100,407 Fc100,849 Fc96,606 Fc97,731 Fc
Pepper (piper spp.)Area harvested138,000134,000132,000129,000129,000
Production quantity66,00066,00072,00055,00065,000
Yield4,783 Fc4,925 Fc5,455 Fc4,264 Fc5,039 Fc
Pigeon peasArea harvested4,549,5404,438,3105,337,8903,963,0003,854,000
Production quantity3,315,4404,289,8204,873,2402,560,0002,810,000
Yield7,287 Fc9,665 Fc9,130 Fc6,460 Fc7,291 Fc
PineapplesArea harvested104,000103,000111,000110,000116,000
Production quantity1,711,0001,706,0001,861,0001,924,0001,984,000
Yield164,519 Fc165,631 Fc167,658 Fc174,909 Fc171,034 Fc
Plums and sloesArea harvestedMMM29,440 Im27,712 Im
Production quantityMMM246,243 Im228,833 Im
Yield83,642 Fc82,575 Fc
Poppy seedArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
PotatoesArea harvested2,173,0002,142,0002,179,0002,117,0002,076,000
Production quantity50,190,00051,310,00048,605,00043,417,00048,009,000
Yield230,971 Fc239,542 Fc223,061 Fc205,087 Fc231,257 Fc
Pulses nesArea harvested2,068,064 Im2,239,124 Im2,034,139 Im2,014,050 Im2,150,527 Im
Production quantity912,609 Im1,000,000 F919,269 Im918,493 Im988,200 *
Yield4,413 Fc4,466 Fc4,519 Fc4,560 Fc4,595 Fc
Pulses, TotalArea harvested30,824,770 A34,507,888 A34,731,935 A30,746,898 A26,988,911 A
Production quantity21,515,549 A25,504,070 A23,745,109 A18,144,493 A17,314,200 A
Yield6,980 Fc7,391 Fc6,837 Fc5,901 Fc6,415 Fc
Pumpkins, squash and gourdsArea harvestedMM573,742 Im560,392 Im546,286 Im
Production quantityMM5,506,393 Im5,378,393 Im5,243,814 Im
Yield95,973 Fc95,976 Fc95,990 Fc
RapeseedArea harvested6,123,9305,977,1606,073,8205,762,0005,791,000
Production quantity9,255,6608,429,8507,917,2306,797,0006,282,000
Yield15,114 Fc14,103 Fc13,035 Fc11,796 Fc10,848 Fc
Rice, paddyArea harvested43,780,000 *44,156,45043,774,07043,190,00043,390,000
Production quantity177,645,000174,716,730168,500,000163,700,000156,540,000
Yield40,577 Fc39,568 Fc38,493 Fc37,902 Fc36,077 Fc
Rice, paddy (rice milled equivalent)Production quantity118,489,215 Fc116,536,059 Fc112,389,500 Fc109,187,900 Fc104,412,180 Fc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested2,446,000 A2,446,000 A2,506,000 A2,447,000 A2,391,000 A
Production quantity56,322,000 A57,760,000 A54,236,000 A49,215,000 A53,610,000 A
Yield230,262 Fc236,141 Fc216,425 Fc201,124 Fc224,216 Fc
Rubber, naturalArea harvested462,779 Im462,699 Im462,618 Im461,199 Im455,991 Im
Production quantity1,001,405 Im988,352 Im975,298 Im967,175 Im944,504 Im
Yield21,639 Fc21,361 Fc21,082 Fc20,971 Fc20,713 Fc
Safflower seedArea harvested45,89082,150144,270144,000175,000
Production quantity24,64055,28093,90053,00090,000
Yield5,369 Fc6,729 Fc6,509 Fc3,681 Fc5,143 Fc
Seed cottonArea harvested16,037,757 Im12,350,000 *12,430,00010,830,00011,870,000
Production quantity18,550,000 *14,657,00017,425,00017,308,00015,943,000
Yield11,566 Fc11,868 Fc14,019 Fc15,982 Fc13,431 Fc
Sesame seedArea harvested1,419,9701,579,7701,666,9301,900,000 *1,947,000
Production quantity689,310755,430747,030747,000850,000
Yield4,854 Fc4,782 Fc4,481 Fc3,932 Fc4,366 Fc
SorghumArea harvested4,093,2905,024,4505,624,4206,080,0006,160,000
Production quantity3,475,4104,803,3804,567,9004,240,0005,450,000
Yield8,491 Fc9,560 Fc8,122 Fc6,974 Fc8,847 Fc
SoybeansArea harvested11,131,26010,328,83011,183,40011,180,00011,670,000
Production quantity13,267,52010,932,97013,158,73013,159,0008,570,000
Yield11,919 Fc10,585 Fc11,766 Fc11,770 Fc7,344 Fc
Spices nesArea harvested824,000836,000526,000768,000737,000
Production quantity1,434,0001,364,0001,592,0001,528,0001,292,000
Yield17,403 Fc16,316 Fc30,266 Fc19,896 Fc17,531 Fc
Sugar caneArea harvested5,061,0904,737,0604,435,6904,950,0005,070,000
Production quantity405,416,180379,904,850306,069,000348,448,000362,333,000
Yield801,045 Fc801,984 Fc690,014 Fc703,935 Fc714,661 Fc
Sugar Crops PrimaryArea harvested5,061,090 A4,737,060 A4,435,690 A4,950,000 A5,070,000 A
Production quantity405,416,180 A379,904,850 A306,069,000 A348,448,000 A362,333,000 A
Yield801,045 Fc801,984 Fc690,014 Fc703,935 Fc714,661 Fc
Sunflower seedArea harvested262,010283,510381,110474,000470,000
Production quantity216,290221,660251,380251,000296,000
Yield8,255 Fc7,818 Fc6,596 Fc5,295 Fc6,298 Fc
Sweet potatoesArea harvested110,000131,000128,000126,000107,000
Production quantity1,156,0001,500,0001,460,0001,454,0001,228,000
Yield105,091 Fc114,504 Fc114,063 Fc115,397 Fc114,766 Fc
TeaArea harvested628,199 Im622,947 Im621,610577,480566,660
Production quantity1,390,0801,338,6301,325,0501,250,4901,233,140
Yield22,128 Fc21,489 Fc21,316 Fc21,654 Fc21,762 Fc
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea harvested445,993 Im441,903 Im438,294 Im435,507 Im430,962 Im
Production quantity804,454 Im788,301 Im773,158 Im759,594 Im738,029 Im
Yield18,037 Fc17,839 Fc17,640 Fc17,442 Fc17,125 Fc
TomatoesArea harvested781,000789,000797,000774,000767,000
Production quantity19,007,00019,759,00020,708,00018,732,00016,385,000
Yield243,367 Fc250,431 Fc259,824 Fc242,016 Fc213,625 Fc
Treenuts, TotalArea harvested1,105,000 A1,062,000 A978,000 A1,067,000 A1,061,000 A
Production quantity743,000 A817,000 A745,000 A704,000 A780,000 A
Yield6,724 Fc7,693 Fc7,618 Fc6,598 Fc7,352 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested8,483,717 A8,419,776 A8,820,915 A8,573,858 A8,248,289 A
Production quantity132,026,555 A130,110,549 A131,623,271 A125,895,058 A119,983,010 A
Yield155,623 Fc154,530 Fc149,217 Fc146,836 Fc145,464 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested2,970,0002,911,0002,691,177 Im2,645,115 Im2,561,030 Im
Production quantity42,211,00041,102,00037,220,014 Im36,407,146 Im35,868,526 Im
Yield142,125 Fc141,195 Fc138,304 Fc137,639 Fc140,055 Fc
Walnuts, with shellArea harvestedMMM31,000 *31,000 *
Production quantityMMM33,000 *35,000 *
Yield10,645 Fc11,290 Fc
WatermelonsArea harvested100,000101,00091,00095,00089,000
Production quantity2,495,0002,520,0002,182,0002,325,0002,145,000
Yield249,500 Fc249,505 Fc239,780 Fc244,737 Fc241,011 Fc
WheatArea harvested29,318,79029,650,59030,785,23030,420,00031,470,000
Production quantity103,596,23099,869,52098,510,22092,290,00086,530,000
Yield35,334 Fc33,682 Fc31,999 Fc30,339 Fc27,496 Fc
Flag
No flag = Official data
* = Unofficial figure
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
F = FAO estimate
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology
M = Data not available

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea179,674 Fm179,674 Fm179,674 Fm179,674 W179,721 W
AgricultureArea179,674 Fc179,674 Fc179,674 Fc179,674 Fc179,721 Fc
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area1,938 I1,780 I1,490 I1,180 I720 I
Arable landArea156,416 Fm156,416 Fm156,416 Fm156,416 Fm156,463 Fm
Country areaArea328,726 Fm328,726 Fm328,726 Fm328,726 W328,726 W
CroplandArea169,416 Fm169,416 Fm169,416 Fm169,416 W169,463 W
Forest landArea71,627 Q71,361 Q71,094 Q70,828 Q70,562 Fm
Inland watersArea31,407 Fm31,407 Fm31,407 Fm31,407 Fm31,407 Fm
Land areaArea297,319 Fm297,319 Fm297,319 Fm297,319 Fm297,319 Fm
Land area equipped for irrigationArea70,400 Fm70,400 Fm70,400 Fm70,400 Fm70,400 Fm
Land under perm. meadows and pasturesArea10,258 Fm10,258 Fm10,258 Fm10,258 W10,258 W
Land under permanent cropsArea13,000 Fm13,000 Fm13,000 Fm13,000 Fm13,000 Fm
Land with temporary fallowArea26,182 Fm26,182 Fm26,182 Fm26,182 W24,848 W
Naturally regenerating forestArea58,457 Q58,239 Q58,022 Fm57,804 Q57,587 Fm
Other landArea46,018 Fc46,284 Fc46,551 Fc46,817 Fc47,036 Fc
Planted ForestArea13,171 Q13,122 Q13,072 Q13,024 Q12,975 Fm
Primary ForestArea15,701 Fm15,701 Fm15,701 Q15,701 Fm
Agriculture area actually irrigatedArea68,383 W68,116 W
Agriculture area certified organicArea
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc.
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries
W = Data reported on country official publications or web sites (Official) or trade country files

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.