Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Costa Rica

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Datasheet

Costa Rica

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 5,047,561 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 11,700 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 59,048.61 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 61,801.39 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 4.24 (2019)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
yellow head virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato)PresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium bovisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaBacteroidetesPaenibacillus larvaeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus thuringiensis kurstakiPresentCABI (Undated)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas)PresentVillalobos et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma phoeniciumPresentVillalobos et al. (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusPresentCalderón and Sánchez (2011); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma synoviaePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAcidovorax citrulli (fruit blotch)PresentCABI and EPPO (2011); Mora-Umaña and Araya (2002); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginalePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Hepatobacter penaeiPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening)Present, LocalizedFAO (2011); Molina-Bravo et al. (2015); CABI/EPPO (2017); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriacitrus huanglongbing (greening) disease (citrus greening)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)PresentEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella AbortusequiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (bean blight)PresentBradbury (1986); CABI and EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXenohaliotis californiensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines)PresentGoheen et al. (1979); Rodríguez et al. (2001); Aguilar et al. (2005); Wickert et al. (2007); Montero-Astúa et al. (2008); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces astaciAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces invadansAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)PresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentUK, CAB International (1982); Knapova and Gisi (2002)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew)PresentUK, CAB International (1988)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight)Present, LocalizedNativeMartin (1949); Echandi and Segall (1956); Siller (1958); Webster and Butler (1967); Engelbrecht and Harrington (2005); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2010)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFourie et al. (2009); Dita et al. (2010); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella dearnessii (brown spot needle blight)PresentEvans (1984); CABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella fijiensis (black Sigatoka)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveStover (1980); Mourichon and Fullerton (1990); CABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine)PresentUK, CAB International (1994)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella pini (Dothistroma blight)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2010)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant)PresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora ulei (South American leaf blight of rubber (SALB))PresentIntroducedInvasiveStevenson (1935); UK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSeiridium cardinale (cypress canker)PresentIntroducedArguedas Gamboa (1996); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaTrichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)PresentIntroducedInvasiveAlizaga et al. (1983); UK, CAB International (1984)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)PresentStéfano et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaMoniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)PresentInvasiveEnriquez and Suarez (1978); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2007)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora pachyrhizi (soyabean rust)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2015); Murillo-Williams et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhellinus noxius (brown tea root disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia graminis (stem rust of cereals)Present, Few occurrencesMuller (1953)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia kuehnii (orange rust)PresentCABI and EPPO (2015); Chavarría et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)Present, WidespreadPuschendorf et al. (2009)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcarapis woodi (honeybee mite)PresentOIE (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAceria guerreronis (coconut mite)PresentCABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcromyrmex octospinosus (leaf cutting ant)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAethina tumidaPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrius cingulatus (pink-spotted hawkmoth)PresentSchotman (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)PresentEPPO (2022); Mound and Halsey (1978); Elizondo and Quezada (1990); UK, CAB International (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)PresentLaprade Coto (2005); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated); NHM (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurothrixus floccosus (woolly whitefly)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurotrachelus atratus (palm-infesting whitefly)PresentIntroducedEvans (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAmphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle)PresentInvasiveHenry and McLaughlin (1975)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnartia fatimaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeStone (1942); Jirón et al. (1988); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly)Present, LocalizedStone (1942); UK, CAB International (1958); Jirón et al. (1988); Epsky (2003); Ruiz-Arce et al. (2015); Scally et al. (2016); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeJiron and Hedström (1988); Jirón et al. (1988); CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeGreene (1934); Stone (1942); Jiron and Hedström (1988); Jirón and Hedström (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001); Epsky (2003); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeStone (1942); Jiron and Hedström (1988); Steck et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2002); Epsky (2003); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnthonomus grandis (Mexican cotton boll weevil)PresentJohnson et al. (1973); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella aurantii (red scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1968); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1969); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis melliferaPresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis mellifera scutellata (africanized bee)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated); Nielsen et al. (2000); Wojcik (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArtemia (brine shrimp)PresentNativeVan (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1966)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale)PresentMuniappan et al. (2012); IPPC (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)Present, LocalizedCosta et al. (1993); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly)Presentde Barro (1995); CABI and EPPO (1999); Pongtharin Lotrakul et al. (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly)PresentGuevara-Coto et al. (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBlattella germanica (German cockroach)PresentIntroducedVargas V. and Fisk (1973)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBoophilus microplusPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)PresentAguilar-Piedra and Solano-Guevara (2020); Rodrigues et al. (2002); Aguilar and Murillo (2012); CABI/EPPO (2013); Beard et al. (2015); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallinectes sapidus (blue crab)PresentNativeTavares (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveEnkerlin et al. (1989); Gasparich et al. (1997); Davies et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Absent, EradicatedWyss (2000); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCrocidosema plebejana (cotton tipworm)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCryptotermes brevis (powderpost termite)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSnyder (1934)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, WidespreadIntroducedHeinemann and Belkin (1977)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiabrotica virgifera virgifera (western corn rootworm)PresentNativeCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)PresentCABI/EPPO (2011); Villalobos et al. (2005); Molina-Bravo et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDrosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022); Hauser (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentUK, CAB International (1972); Ben-Dov (1994); Miranda Vindas and Blanco Metzler (2013); Palma-Jiménez and Blanco-Meneses (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug)PresentGarcía Morales et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEpitrix tuberis (tuber flea beetle)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEriosoma lanigerum (woolly aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1975)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEuwallacea perbrevis (tea shot-hole borer)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2013); Kirkendall and Ødegaard (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentUK, CAB International (1966); Ben-Dov (1994); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)PresentNakahara (1997); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGeococcus coffeae (coffee root mealybug)PresentWilliams and Granara de Willink (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGreenidea ficicolaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGymnandrosoma aurantianum (citrus fruit borer)PresentAdamski and Brown (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHaplaxius crudus (American palm cixiid)PresentNativeKramer (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHarmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeilipus lauri (avocado seed weevil)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa zea (American cotton bollworm)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale (USA))PresentSchotman (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypsipyla grandella (mahogany shoot borer)PresentTaveras et al. (2004); Cornelius (2001); Navarro and Hernández (2004); The International Barcode of Life Consortium (2016); CABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia)PresentUK, CAB International (1957)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle)Absent, Formerly presentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug)PresentIntroducedvan der Heyden (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)PresentIntroducedSpencer (1983); CABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)PresentNativeCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)Present, LocalizedIntroducedIPPC (2014); CABI and EPPO (2015); IPPC (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); New (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMegaplatypus mutatusAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMythimna unipuncta (rice armyworm)PresentNativeUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentSmith and Cermeli (1979); UK, CAB International (1979); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNeoleucinodes elegantalis (eggplant stem borer)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)PresentUK, CAB International (1970)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus nipae (spiked mealybug)PresentBen-Dov (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOpogona sacchari (banana moth)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParacoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)PresentNativeWilliams and Granara de Willink (1992); Miller et al. (1999); CABI/EPPO (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPheidole megacephala (big-headed ant)PresentIntroducedInvasiveKempf (1972)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea absoluta (tomato leafminer)Present, WidespreadIntroducedCABI and EPPO (2013); Lobos et al. (2013); IPPC (2014); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea operculella (potato tuber moth)Present, WidespreadHilje (1994); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)PresentUK, CAB International (1986); Elizondo Solís (2002); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentAguilar-Piedra and Solano-Guevara (2020); Aguilar and Murillo (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProcambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProstephanus truncatus (larger grain borer)PresentNativeHodges (1986); UK, CAB International (1995); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus elisae (banana mealybug)PresentGimpel and Miller (1996); Beardsley (1986); Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)PresentGimpel and Miller (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus palmarum (South American palm weevil)PresentWattanapongsiri (1966); Chinchilla and Oehlschlager (1992); Chinchilla and Oehlschlager (1993); Oehlschlager et al. (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaissetia oleae (olive scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1952)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSchistocerca nitens (gray bird grasshopper)Present, WidespreadIntroducedRowell (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScyphophorus acupunctatus (agave weevil)PresentO'Brien and Wibmer (1982); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSepedomerus macropus (liverfluke snail predator fly)PresentNeff and Berg (1966)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant)PresentNativePerfecto and Vandermeer (1996); ISSG (2009); Gotzek et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)PresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)PresentEPPO (2022); Carballo and Saunders (1990); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)PresentIntroducedShepard and Gibson (1972)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTecia solanivora (potato tuber moth)PresentPovolny (1973); Barroso (1974); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentAguilar and Murillo (2012); International Institute of Entomology (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTibraca limbativentris (stinkbug)PresentSchotman (1989); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)Present, LocalizedLastra et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (1998); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse)PresentAlpizar (1993); Castro et al. (2009); Vargas et al. (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUnaspis citri (citrus snow scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaWasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant)PresentNativeInvasiveISSG (2014); Wetterer and Porter (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus volvulusPresentNativeWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle)PresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992); Jordal and Kirkendall (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAmatitlania nigrofasciata (convict cichlid)Present, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAnolis cristatellus (Puerto Rican crested anole)PresentIntroducedFitch (1975); Savage (2002); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAristichthys nobilis (bighead carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); FishBase (2004); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBelonesox belizanus (pike killifish)Present, WidespreadNativeBussing (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBoa imperator (Central American Boa)Present, WidespreadNativeHynková et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBos taurus (cattle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCanis latrans (Coyote)PresentNativeInvasiveIUCN (2012); Cove et al. (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)AbsentShireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004); Seebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenosaura similis (black spiny-tailed iguana)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Lever (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDidelphis marsupialis (common opossum)Present, WidespreadNativeIUCN (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHemidactylus frenatus (common house gecko)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveKronauer (1999); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHerpestes auropunctatus (small Indian mongoose)PresentIntroducedInvasiveISSG (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004); FishBase (2005); Seebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIctalurus punctatus (channel catfish)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCam (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIguana iguana (iguana)PresentNativeLeenders (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMicropterus salmoides (largemouth bass)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBussing (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMolothrus bonariensis (shiny cowbird)PresentAvibase (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMylopharyngodon piceus (black amur)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Bussing (1998); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); FAO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Pullin et al. (1997); FAO (2002); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOsteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSomma et al. (2018); IUCN (2017); Seebens et al. (2017); Frost (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPasser domesticus (house sparrow)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia reticulata (guppy)PresentIntroducedBussing (1998); Froese and Pauly (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataProcyon lotor (raccoon)PresentNativeGoldman (1950)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterois volitans (lionfish)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSchofield (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRachycentron canadum (cobia)PresentNativeIUCN (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRana catesbeiana (American bullfrog)PresentIntroducedSantos-Barrera et al. (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRhinella marina (cane toad)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)PresentNativeBruce (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaTubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaEchinodermataAcanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish)PresentInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAchatina fulica (giant African land snail)Present, Transient under eradicationIPPC (2021); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCrassostrea virginica (eastern oyster)Present, LocalizedNativeFIGIS (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras invadens (tramp slug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras laeve (meadow slug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHutchinson et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMagallana gigas (Pacific oyster)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Zuniga et al. (1998); Arias et al. (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMarisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)PresentNativeTaylor (1993); Simone (2006); Cowie and Hayes (2012); Horgan et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)PresentNativeLeal (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaBelonolaimus longicaudatus (sting nematode)PresentLopez (1979); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera pallida (white potato cyst nematode)Present, LocalizedIPPC (2008); Obando Vergara et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Absent, Formerly presentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)PresentLopez (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne enterolobii (Pacara earpod tree root-knot nematode)PresentHernandez et al. (2004); Tigano et al. (2010); Humphreys et al. (2012); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Present, WidespreadLópez (1985); Sosa Moss (1985); CABI and EPPO (2002); Villain et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)Present, WidespreadSosa Moss (1985); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2000); Herve et al. (2005); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999); Elbadri et al. (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRhadinaphelenchus cocophilus (red ring nematode)Present, WidespreadTidman (1951); CABI and EPPO (1999); Oehlschlager et al. (2002); Ye et al. (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaScutellonema bradys (yam nematode)PresentHumphreys-Pereira et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus granulosusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus multilocularisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesGyrodactylus salarisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila psittaciAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAdiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)PresentNativeLellinger (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAngiopteris evecta (king fern)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChristenhusz and Toivonen (2008); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla filiculoides (water fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaBlechnum appendiculatum (palm fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCeratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)Present, WidespreadIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMacrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaNephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteridium aquilinum (bracken)PresentNativeThomson and Alonso-Amelot (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris tripartita (giant brake)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia auriculata (giant salvinia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia minimaPresentGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaThelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)PresentIntroducedInvasiveRojas-Alvarado (2011); Smith (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAcanthophora spiciferaPresentNativeTaylor (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaHypnea musciformisPresentNativeTaylor (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus moschatus (musk mallow)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFryxell (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)PresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia angustissima (prairie acacia)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia dealbata (acacia bernier)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)PresentNativeILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mangium (brown salwood)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthocereus tetragonusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchillea millefolium (yarrow)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene americana (shyleaf)PresentNativeILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave americana (century plant)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave fourcroydes (henequen)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave sisalana (sisal hemp)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave vivipara (Caribbean agave)PresentNativeGarcía-Mendoza and Chiang (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum houstonianum (Blue billygoatweed)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgrostis avenacea (Pacific bent grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAira caryophyllea (silver hairgrass)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia adinocephala (cream albizia)PresentNativeChavarría et al. (1998); ILDIS (2005); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia niopoides (silk tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAleurites moluccanus (candlenut tree)PresentIntroducedBurger and Huft (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllium neapolitanum (False onion weed)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia cucullata (Chinese taro)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)PresentIntroducedHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAloe vera (true aloe)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia purpurata (red ginger)PresentIntroducedHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2014); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)PresentSalas (1985)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)PresentNativeDavidse et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAndropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAndropogon virginicus (broomsedge)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona cherimola (cherimoya)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedRandall (2012); Flora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona glabra (pond apple)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona squamosa (sugar apple)PresentIntroducedUSA, Missouri Botanical Garden (2009); Randall (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAntigonon leptopus (coral vine)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Boucher and Nishida (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristida ternipes (spidergrass)PresentNativeHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArthraxon hispidus (small carpetgrass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2007); Clayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)Present, WidespreadInvasiveIslam (1979); Wyatt (1980); Holm et al. (1997); Wyatt and Broyles (1997); USDA-ARS (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAverrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus compressus (carpet grass)PresentVargas et al. (1988)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus fissifoliusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedINBio (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBacopa monnieri (water hyssop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa bambos (giant thorny bamboo)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)PresentIntroducedHoldridge and Poveda (1975)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia purpurea (purple bauhinia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBegonia nelumbiifolia (lilypad begonia)PresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBixa orellana (annatto)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBocconia frutescens (plume poppy)Present, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated); Gargiullo et al. (2008); Boucher and Nishida (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBorreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrachypodium sylvaticum (slender false brome)Absent, Intercepted onlyHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica juncea (mustard)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica rapa (field mustard)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica rapa subsp. oleifera (turnip rape)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBreynia disticha (snowbush)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromelia pinguin (wild pineapple)PresentNativeZuchowski (2007); Woodley and Janzen (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)PresentIntroducedChavarría et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalceolaria tripartitaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalliandra houstoniana (calliandra)PresentNativeWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)PresentNativeZamora (2010); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCallisia repens (creeping inch-plant)PresentNativeHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium caeruleum (jicama)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis procera (apple of sodom)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCananga odorata (ylang-ylang)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedRandall (2012); Flora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean)PresentIntroducedSauer (1964); New York Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna indica (canna lilly)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna x generalis (canna lily)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum annuum (bell pepper)PresentFAO (2009); Vargas et al. (2011); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum baccatum (pepper)PresentIntroducedEshbaugh (1970)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardamine flexuosa (wavy bittercress)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)PresentEPPO (2022); PIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentNativeMorales Quirós (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant)PresentNativeIUCN (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia grandis (pink shower)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia javanica (pink shower)PresentIntroducedZamora (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); PIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina cunninghamiana (Australian beefwood)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina glauca (scaly oak (Australia))Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012); Villalobos et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCecropia peltata (trumpet tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCedrela odorata (Spanish cedar)Present, PlantedNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2012); Chacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)Present, Few occurrencesSoto A. et al. (1986); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum aurantiacum (orange cestrum)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaecrista nictitans (sensitive partridge pea)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); Gargiullo et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCheilocostus speciosus (crepe ginger )PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris gayana (Rhodes grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris radiataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris virgata (feather finger grass)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedLobo Cabezas (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChromolaena odorata (Siam weed)PresentNativeGautier (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinchona pubescens (quinine tree)PresentNativeStandley and Williams (1975)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium mexicanum (Mexican thistle)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium vulgare (spear thistle)PresentIntroducedForcella and Randall (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCissus verticillata (possum grape vine)PresentNativePOWO (2020); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantiifolia (lime)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantium (sour orange)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedCochrane and Iltis (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum chinense (Chinese glory bower)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)PresentIntroducedRueda (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower)PresentRueda (1993); Flora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum wallichii (Wallich's glorybower)PresentIntroducedRueda (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2004); Missouri Botanical Garden (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClusia roseaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)PresentIntroducedGovaerts et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveDavidse et al. (1994); IABIN (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaColocasia esculenta (taro)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)PresentHolm et al. (1977); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConium maculatum (poison hemlock)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2004); USDA-ARS (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCortaderia selloana (pampas grass)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCorymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrocosmia x crocosmiiflora (montbretia)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria maypurensis (rattlebox weed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)PresentIntroducedZamora (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCroton argenteus (silver July croton)PresentNativeGovaerts (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea hyssopifolia (false heather)PresentNativeFlora, Mesoamericana (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyathula prostrata (pasture weed)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2015); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyclanthera pedataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Hord et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)PresentIntroducedZuloaga et al. (2003); Pohl (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979); Salazar et al. (2013); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus aggregatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus compressus (annual sedge)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)PresentIntroducedGómez-Laurito (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)PresentNativeHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus papyrus (papyrus)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Gómez-Laurito (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactylis glomerata (cocksfoot)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012); MOBOT (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura stramonium (jimsonweed)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelairea odorata (Cape ivy)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)PresentNativeILDIS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium aristatum (angelton bluestem)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane)PresentNativeHEAR (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)PresentIntroducedVega and Rúgolo de Agrasar (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); PIER (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria insularis (sourgrass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria velutina (velvet fingergrass)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDiodia teres (poorjoe)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012); FAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea bulbifera (air potato)PresentIntroducedHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)PresentNativeUlloa (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDombeya wallichii (pink ball)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDracaena fragrans (corn plant)PresentIntroducedPOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1991); Blanco and Hilje (1995); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDuranta erecta (golden dewdrop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)PresentSoto A. et al. (1986); Clayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PresentIntroducedMorales (2003); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass)PresentNativeTropicos (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa pyramidalisPresentIntroducedZuloaga and Morrone (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinodorus grisebachiiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEclipta prostrata (eclipta)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEgeria densa (leafy elodea)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth)PresentNativeUK, Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew) (2009); USA, Missouri Botanical Garden (2009); USDA-ARS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)PresentGopal (1987); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedChristenhusz (2009); CABI (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeis guineensis (African oil palm)PresentFAO (2009); Missouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElodea canadensis (Canadian pondweed)PresentIntroducedGomez (1984)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón E and Saborío (2003); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEntada gigas (sea-bean)PresentNativeILDIS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)PresentNativeGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEremochloa ophiuroides (centipedegrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErigeron karvinskianus (Karwinsky’s fleabane)PresentIntroducedPruski (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEriobotrya japonica (loquat)Present, PlantedIntroducedNaturalizedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErythrina berteroana (coralbean)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErythrina poeppigiana (coral tree)Present, PlantedSaborío-R et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEtlingera elatior (torch ginger)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)PresentNativePIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)Presentvan Veldhuisen (2006); Chacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia umbellata (African milk bush)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBurger and Huft (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia baldschuanica (Russian vine)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFestuca arundinacea (tall fescue)PresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benjamina (weeping fig)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus pumila (creeping fig)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus religiosa (sacred fig tree)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlacourtia indica (governor's plum)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia macrophylla (large leaf flemingia)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia strobilifera (wild hops)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFoeniculum vulgare (fennel)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013); Flora Mesoamericana (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFraxinus uhdei (tropical ash)Present, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFurcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)Present, WidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)PresentNativeDavidse et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGarcia nutans (false tung oil tree)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (gliricidia)PresentNativeILDIS (2002); WAC (2005); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGmelina arborea (candahar)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)PresentIntroducedInvasiveIABIN (2008); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena serrata (arrasa con todo)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGrevillea robusta (silky oak)PresentIntroducedMorales (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)PresentIntroducedInvasiveVargas (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliocarpus americanus (white moho)Present, WidespreadNativeLay (1949); USDA-ARS (2012); Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliocarpus donnellsmithii (majagua)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)PresentHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemerocallis fulva (tawny daylily)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeterotis rotundifolia (pink lady)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHevea brasiliensis (rubber)PresentFAO (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHura crepitans (sand box)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)PresentIntroducedRojas and Agüero (1996); Chacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort)PresentUSDA-ARS (2004); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)PresentNativeIUCN (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHypochaeris radicata (cat's ear)PresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2013); PIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis spicigera (black sesame)PresentRoskov et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis suaveolens (pignut)PresentNativeGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balsamina (garden balsam)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012); GRIIS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón E and Saborío G (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)PresentIntroducedPIER (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera trita (Asian indigo)PresentILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaInga punctata (ice cream bean tree)Present, WidespreadNativeIUCN (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea alba (white moonflower )PresentNativeStaples (2017); Witt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)PresentIntroducedSnyder et al. (1981); Nahlik and Mitsch (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea carneaPresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )PresentNativeStaples (2016); Witt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea imperatiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)PresentStaples (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)PresentNativeStaples (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)PresentNativeDavidse et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)PresentInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012); Staples (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory)Present, LocalizedOrdetx (1949); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIxora casei (giant red ixora)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)PresentIntroducedGreen (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)Present, PlantedNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)Present, WidespreadNativeOcampo and Balick (2009); USA, Missouri Botanical Garden (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Balslev (1996); Kirschner (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus tenuis (slender rush)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJusticia pectoralis (freshcut)PresentNativeDurkee (1986)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)PresentIntroducedMorales (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)Present, WidespreadNativeSchemske (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLaportea aestuansPresentSánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus odoratus (sweet pea)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeersia hexandra (southern cut grass)PresentPyrah (1969)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentGBIF (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonotis nepetifolia (Christmas candlestick)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2012); GBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop)PresentNativeWCSP (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop )PresentNativeeMonocot (2016); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016); PIER (2016); Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnocharis flava (yellow bur-head)PresentNativeIngold (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)PresentSánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLivistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)PresentIntroducedHoldridge and Poveda (1975)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia grandiflora (water primrose)PresentGBIF (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia peploides (water primrose)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa acutangula (angled luffa)PresentEncyclopedia of Life (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa aegyptiaca (loofah)PresentZipcode Zoo (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)PresentNativeFlora Mesoamericana (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus penduliflorus (Turk's cap mallow)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaManilkara zapota (sapodilla)PresentNativeGovaerts (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaranta arundinacea (arrowroot)PresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago polymorpha (bur clover)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis minutiflora (molasses grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Missouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)Present, WidespreadIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose)PresentNativeAustin et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia cissoides (roadside woodrose)PresentNativeAustin et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia tuberosa (woodrose)PresentNativeHammel (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)Present, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMiconia calvescens (miconia)Present, LocalizedNativeMeyer (1994); Alves et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMicrostegium vimineum (Nepalese browntop)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveBien et al. (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)PresentNativeSánchez-Monge et al. (2010); PIER (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant)PresentNativeBarneby (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant)Present, LocalizedNativeJanzen (1983); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)Present, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1977); Barneby (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica charantia (bitter gourd)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMontanoa hibiscifolia (tree daisy)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorus alba (mora)PresentPeraza-Padilla (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMucuna pruriens (velvet bean)PresentILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMuntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)Present, WidespreadNativeFlora, Mesoamericana (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurdannia nudiflora (doveweed)PresentIntroducedRojas et al. (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurraya paniculata (orange jessamine)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)PresentIntroducedBurger and Taylor (1993)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather)PresentIntroducedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)PresentDurkee (1986)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeomarica caerulea (walking iris)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNerium oleander (oleander)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana tabacum (tobacco)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGentry and D'Arcy (1986); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNoronhia emarginata (Madagascar olive)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea ampla (dot-leaf water-lily)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016); Randall (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOdontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOdontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)PresentIntroducedINBio (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOeceoclades maculata (monk orchid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveDressler (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)PresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza rufipogon (wild rice)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Rojas and Agüero (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPachira aquatica (pachira nut)PresentNativeFlora Mesoamericana (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPanicum repens (torpedo grass)PresentRetana-Sánchez et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParkinsonia aculeata (Mexican palo-verde)Present, PlantedNativeILDIS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParmentiera aculeata (cucumber tree)Absent, Formerly presentBurger et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)PresentNativeDale (1981); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalidium geminatum (Egyptian paspalidium)Present, LocalizedNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum distichum (knotgrass)PresentNativeChase (1929); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum fasciculatum (bull grass)PresentNativeBlydenstein (1966); USDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum notatum (Bahia grass)PresentClayton et al. (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum virgatum (sword grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora edulis (passionfruit)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)PresentNativeKillip (1938)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)Present, WidespreadNativeDavidse et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora quadrangularis (giant granadilla)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora tripartita var. mollissima (banana passionfruit)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum polystachion (mission grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)PresentIntroducedSoto and Vega (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria punctata (dotted smartweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPetiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)PresentNativeCardenas and Coulston (1967); Morales (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean)PresentILDIS (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhragmites australis (common reed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2008); USDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)Present, WidespreadIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012); USDA-APHIS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta dioica (allspice)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree)PresentNativeGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PresentIntroducedFAO (2001); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus oocarpa (ocote pine)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper aduncum (spiked pepper)PresentNativeStarr et al. (2003); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper auritumPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)PresentUSDA-ARS (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Solórzano-Morales et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGargiullo et al. (2008); Flora Mesoamericana (2014); Govaerts (2014); Missouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea carolinensis (sourbush)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolycarpon tetraphyllum (fourleaf allseed)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentIntroducedBurger (1971)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotamogeton crispus (curlyleaf pondweed)PresentGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis juliflora (mesquite)PresentNativeBurkart (1976); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPrunella vulgaris (self-heal)PresentNativeWCSP (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudelephantopus spicatus (false elephant’s foot)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedGovaerts (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); USDA-ARS (2012); FAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)PresentIntroducedZipcodeZoo (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaQuamoclit hederifoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhizophora mangle (red mangrove)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRivina humilis (bloodberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRosa multiflora (multiflora rose)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRotala ramosiorPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)PresentIntroducedMillhollon and Burner (1993); Rojas et al. (1993); Calvo Domingo et al. (1996); Valverde et al. (1999); Chacón and Saborío (2012); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRoystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus ellipticus (yellow Himalayan raspberry)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)PresentIntroducedISSG (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex crispus (curled dock)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)PresentNúñez-Rodríguez et al. (2021)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRuta chalepensisPresentSolórzano-Morales et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRytidostylis carthagenensisPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Villalobos et al. (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveINBio Costa Rica (2012); Missouri Botanical Garden (2012); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalix humboldtiana (pencil willow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)PresentNativeJanzen (1982); ILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSansevieria hyacinthoides (African bowstring hemp)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)PresentIntroducedHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchinus molle (false pepper tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSechium edule (chayote)PresentIntroducedLira (1996); Villalobos et al. (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna alata (candle bush)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna bacillaris (whitebark senna)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna hirsuta (hairy senna)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna multijuga (November shower)Present, PlantedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)PresentNativeILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna spectabilis (whitebark senna)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria palmifolia (palm grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail)Present, WidespreadNativeGBIF (2012); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida repens (Javanese fanpetals)PresentNativeFryxell (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene gallica (common catchfly)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum americanumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum erianthum (potato tree)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Flora of Nicaragua (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)PresentLim (2013); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum quitoense (naranjilla)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum torvum (turkey berry)Present, LocalizedJanzen (1968); Holm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum tuberosum (potato)PresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); Montero-Astúa et al. (2002); Montero-Astúa et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum viarum (tropical soda apple)PresentGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum wendlandiiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora Mesoamericana (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSorghum halepense (Johnson grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphagneticola trilobata (wedelia)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpondias purpurea (red mombin)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass)PresenteMonocot (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus pyramidatus (whorled dropseed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)Present, Few occurrencesNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); PIER (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSterculia apetala (Panama tree)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2019); USDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSynedrella nodiflora (synedrella)PresentCABI (Undated); Sánchez-Monge et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)PresentNativeCroat (1981); Govaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium jambos (rose apple)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTabebuia rosea (pink poui)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarindus indica (tamarind)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2010); CABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma capensis (Cape honeysuckle)PresentIntroducedUlloa (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma stans (yellow bells)Present, WidespreadNativeGentry (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTectona grandis (teak)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThespesia populnea (portia tree)PresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)PresentIntroducedDaniel (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia fragrans (whitelady)PresentIntroducedDaniel (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia grandiflora (Bengal trumpet)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)PresentAlmeda (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona ciliata (toon)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrachypogon spicatus (spiked crinkleawn)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia pallida (purple queen)PresentIntroducedHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia spathacea (boat lily)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedDosch et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTribulus terrestris (puncture vine)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrimezia steyermarkii (yellow walking iris)PresentNative and IntroducedBarker and Govaerts (2017); Cascante-Marín and Estrada-Chavarría (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriplaris americana (ant tree)PresentGrandtner and Chevrette (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTripsacum latifolium (wideleaf gamagrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurbina corymbosa (Christmas vine)PresentNativeHammel (2010); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha domingensis (southern cattail)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveMcCoy et al. (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUlex europaeus (gorse)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveD'Arcy (1980); ILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa decumbens (signal grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón and Saborío (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUtricularia gibbaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbena litoralis (blue vervain)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia villosa (hairy vetch)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)PresentNativeGBIF (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex trifoliaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia myuros (annual fescue)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)PresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYoungia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)PresentIntroducedInvasiveGargiullo et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber officinale (ginger)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora, Mesoamericana (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZoysia matrella (Manila grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedHammel et al. (2003)
EukaryotaProtistaParamyxeaMarteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia bigeminaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia bovisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia exitiosaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia ostreaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaGymnodinium catenatumPresentViquez and Hargraves (1995)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaMikrocystos mackiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); Desquesnes (2004); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusalcelaphine herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusBanana streak diseasePresentNativeInvasiveDiekmann and Putter (1996); Pasberg-Gauhl and Lockhart (2000)
Virusbluetongue virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine leukemia virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscamelpox virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusChelonid herpesvirus 5PresentQuackenbush et al. (2001)
VirusCitrus leprosis virus C (leprosis of citrus)PresentCABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
Virusclassical swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusduck hepatitis A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Viruseastern equine encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusepizootic haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine arteritis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusHaliotid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious salmon anemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfluenza A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
VirusIris yellow spot virus (iris yellow spot)PresentEPPO (2022)
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusmyxoma virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNewcastle disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNipah virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPapaya ringspot virusPresentRivera et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPlantago asiatica mosaic virusPresentIntroducedMontero-Astúa et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
VirusPotato spindle tuber viroid (spindle tuber of potato)PresentCABI and EPPO (2014); Badilla et al. (1999); EPPO (2022)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrabies virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusred sea bream iridovirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusSquash leaf curl virus (leaf curl of squash)PresentSmith et al. (1997); EPPO (2022)
VirusSugarcane mosaic virus (sugarcane mosaic)PresentISSCT (1989); EPPO (2022)
VirusSweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato)PresentCABI (Undated)
Virusswine vesicular disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusTaura syndrome virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusTomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt)PresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2022)
VirusTomato yellow leaf curl virus (leaf curl)PresentEPPO (2022); Barboza et al. (2014);
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvisna/maedi virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWest Nile virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWhite spot syndrome virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
abalone viral ganglioneuritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
acarapisosis of honey beesPresentOIE (2009)
Aeromonas infection in fishAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
African horse sicknessAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
African swine feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
American foul broodAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
anthraxPresentOIE (2019); Food & Agriculture Organization (1972); OIE (1997); OIE (2019)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
avian chlamydiosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian infectious bronchitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian influenzaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
babesiosisPresentOIE (2009); Perez et al. (1994); Alvarez and Herrero (1996); Vargas et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bluetonguePresentOIE (2019); Thompson et al. (1992); OIE (2019)
Bonamia roughleyi (Australian winter disease) of oystersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bonamiosis (Bonamia exitiosa)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bonamiosis (Bonamia ostreae)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Borrelia anserina infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bovine anaplasmosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine babesiosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine genital campylobacteriosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine immunodeficiency virus infectionPresentHidalgo et al. (1995)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine tuberculosisPresentOIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine venereal trichomonosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine viral diarrhoeaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
camel poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
caprine arthritis encephalitisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Chrysomya bezziana infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
ChytridiomycosisPresent, WidespreadPuschendorf et al. (2009)
classical swine feverAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Clostridium perfringens enteritis and enterotoxaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cochliomyia hominivorax infestationAbsent, EradicatedWyss (2000); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious agalactiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious ecthymaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
contagious equine metritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious ophthalmiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
crayfish plagueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
cryptosporidiosis in livestock and poultryPresentAchí and Mata (1997); Luna et al. (2002)
Denman island diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Digenean infections of fishPresentChandler et al. (1995)
dourineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
duck viral enteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
duck virus hepatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EchinococcusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Echinococcus granulosusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Echinococcus multilocularisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
enzootic abortion of ewesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
enzootic bovine leukosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic lymphangitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
epizootic ulcerative syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine coital exanthemaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine encephalomyelitis (Western)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine infectious anaemiaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine piroplasmosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine rhinopneumonitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine viral arteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Escherichia coli infectionsPresentPérez et al. (1998)
European foul broodPresentCalderón and Sánchez (2011); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
fibropapillomatosis of sea turtlesPresentHerbst (1994)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
fowl typhoidPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Fusobacterium necrophorum infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
glandersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
haplosporidiosis of pacific oystersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
heartwaterAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
hepatitis E virus infectionPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)
horse poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
infection with Marteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Perkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Perkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Infection with salmonid alphavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious bursal diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious laryngotracheitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (1998); OIE (2019)
infectious salmon anaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Japanese encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
koi herpesvirus diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
leishmaniosisPresent, LocalizedMendoza et al. (1983)
leptospirosisPresentOIE (2009)
listeriosisPresentSchuchat et al. (1991); OIE Handistatus (2005); CABI (Undated)
lumpy skin diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
malignant catarrhal feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Marek's diseasePresentOIE (2009)
Mycoplasma agalactiae infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
myxomatosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Nairobi sheep diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
necrotizing hepatopancreatitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
neosporosisPresentPerez et al. (1998)
Newcastle diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Nipah virus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Oncorhynchus masou virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
paratuberculosisPresentOIE (2019); Dolz et al. (1999); OIE (2019)
peste des petits ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
porcine enterovirus infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
pullorum diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
pulmonary adenomatosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Q feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rabbit haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rabiesPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
red sea bream iridoviral diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Rift Valley feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rinderpestAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rotavirus infections in livestock and poultryPresent, LocalizedHird et al. (1990)
scrapieAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
sheep and goat poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
small hive beetle infestationPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2009); OIE (2020)
spring viraemia of carpAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Staphylococcus aureus infectionsPresent, WidespreadGraaf et al. (1997)
surraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); Desquesnes (2004); OIE (2019)
swine vesicular diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Taura syndromeAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
theileriosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
torovirus infectionsPresentKoopmans and Horzinek (1994); Pérez et al. (1998)
trichomonosisPresentOIE (2009)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
trypanosomosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
tuberculosisPresentOIE (2019); Fisanotti et al. (1998); OIE (2019)
tularaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Ureaplasma infectionsPresentLeón et al. (1994)
varroosis of honey beesPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
vesicular stomatitisPresentOIE (2009); Nichol (1988); Rodriguez et al. (1990)
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
visna/maediAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
West Nile feverPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
white spot diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
white tail diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Xenohaliotis californiensis infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
yellow head diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
ArtichokesArea harvested4 Im4 Im4 Im5 Im5 Im
Production quantity18 Im19 Im21 Im24 Im26 Im
Yield45,000 Fc47,500 Fc52,500 Fc48,000 Fc52,000 Fc
AsparagusArea harvested37 Im36 Im35 Im34 Im33 Im
Production quantity157 Im154 Im150 Im146 Im141 Im
Yield42,432 Fc42,778 Fc42,857 Fc42,941 Fc42,727 Fc
AvocadosArea harvested3,180 Im3,0003,0923,0923,004
Production quantity16,746 Im15,00012,36812,36812,158
Yield52,660 Fc50,000 Fc40,000 Fc40,000 Fc40,473 Fc
BananasArea harvested43,169 Im42,990 Im46,620 Im46,651 *44,142 Im
Production quantity2,437,381 Im2,410,965 Im2,629,758 Im2,659,710 *2,470,437 Im
Yield564,614 Fc560,820 Fc564,084 Fc570,129 Fc559,657 Fc
Beans, dryArea harvested16,72917,52017,87921,59323,147
Production quantity8,35211,7139,14316,47416,848
Yield4,993 Fc6,686 Fc5,114 Fc7,629 Fc7,279 Fc
Beans, greenArea harvested545 Im522 Im499 Im477 Im467 Im
Production quantity541 Im519 Im496 Im474 Im465 Im
Yield9,927 Fc9,943 Fc9,940 Fc9,937 Fc9,957 Fc
Berries nesArea harvested57 Im56 Im56 Im55 Im54 Im
Production quantity838 Im844 Im854 Im860 Im868 Im
Yield147,018 Fc150,714 Fc152,500 Fc156,364 Fc160,741 Fc
Cabbages and other brassicasArea harvested823 Im824824822831
Production quantity28,806 Im28,65028,65028,51032,790
Yield350,012 Fc347,694 Fc347,694 Fc346,837 Fc394,585 Fc
Carrots and turnipsArea harvested850 Im911959909960
Production quantity28,303 Im28,95033,35031,35033,308
Yield332,976 Fc317,783 Fc347,758 Fc344,884 Fc346,958 Fc
CassavaArea harvested10,672 Im10,6369,99610,1069,095
Production quantity159,861 Im159,540149,940151,590136,425
Yield149,795 Fc150,000 Fc150,000 Fc150,000 Fc150,000 Fc
Cauliflowers and broccoliArea harvested44 Im45 Im46 Im46 Im49 Im
Production quantity311 Im319 Im326 Im333 Im351 Im
Yield70,682 Fc70,889 Fc70,870 Fc72,391 Fc71,633 Fc
Cereals, TotalArea harvested35,117 A42,149 A42,769 A53,124 A53,193 A
Production quantity160,046 A163,925 A159,571 A213,880 A203,816 A
Yield45,575 Fc38,892 Fc37,310 Fc40,261 Fc38,316 Fc
Chillies and peppers, greenArea harvested192 Im189 Im187 Im183 Im181 Im
Production quantity596 Im596 Im596 Im596 Im594 Im
Yield31,042 Fc31,534 Fc31,872 Fc32,568 Fc32,818 Fc
Citrus Fruit, TotalArea harvested27,685 A28,607 A27,929 A27,452 A26,949 A
Production quantity287,613 A296,149 A292,923 A287,571 A282,375 A
Yield103,888 Fc103,523 Fc104,881 Fc104,754 Fc104,781 Fc
Cocoa, beansArea harvested4,024 Im4,3444,0004,0004,491
Production quantity500 *550545650600
Yield1,243 Fc1,266 Fc1,363 Fc1,625 Fc1,336 Fc
CoconutsArea harvested1,404 Im1,5001,5001,5001,500
Production quantity15,062 Im15,600 Im15,113 Im14,626 Im13,986 Im
Yield107,279 Fc104,000 Fc100,753 Fc97,507 Fc93,240 Fc
Coffee, greenArea harvested93,69793,69793,69784,13384,133
Production quantity84,09678,43490,41993,72083,846
Yield8,975 Fc8,371 Fc9,650 Fc11,140 Fc9,966 Fc
Cucumbers and gherkinsArea harvested186 Im183 Im180 Im178 Im179 Im
Production quantity1,685 Im1,661 Im1,637 Im1,613 Im1,627 Im
Yield90,591 Fc90,765 Fc90,944 Fc90,618 Fc90,894 Fc
Eggplants (aubergines)Area harvested19 Im18 Im18 Im18 Im18 Im
Production quantity98 Im96 Im95 Im93 Im93 Im
Yield51,579 Fc53,333 Fc52,778 Fc51,667 Fc51,667 Fc
Fibre Crops PrimaryArea harvested1,914 A1,917 A1,921 A1,966 A1,927 A
Production quantity1,205 A1,209 A1,214 A1,218 A1,230 A
Yield6,296 Fc6,307 Fc6,320 Fc6,195 Fc6,383 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested200,037 A203,339 A204,143 A198,546 A188,200 A
Production quantity7,009,841 A7,053,367 A7,114,124 A6,759,457 A6,382,689 A
Yield350,427 Fc346,877 Fc348,487 Fc340,448 Fc339,144 Fc
Fruit, fresh nesArea harvested59,195 Im57,144 Im54,887 Im52,082 Im49,263 Im
Production quantity385,345 Im376,000 F365,000 F350,000 F340,000 F
Yield65,098 Fc65,799 Fc66,500 Fc67,202 Fc69,017 Fc
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea harvested1,080 Im1,1161,1131,1121,103
Production quantity7,806 Im8,3958,3748,00611,030
Yield72,278 Fc75,224 Fc75,238 Fc71,996 Fc100,000 Fc
GingerArea harvested229 Im314324309338
Production quantity2,500 Im3,1353,8883,7084,056
Yield109,170 Fc99,841 Fc120,000 Fc120,000 Fc120,000 Fc
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Area harvested2,784 Im2,745 Im2,707 Im2,670 Im2,639 Im
Production quantity21,192 Im21,018 Im20,844 Im20,670 Im20,584 Im
Yield76,121 Fc76,568 Fc77,000 Fc77,416 Fc77,999 Fc
Groundnuts, with shellArea harvested206 Im204 Im202 Im200 Im196 Im
Production quantity225 Im224 Im223 Im223 Im221 Im
Yield10,922 Fc10,980 Fc11,040 Fc11,150 Fc11,276 Fc
Leeks, other alliaceous vegetablesArea harvested9 Im8 Im8 Im8 Im8 Im
Production quantity85 Im83 Im80 Im78 Im76 Im
Yield94,444 Fc103,750 Fc100,000 Fc97,500 Fc95,000 Fc
Lemons and limesArea harvested1,901 Im1,862 Im1,822 Im1,782 Im1,705 Im
Production quantity39,513 Im38,357 Im37,202 Im36,046 Im34,947 Im
Yield207,854 Fc205,999 Fc204,182 Fc202,278 Fc204,968 Fc
Lettuce and chicoryArea harvested203 Im199 Im196 Im192 Im197 Im
Production quantity568 Im558 Im548 Im538 Im550 Im
Yield27,980 Fc28,040 Fc27,959 Fc28,021 Fc27,919 Fc
MaizeArea harvested3,4603,3774,4394,9104,295
Production quantity6,2415,6146,7209,5428,072
Yield18,038 Fc16,624 Fc15,139 Fc19,434 Fc18,794 Fc
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasArea harvested6,629 Im6,6616,4906,2405,162
Production quantity53,754 Im53,28851,92049,92038,642
Yield81,089 Fc80,000 Fc80,000 Fc80,000 Fc74,859 Fc
Manila fibre (abaca)Area harvested1,044 Im1,049 Im1,055 Im1,060 Im1,067 Im
Production quantity1,205 Im1,209 Im1,214 Im1,218 Im1,230 Im
Yield11,542 Fc11,525 Fc11,507 Fc11,491 Fc11,528 Fc
Melons, other (inc.cantaloupes)Area harvested4,1074,4375,0105,1635,566
Production quantity124,853143,015144,588150,261177,724
Yield304,000 Fc322,324 Fc288,599 Fc291,034 Fc319,303 Fc
Nuts nesArea harvested129 Im92929292
Production quantity50 Im34343434
Yield3,876 Fc3,696 Fc3,696 Fc3,696 Fc3,696 Fc
Oil palm fruitArea harvested76,72076,91076,86072,45669,426
Production quantity1,081,8001,087,8001,095,8001,089,448816,000
Yield141,006 Fc141,438 Fc142,571 Fc150,360 Fc117,535 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested79,473 A79,752 A79,695 A75,327 A72,249 A
Production quantity1,113,187 A1,119,023 A1,125,835 A1,118,312 A843,637 A
Yield140,071 Fc140,313 Fc141,268 Fc148,461 Fc116,768 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested79,473 A79,752 A79,695 A75,327 A72,249 A
Production quantity44,516 A44,324 A44,113 A43,460 A34,520 A
Yield5,601 Fc5,558 Fc5,535 Fc5,770 Fc4,778 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested79,473 A79,752 A79,695 A75,327 A72,249 A
Production quantity242,154 A243,318 A244,784 A243,128 A183,363 A
Yield30,470 Fc30,509 Fc30,715 Fc32,276 Fc25,379 Fc
Oilseeds nesProduction quantity15,319 Im14,616 Im13,913 Im13,209 Im12,602 Im
Onions, dryArea harvested1,1811,3231,2681,2781,393
Production quantity40,15040,64438,77935,18141,928
Yield339,966 Fc307,211 Fc305,828 Fc275,282 Fc300,991 Fc
Onions, shallots, greenArea harvested18 Im17 Im16 Im16 Im15 Im
Production quantity104 Im101 Im99 Im96 Im94 Im
Yield57,778 Fc59,412 Fc61,875 Fc60,000 Fc62,667 Fc
OrangesArea harvested23,00024,00023,40023,00022,605
Production quantity226,908236,774234,877230,855226,844
Yield98,656 Fc98,656 Fc100,375 Fc100,372 Fc100,351 Fc
PapayasArea harvested954 Im9509001,1001,000
Production quantity86,567 Im85,50054,000100,00090,000
Yield907,411 Fc900,000 Fc600,000 Fc909,091 Fc900,000 Fc
Pepper (piper spp.)Area harvested327 Im436418388210
Production quantity1,669 Im1,8061,6901,1382,028
Yield51,040 Fc41,422 Fc40,431 Fc29,330 Fc96,571 Fc
PineapplesArea harvested40,00045,00045,00043,00040,000
Production quantity3,328,1003,418,1553,317,0282,923,1582,771,577
Yield832,025 Fc759,590 Fc737,117 Fc679,804 Fc692,894 Fc
Plantains and othersArea harvested10,367 Im10,00010,00010,00010,000
Production quantity111,470 Im105,000110,000110,000110,000
Yield107,524 Fc105,000 Fc110,000 Fc110,000 Fc110,000 Fc
PotatoesArea harvested3,3283,6823,5043,9673,674
Production quantity83,81193,56789,62097,97990,576
Yield251,836 Fc254,120 Fc255,765 Fc246,985 Fc246,532 Fc
Pulses, TotalArea harvested16,729 A17,520 A17,879 A21,593 A23,147 A
Production quantity8,352 A11,713 A9,143 A16,474 A16,848 A
Yield4,993 Fc6,686 Fc5,114 Fc7,629 Fc7,279 Fc
Rice, paddyArea harvested31,65738,77238,33048,21448,898
Production quantity153,805158,311152,851204,338195,744
Yield48,585 Fc40,831 Fc39,878 Fc42,381 Fc40,031 Fc
Rice, paddy (rice milled equivalent)Production quantity102,588 Fc105,593 Fc101,952 Fc136,293 Fc130,561 Fc
Roots and tubers nesArea harvested1,335 Im1,2051,2211,2571,217
Production quantity12,844 Im10,47913,55413,99912,984
Yield96,210 Fc86,963 Fc111,007 Fc111,368 Fc106,689 Fc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested19,092 A18,934 A19,015 A19,472 A17,512 A
Production quantity304,315 A307,136 A308,005 A316,185 A285,500 A
Yield159,394 Fc162,214 Fc161,980 Fc162,379 Fc163,031 Fc
Rubber, naturalArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Seed cottonArea harvested870 Im868 Im866 Im906 Im860 Im
Production quantity616 Im620 Im625 Im647 Im667 Im
Yield7,080 Fc7,143 Fc7,217 Fc7,141 Fc7,756 Fc
Sesame seedArea harvested273 Im270 Im267 Im265 Im267 Im
Production quantity165 Im163 Im161 Im159 Im161 Im
Yield6,044 Fc6,037 Fc6,030 Fc6,000 Fc6,030 Fc
SorghumArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
SoybeansArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
SpinachArea harvested15 Im14 Im13 Im13 Im12 Im
Production quantity75 Im72 Im69 Im67 Im65 Im
Yield50,000 Fc51,429 Fc53,077 Fc51,538 Fc54,167 Fc
StrawberriesArea harvested152 Im150151151171
Production quantity4,462 Im4,3004,3004,6695,440
Yield293,553 Fc286,667 Fc284,768 Fc309,205 Fc318,129 Fc
Sugar caneArea harvested62,63060,00064,25065,48564,676
Production quantity4,421,2104,142,1434,158,3704,265,9134,344,048 *
Yield705,925 Fc690,357 Fc647,217 Fc651,434 Fc671,663 Fc
Sugar Crops PrimaryArea harvested62,630 A60,000 A64,250 A65,485 A64,676 A
Production quantity4,421,210 A4,142,143 A4,158,370 A4,265,913 A4,344,048 A
Yield705,925 Fc690,357 Fc647,217 Fc651,434 Fc671,663 Fc
Sweet potatoesArea harvested201 Im218 Im151 Im201 Im168 Im
Production quantity601 Im650 F450 F600 F500 F
Yield29,900 Fc29,817 Fc29,801 Fc29,851 Fc29,762 Fc
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea harvested9 Im88820
Production quantity18 Im16141440
Yield20,000 Fc20,000 Fc17,500 Fc17,500 Fc20,000 Fc
TomatoesArea harvested1,134 Im1,1001,1001,1001,118
Production quantity60,034 Im57,23857,23857,23868,000
Yield529,400 Fc520,345 Fc520,345 Fc520,345 Fc608,229 Fc
Treenuts, TotalArea harvested129 A92 A92 A92 A92 A
Production quantity50 A34 A34 A34 A34 A
Yield3,876 Fc3,696 Fc3,696 Fc3,696 Fc3,696 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested8,277 A8,419 A8,388 A8,324 A8,522 A
Production quantity208,243 A206,405 A208,912 A203,148 A227,292 A
Yield251,592 Fc245,166 Fc249,061 Fc244,051 Fc266,712 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested3,017 Im3,026 Im3,035 Im3,045 Im3,056 Im
Production quantity46,712 Im46,745 Im46,778 Im46,811 Im47,184 Im
Yield154,829 Fc154,478 Fc154,129 Fc153,731 Fc154,398 Fc
Vegetables, leguminous nesArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
WatermelonsArea harvested3,4623,2282,8952,4481,786
Production quantity164,906136,756123,011102,93472,438
Yield476,332 Fc423,656 Fc424,908 Fc420,482 Fc405,588 Fc
YamsArea harvested1,929 Im1,5281,5751,5751,573
Production quantity28,023 Im22,92023,62523,62523,595
Yield145,272 Fc150,000 Fc150,000 Fc150,000 Fc150,000 Fc
Yautia (cocoyam)Area harvested1,627 Im1,6652,5682,3661,785
Production quantity19,175 Im19,98030,81628,39221,420
Yield117,855 Fc120,000 Fc120,000 Fc120,000 Fc120,000 Fc
Flag
No flag = Official data
* = Unofficial figure
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
F = FAO estimate
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology
M = Data not available

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea1,783 Fm1,780 Fm1,778 Fm1,778 Fm1,778 Fm
AgricultureArea1,783 Fc1,780 Fc1,778 Fc1,778 Fc1,778 Fc
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area9 I9 I8 I8 I8 Q
Arable landArea253 Fm252 Fm268 Fm254 Fm225 Fm
Country areaArea5,110 W5,110 Q5,110 W5,110 W5,110 Q
CroplandArea583 Fm580 Fm578 Fm559 Fm544 Q
Cropland area under organic agric.Area9 I9 I
Forest landArea3,002 Q2,986 Q2,969 Q2,953 Q2,937 Fm
Inland watersArea4 Fm4 Fm4 Fm4 Fm4 Fm
Land areaArea5,106 Fm5,106 Fm5,106 Fm5,106 Fm5,106 Fm
Land area equipped for irrigationArea160 Fm160 Fm160 Fm160 Fm160 I
Land under perm. meadows and pasturesArea1,200 Fm1,200 Fm1,200 Fm1,219 Q1,234 Fm
Land under permanent cropsArea330 Fm328 W310 W305 W319 W
Land under temporary cropsArea205 Fm204 Fm220 Fm206 Q178 Fm
Land used for aquacultureArea2 W2 Q2 Q2 Q2 Q
Land with temporary fallowArea48 Fm48 Q48 Fm48 Fm48 Q
Naturally regenerating forestArea2,920 Q2,905 Q2,891 Q2,876 Q2,862 Fm
Other landArea321 Fc341 Fc359 Fc375 Fc391 Fc
Planted ForestArea83 Q81 Q79 Q77 Q75 Fm
Primary ForestArea1,814 Fm1,814 Fm1,814 Q1,715 Fm
Agriculture area certified organicArea8 Q
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc.
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries
W = Data reported on country official publications or web sites (Official) or trade country files

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.