Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Brazil

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Datasheet

Brazil

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 211,049,527 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 9,130 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 1,926,332.31 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 1,839,758.04 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 4.44 (2019)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
yellow head virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter michiganensis (bacterial canker of tomato)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2009)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens (bacterial wilt of dry beans)Present, LocalizedMaringoni and Rosa (1997); CABI and EPPO (2010); Martins et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Dermatophilus congolensisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (sugarcane ratoon stunting disease)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium bovisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaBacteroidetesPaenibacillus larvaePresentSchuch et al. (2003)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus thuringiensis kurstakiPresentCABI (Undated)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas)PresentBedendo et al. (1997); Alves et al. (2018)
BacteriaFirmicutesCandidatus Phytoplasma phoeniciumAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
BacteriaFirmicutesMelissococcus plutoniusPresentSchotman (1989); Bailey (1984); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma gallisepticumPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma synoviaePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesSpiroplasma kunkelii (corn stunt spiroplasma)PresentHammond and Bedendo (2001); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAcidovorax citrulli (fruit blotch)PresentCABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginalePresentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusPresentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella melitensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella ovisPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia caryophylli (bacterial wilt of carnation)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBurkholderia pseudomalleiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCampylobacter fetus subsp. venerealisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Hepatobacter penaeiPresentGomes et al. (2010)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (citrus greening)PresentCABI/EPPO (2017); Coletta Filho et al. (2004); Coletta Filho et al. (2005); Bové (2006); Lopes et al. (2007); Lopes et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriacitrus huanglongbing (greening) disease (citrus greening)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaDickeya solani (black leg disease of potato)PresentCABI (Undated); Cardoza et al. (2017)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEdwardsiella tardaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEscherichia coliPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaMannheimia haemolyticaPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive)Present, WidespreadBradbury (1986); Maringoni et al. (2003); Moreira et al. (2015); Marques et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi (oleander knot)PresentInvasiveBradbury (1986); UK, CAB International (1987)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum (bacterial wilt of potato)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Arriel et al. (2014); Tebaldi et al. (2014)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 1 (bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); Almeida et al. (2007); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaRalstonia solanacearum race 2 (moko disease)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2021)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella AbortusequiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella abortusovisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella enteritidisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella gallinarumPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella pullorumPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaSalmonella typhimuriumPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaVibrio parahaemolyticusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (cassava bacterial blight)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (bean blight)PresentEPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas axonopodis pv. vasculorum (sugarcane gumming disease)Absent, Formerly presentBradbury (1986); Ricaud and Autrey (1989); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)PresentIntroducedPereira et al. (1976); Leite and Mohan (1990); Pruvost et al. (1992); Vernière et al. (1998); Li et al. (2007); Behlau et al. (2008); Lan Bui Thi Ngoc et al. (2010); Jaciani et al. (2012); Lin HsinCheng et al. (2012); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas fragariae (angular leaf spot)Present, LocalizedCABI/EPPO (2013); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis (bacterial leaf streak of grasses)PresentEPPO (2014); CABI (Undated)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (bacterial leaf streak of barley)PresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXenohaliotis californiensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines)Present, LocalizedBeretta et al. (1996); Lima et al. (1998); Laranjeira et al. (2000); Lopes et al. (2000); Li et al. (2001); Oliveira et al. (2002); Coletta Filho and Machado (2003); Li et al. (2003); Lopes et al. (2003); Schaad et al. (2004); Poltronieri et al. (2005); Wickert et al. (2007); Laranjeira et al. (2008); Rocha et al. (2010); Ping et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaSpirochaetesLeptospira interrogansPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces astaciAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces invadansAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPeronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum downy mildew)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBarbosa et al. (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPeronospora belbahrii (basil downy mildew)PresentSilva et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora cinnamomi (Phytophthora dieback)PresentEPPO (2022); Santos et al. (2011)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora colocasiae (taro leaf blight)PresentCABI and EPPO (2014)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPhytophthora infestans (Phytophthora blight)PresentUK, CAB International (1982); Carter et al. (1990); Reis et al. (2006); Casa-Coila et al. (2017)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara halstedii (downy mildew of sunflower)PresentDuarte et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaPlasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew)PresentUK, CAB International (1988)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaAlternaria japonica (pod spot of radish)PresentDavid (2000); Crochemore and Piza (1994); Mendes et al. (1998); Cabral et al. (2020)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBipolaris victoriae (Victoria blight of oats)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Tveit (1956); UK, CAB International (1990)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBlumeria graminis (powdery mildew of grasses and cereals)PresentFelício et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2004); Costamilan (2005); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaCeratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight)Present, LocalizedNativeRoux et al. (2000); Engelbrecht and Harrington (2005); Halfeld-Vieira and Nechet (2006); Silveira et al. (2006); Wyk et al. (2006); Ferreira et al. (2010); Harrington et al. (2011); Firmino et al. (2012); Halfeld-Vieira et al. (2012); Firmino et al. (2013); Oliveira et al. (2013); Arriel et al. (2014); Harrington et al. (2015); Oliveira et al. (2015); Melo et al. (2016); Silva et al. (2017); Santos et al. (2018); EPPO (2022); Herb IMI (undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaClaviceps africana (ergot)PresentIntroducedAlmeida Pinto et al. (1997); Bandyopadhyay et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (2006); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaColletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Theodoro et al. (2004); CABI and EPPO (2010); Bellé et al. (2018)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDidymella fabae (leaf and pod spot)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMendes et al. (1998)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDiplodia seriata (grapevine trunk disease)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2005)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaElsinoë australis (citrus scab)PresentCABI/EPPO (2012); Costanzo et al. (2013); Fan et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaErysiphe plataniPresentCABI/EPPO (2013)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana)Present, LocalizedIntroducedFourie et al. (2009); Dita et al. (2010); CABI and EPPO (2015); Costa et al. (2015); Czislowski et al. (2018); Zheng SiJun et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis (fusarium wilt of oil palm)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (Fusarium wilt)Present, LocalizedCia (1977); Chalfoun (1979); UK, CAB International (1982); Assigbetse et al. (1994); Fernandez et al. (1994); Skovgaard et al. (2001); Abo et al. (2005); Holmes et al. (2009)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusicladium effusum (pecan scab)PresentMendes et al. (1998); CABI/EPPO (2012)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGibberella circinata (pitch canker)PresentPfenning et al. (2014); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGibberella indica (wilt of pigeon pea)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Present, LocalizedGoes et al. (2000); Baayen et al. (2002); Timossi et al. (2003); Nunes et al. (2006); Alves et al. (2007); Guimarães (2008); Possiede et al. (2009); Rappussi et al. (2009); Lucon et al. (2010); CABI/EPPO (2012); Wikee et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaKabatiella zeae (eyespot)PresentUK, CAB International (1993)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMonilinia fructigena (brown rot)Absent, Formerly presentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella fijiensis (black Sigatoka)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCordeiro et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (2011); Silveira et al. (2016); Ramos et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella gibsonii (needle blight of pine)Present, Few occurrencesIvory (1987); Braun et al. (2013)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella pini (Dothistroma blight)PresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMycosphaerella populorum (septoria leaf spot)PresentMio and Amorim (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaOidium anacardii (cashew powdery mildew)PresentPonte (1986)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPhomopsis vexans (Phomopsis blight of eggplant)PresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora ulei (South American leaf blight of rubber (SALB))Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaSphaeropsis sapinea (Sphaeropsis blight)PresentMay (1964); Punithalingham and Waterston (1970); Herb IMI (undated); Sutton (undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaTrichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMathur (1981); Soave et al. (1985); Mendes et al. (1998); Scheidt et al. (2020)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaAmylostereum areolatumPresentCABI (Undated); Chiarello Penteado et al. (2000); Ireland et al. (2018)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaAustropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust)Present, WidespreadNativeWinter (1884); Joffily (1944); Ferreira (1983); Alfenas et al. (2003); Graça et al. (2013); Salazar Yepes and Carvalho Júnior (2013); CABI and EPPO (2014); Pieri et al. (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaMoniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease of cacao)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002); Loguercio et al. (2009); Marelli et al. (2009); Patrocínio et al. (2017); Lima et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaMoniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot)Absent, Never occurredEvans (1981); Anonymous (2009)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora euvitis (grape rust fungus)PresentIntroducedInvasiveTessmann et al. (2004); CABI and EPPO (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPhakopsora pachyrhizi (soyabean rust)Present, WidespreadHernández (2005); CABI and EPPO (2015); Dorighello et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia graminis (stem rust of cereals)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia horiana (white rust of chrysanthemum)PresentEPPO (2022); Pitta et al. (1977); CABI and EPPO (2008)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia kuehnii (orange rust)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2015); Barbasso et al. (2010); IPPC (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaThecaphora frezii (peanut smut)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaTilletia indica (Karnal bunt of wheat)Absent, Formerly presentJones (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaAlitta succinea (pile worm)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaBranchiomma luctuosumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaHydroides diramphaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaPolydora nuchalisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAcarapis woodi (honeybee mite)PresentEPPO (2022); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAceria guerreronis (coconut mite)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAculops fuchsiae (Fuchsia gall mite)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAculops lycopersici (tomato russet mite)PresentRossetto (1972); Flechtmann (1974); Ramalho (1978); Ramalho and Veiga (1980); Oliveira and Sponchiado (1983); Haji et al. (1988); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes aegyptiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)PresentCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAethina tumidaPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)Present, WidespreadCABI (Undated); Fernandes et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleochara puberulaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Lemos et al. (2006); Pena et al. (2009); Lopes et al. (2010); Silva et al. (2011); Molina et al. (2014); Silva et al. (2015); Alvim et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus cocois (coconut whitefly)PresentMound and Halsey (1978); Silva (1977)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus destructor (coconut whitefly)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurodicus dispersus (whitefly)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurothrixus floccosus (woolly whitefly)PresentEPPO (2022); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAleurotrachelus atratus (palm-infesting whitefly)PresentNativeHempel (1922)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAmblyomma variegatum (tropical bont tick)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAmphibalanus improvisus (bay barnacle)Present, WidespreadInvasiveHenry and McLaughlin (1975); Farrapeira (2009); Farrapeira (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeWiedemann (1830); Stone (1942); Cardoso et al. (2002); Garcia et al. (2003); Cardoso et al. (2004); Destéfano et al. (2005); Caetano et al. (2006); Goncalves et al. (2006); Gonçalves et al. (2006); Vera et al. (2006); Bomfim et al. (2007); Feitosa et al. (2007); Silva and Silva (2007); Aguiar-Menezes et al. (2008); Uramoto et al. (2008); Barbosa-Negrisoli et al. (2009); Leal et al. (2009); Azevedo et al. (2010); Silva et al. (2010); Uchôa and Nicácio (2010); Souza et al. (2012); Savaris et al. (2013); Manni et al. (2015); Klesener et al. (2016); Lemos et al. (2017); Maciel et al. (2017); Alves et al. (2019); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha grandis (South American cucurbit fruit fly)Present, LocalizedNativeStone (1942); Silva and Malavasi (1993); Silva and Malavasi (1996); Malavasi and Zucchi (2000); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeLima da Costa (1934); Zahler (1991); Silva et al. (1996); Ohashi et al. (1997); Aguiar-Menezes and Menezes (2001); Lemons et al. (2002); Uchôa-Fernandes et al. (2002); Uchôa-Fernandes et al. (2003); Uramoto et al. (2004); Araujo et al. (2005); Ronchi-Teles and Silva (2005); Santos et al. (2005); Souza et al. (2005); Goncalves et al. (2006); Gonçalves et al. (2006); Bomfim et al. (2007); Silva et al. (2007); Araujo et al. (2008); De Oliveira et al. (2008); Feitosa et al. (2008); Martins et al. (2008); Uramoto et al. (2008); Dutra et al. (2009); Thomazini and Albuquerque (2009); Uchôa and Nicácio (2010); CABI/EPPO (2011); Garcia and Norrbom (2011); Silva et al. (2011); Montes et al. (2012); Souza et al. (2012); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2013); Bomfim et al. (2014); Lemos et al. (2017); Almeida et al. (2019); Alves et al. (2019); Rodrigues et al. (2021); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly)Present, WidespreadNativeWiedemann (1830); Greene (1934); Stone (1942); CABI and EPPO (2001); Raga et al. (2003); Ronchi-Teles and Silva (2005); Uramoto et al. (2008); Leal et al. (2009); Uchôa and Nicácio (2010); Lemos et al. (2011); Silva et al. (2011); Bomfim et al. (2014); Lemos et al. (2017); Almeida et al. (2019); Rodrigues et al. (2021); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha striata (guava fruit fly)Present, LocalizedNativeStone (1942); Selivon and Morgante (1997); Norrbom et al. (1999); Malavasi and Zucchi (2000); CABI and EPPO (2002); Rodrigues et al. (2006); Bomfin et al. (2007); Selivon et al. (2007); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2011); Ronchi-Teles et al. (2011); Jesus-Barros et al. (2012); Deus et al. (2013); Taira et al. (2013); de Oliveira (2015); Adaime et al. (2017); Lemos et al. (2017); Souza et al. (2018); Almeida et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAnthonomus grandis (Mexican cotton boll weevil)PresentIntroducedToledo et al. (2000); Martins et al. (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella aurantii (red scale)PresentEbeling (1959); Rose (1990); Almeida et al. (2018); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella orientalis (oriental yellow scale)PresentMckenzie (1938); Costa et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidomytilus albus (tapioca scale)PresentNativeNakahara (1982); Kondo (2001); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentCABI (Undated); Leite et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1968); Carletto et al. (2009); Fernandes et al. (2011); Leite et al. (2015); Cunha and Sousa e Silva (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis melliferaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis mellifera scutellata (africanized bee)PresentCABI (Undated); Lopes and Machado (1998); Diniz et al. (2003); Francoy et al. (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaArtemia (brine shrimp)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAutographa gamma (silver-Y moth)Absent, Formerly presentErazo-Moreno et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera carambolae (carambola fruit fly)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Clarke et al. (2001); Aguilar and Santos (2007); Lemos et al. (2014); Almeida et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBalanus amphitrite (striped barnacle)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBalanus reticulatusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBalanus trigonusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)Present, LocalizedCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Leite et al. (2015); Fonseca et al. (2016); Borges et al. (2019); Trindade et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly)Present, LocalizedLourenção and Nagai (1994); Brown et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (1999); Nunes et al. (2008); Rodrigues et al. (2010); Fernandes-Acioli et al. (2011); Fonseca et al. (2013); Boiteux et al. (2016); Mituti et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (MED) (silverleaf whitefly)PresentBarbosa et al. (2015); Bello et al. (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBlattella germanica (German cockroach)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBombus terrestris (bumble bee)PresentIntroducedCosta and Lordello (1988); Thorp (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBoophilus microplusPresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBradinothrips musaePresentLima and Zucchi (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBrevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite)Present, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2013); Kitajima et al. (2003); Miranda et al. (2007); Rodrigues et al. (2008); Sousa et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBruchophagus roddi (alfalfa seed chalcid)PresentUK, CAB International (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCactoblastis cactorum (cactus moth)Present, LocalizedNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCaliothrips fasciatusPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallinectes sapidus (blue crab)PresentNativeGulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (2001); Tavares (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallosobruchus chinensis (Chinese bruchid)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCallosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil)Present, WidespreadCredland and Dick (1987)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCarcinus maenas (European shore crab)Absent, Formerly presentCarlton and Cohen (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCarpophilus fumatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCarpophilus neposPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCerataphis lataniae (palm aphid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSchotman (1989); CABI and EPPO (2007); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveEnkerlin et al. (1989); Kourti et al. (1992); McPheron and Steck (1996); Ronchi-Teles and Silva (1996); Gasparich et al. (1997); Davies et al. (1999); Gasperi et al. (2002); Uchôa-Fernandes et al. (2002); Raga et al. (2004); Araujo et al. (2005); Gonçalves et al. (2006); Pontes (2006); Bomfim et al. (2007); Uramoto et al. (2008); Leal et al. (2009); Uchôa and Nicácio (2010); Araujo (2011); Garcia and Norrbom (2011); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2011); Martins (2011); Nicácio and Uchôa (2011); Raga et al. (2011); Husch et al. (2012); Ricalde et al. (2012); Veloso et al. (2012); Savaris et al. (2013); Aquino and Joachim-Bravo (2014); de Moura Araujo et al. (2014); Querino et al. (2014); CABI and EPPO (2015); Araujo et al. (2016); Adaime et al. (2017); Balmès and Mouttet (2017); Trassato et al. (2017); Alves et al. (2019); Galli et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCharybdis helleriiPresentCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale)PresentEPPO (2022); Almeida et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChthamalus proteusPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCinara cupressi sensu lato (Cypress aphid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoccinella septempunctata (seven-spot ladybird)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaConoderus rufangulusPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCoptotermes gestroi (Asian subterranean termite)PresentIntroducedInvasiveEvans et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCrocidosema plebejana (cotton tipworm)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCryptotermes brevis (powderpost termite)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveHagen (1858); Constantino (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCtenarytaina eucalypti (blue gum psyllid)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBurckhardt et al. (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCtenarytaina spatulataPresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHeinemann and Belkin (1979)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDaphnia lumholtziPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDermestes olivieriPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Mound and Halsey (1978); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)Present, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2011); Nava et al. (2007); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDinoderus minutus (bamboo borer)PresentIntroducedWu et al. (1986)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDipogon lignosusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDrosophila suzukii (spotted wing drosophila)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2016); Deprá et al. (2014); Vilela and Mori (2014); Andreazza et al. (2016); Souza et al. (2017); Louzeiro et al. (2019); Mendonca et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDuponchelia fovealis (Southern European marshland pyralid)PresentPirovani et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)PresentCABI (Undated); Compere (1936); Culik and Gullan (2005); Morandi Filho et al. (2015); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug)PresentGarcía Morales et al. (2016); Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEriosoma lanigerum (woolly aphid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaErthesina fullo (yellow-spotted stink bug)PresentBrugnera et al. (2021); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEulachnus rileyi (pine needle aphid)PresentNHM (1970)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEupoecilia ambiguella (grapevine moth)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFerrisia virgata (striped mealybug)PresentKaydan and Gullan (2012); Ben-Dov (1994); Almeida et al. (2018); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaFrankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)PresentIntroducedInvasiveNakahara (1997); CABI and EPPO (1999); Yamada et al. (2016); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGeococcus coffeae (coffee root mealybug)PresentSchotman (1989); Williams and Granara de Willink (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGlycaspis brimblecombei (red gum lerp psyllid)PresentOliveira et al. (2006); CABI and EPPO (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGonipterus scutellatus (eucalyptus snout beetle)Present, LocalizedD'ARAÚJO E SILVA et al. (1968); Fenilli (1982); Rosado-Neto (1993); CABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGrapholita molesta (Oriental fruit moth)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Kirk et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGreenidea ficicolaPresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGymnandrosoma aurantianum (citrus fruit borer)Present, WidespreadVianna (2015); Da Costa Lima (1927); Bento et al. (2001); Matos et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaGynaikothrips ficorum (Cuban laurel thrips)PresentJacot-Guillarmod and Brothers (1986)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHaplaxius crudus (American palm cixiid)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Silva et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHarmonia axyridis (harlequin ladybird)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveKoch et al. (2006); CABI and EPPO (2007); Rezende et al. (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Czepak et al. (2013); Bueno et al. (2014); Krinski and Godoy (2015); Pratissoli et al. (2015); Sosa-Gómez et al. (2016); Pinto et al. (2017); Arnemann et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa zea (bollworm)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHeliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)PresentUK, CAB International (1961); Lima and Zucchi (2016); Souza et al. (2019); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1976); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale (USA))PresentMerrill (1953)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHylurgus ligniperda (red-haired pine bark beetle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992); CABI and EPPO (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypogeococcus pungens (cactus mealybug)PresentNativeBen-Dov (1994); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypothenemus hampei (coffee berry borer)Present, LocalizedGama et al. (2006); Cristancho et al. (2007); Gumier-Costa (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHypsipyla grandella (mahogany shoot borer)PresentZanetti et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaIcerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)PresentEPPO (2022); Almeida et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaInsignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeptocybe invasa (blue gum chalcid)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLeptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug)PresentIntroducedvan der Heyden and Faúndez (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLernaea cyprinaceaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLinepithema humile (Argentine ant)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Wild (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiposcelis decolorPresentKoike (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza huidobrensis (serpentine leafminer)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2002); Alves et al. (2014); Pereira et al. (2015); Soares et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza sativae (vegetable leaf miner)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza trifolii (American serpentine leafminer)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaListroderes costirostris (vegetable weevil)PresentBuchanan (1937); Morrone (1993); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLitopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Present, WidespreadIntroducedCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMaconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCulik et al. (2013); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2013); Peronti and Martinelli (2014); CABI and EPPO (2015); Peronti et al. (2016); Peres-Filho et al. (2017); Lopes et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); New (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMacrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid)PresentIntroducedUK, CAB International (1984)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMarsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMegaplatypus mutatusPresentWood and Bright (1992); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMetcalfa pruinosa (frosted moth-bug)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium destructor (Singapore ant)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium floricolaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMonomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMononychellus tanajoa (cassava green mite)PresentEPPO (2022); Moraes et al. (1995)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMythimna unipuncta (rice armyworm)PresentNativeUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)Present, WidespreadSmith and Cermeli (1979); UK, CAB International (1979); Vieira et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNeoleucinodes elegantalis (eggplant stem borer)PresentEPPO (2022); Franca et al. (1979); Medal et al. (1996); Picanço et al. (1998); Blackmer et al. (2001); Cabrera et al. (2001); Nunes and Leal (2001); Eiras and Blackmer (2003); Miranda et al. (2005); Wamser et al. (2008); Costa et al. (2009); Silva et al. (2017); Oliveira et al. (2019); Silva et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1970); Moscardi (1993); Panizzi (2002); Vivan and Panizzi (2006); Ricalde et al. (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus nipae (spiked mealybug)PresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOecobius annulipesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOpogona sacchari (banana moth)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSuplicy Filho and Sampaio (1982); Sampaio et al. (1983); CABI and EPPO (1999); Zorzenon and Potenza (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle)PresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaOxycarenus hyalinipennis (cotton, seed bug)PresentEPPO (2022); Hambleton and Sauer (1938); Santos et al. (1977); Nagoshi et al. (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParaleyrodes bondariPresentCassino and Nascimento (1999); CABI Data Mining (2011); Stocks (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina fulvaPresentGotzek et al. (2012); Fox et al. (2010); Gusmão et al. (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParatrechina longicornis (crazy ant)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParlatoria cinereaPresentAlmeida et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParthenolecanium persicae (peach scale)PresentUK, CAB International (1979); Soria and Conte (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPaysandisia archon (South American palm borer)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Flint et al. (1979); Gutierrez et al. (1986); Mafra-Neto and Habib (1996); Venzon et al. (2003); de Melo et al. (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)PresentIntroducedDIAS (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPheidole megacephala (big-headed ant)PresentIntroducedInvasiveKempf (1972)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhenacoccus solenopsis (cotton mealybug)PresentIntroducedMatienzo et al. (2003); Resende et al. (2006); Hodges et al. (2008); Kondo et al. (2008); Muniappan (2009); Prishanthini and Vinobaba (2009); CABI/EPPO (2012); Culik et al. (2013); Lopes et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhilornis downsiPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhoracantha recurva (eucalyptus longhorned borer)Present, LocalizedIntroducedSilva (2002); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhoracantha semipunctata (eucalyptus longhorned borer)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea absoluta (tomato leafminer)Present, WidespreadIntroducedFilho et al. (2000); Siqueira et al. (2000); Ferrara et al. (2001); CABI and EPPO (2013); Dias et al. (2013); Gontijo et al. (2013); Silva et al. (2016); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea operculella (potato tuber moth)Present, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)Present, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1986); Silva et al. (1997); Garcia and Carabagialle (2000); Nascimento et al. (2000); Sá et al. (2000); Sant'Ana et al. (2003); Thomazini and Albuquerque (2005); Jesus et al. (2008); Jaciani et al. (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPineus boerneri (pine woolly aphid)PresentLazzari and Cardoso (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPissodes castaneus (small banded pine weevil)PresentIede et al. (2007); Marques et al. (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug)PresentCABI and EPPO (1999); Almeida et al. (2018); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)Present, WidespreadSalinas (1986)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPolyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProcambarus clarkii (red swamp crayfish)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaProstephanus truncatus (larger grain borer)Absent, Formerly presentUK, CAB International (1995); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale)Present, LocalizedBorchsenius (1966); Castro et al. (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus elisae (banana mealybug)PresentNHM (1982); Williams and Granara de Willink (1992); Culik et al. (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPsydrothrips kewiPresentCavalleri et al. (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaQuadrastichus erythrinae (Erythrina gall wasp)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRaoiella indica (red palm mite)PresentCABI (Undated); Navia et al. (2011); Rodrigues and Antony (2011); Oliveira et al. (2016); Hata et al. (2017); Melo et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhithropanopeus harrisii (Harris mud crab)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)Williams (1965); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhynchophorus palmarum (South American palm weevil)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022); Husband and Flechtmann (1972); Moura et al. (1993); Moura et al. (1995); Araújo et al. (1998); Ferreira et al. (2003); Miguens et al. (2011); Pinho et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer)PresentTaylor and Halliday (1986); Pacheco et al. (1990)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRusselliana solanicolaPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSaissetia oleae (olive scale)PresentCABI (Undated); Ricalde et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)Present, Few occurrencesEPPO (2022); Dias-Pini et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaScyphophorus acupunctatus (agave weevil)PresentVaurie (1971); Wibmer and O'Brien (1986); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSirex noctilio (woodwasp)Present, LocalizedIntroducedIede et al. (1988); Anon (1998); Wilcken et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus oryzae (lesser grain weevil)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitotroga cerealella (grain moth)PresentCruz (1980); Rebelles Reis (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant)PresentNativeISSG (2009); Gotzek et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)Present, LocalizedNativeCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSolenopsis richteri (black imported fire ant)Present, LocalizedNativePitts (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)PresentEPPO (2022); CABI and EPPO (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)PresentEPPO (2022); Farias et al. (2008); Souza et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSternochetus mangiferae (mango seed weevil)Present, Few occurrencesSilva and Ricalde (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTachinaephagus zealandicusPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTakecallis taiwanusPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTapinoma melanocephalum (ghost ant)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentInternational Institute of Entomology (1996); Sousa et al. (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWilcken et al. (2010); Nadel et al. (2010); Mascarin et al. (2012); Souza et al. (2012); PereiraI et al. (2013); Ribeiro et al. (2015); CABI and EPPO (2017); Saliba et al. (2019); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaThrips palmi (melon thrips)Present, LocalizedIntroducedMonteiro et al. (1995); CAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); Monteiro et al. (2001); Leite et al. (2006); Almeida et al. (2008); Leite et al. (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTibraca limbativentris (stinkbug)PresentSchotman (1989); S. Martins et al. (1997); Borges et al. (2006); Maciel et al. (2007); Rampelotti et al. (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaToxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrialeurodes vaporariorum (whitefly, greenhouse)PresentByrne et al. (1990); Lourenção et al. (2008); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaUnaspis citri (citrus snow scale)PresentEPPO (2022); Almeida et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)PresentOIE (2019); Alves et al. (1975); Moretto and Leonidas (2003); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaViteus vitifoliae (grapevine phylloxera)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaWasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant)PresentNativeInvasiveISSG (2014); Wetterer and Porter (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborinus saxesenii (fruit-tree pinhole borer)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWood and Bright (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXyleborus volvulusPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus compactus (shot-hole borer)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWood (1980); CABI and EPPO (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus crassiusculus (Asian ambrosia beetle)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaXylosandrus morigerus (brown twig beetle)PresentEPPO (2022); Rodríguez et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaBryozoaBugula neritina (brown bryozoan)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaBryozoaSchizoporella errata (branching bryozoan)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaBryozoaSchizoporella unicornisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAristichthys nobilis (bighead carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); FishBase (2004); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAscidia sydneiensisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAstronotus ocellatus (oscar)PresentSilvano and Begossi (2001); Latini and Petrere (2004); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBos taurus (cattle)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Present, WidespreadIntroducedLong (2003); Camarao et al. (2004); Borghese (2005); Sheikh et al. (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubulcus ibis (cattle egret)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCapra hircus (goats)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCichla ocellaris (peacock cichlid)PresentChong et al. (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCiona intestinalis (sea vase)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClarias gariepinusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataClavelina oblongaPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCorvus splendens (house crow)Absent, Formerly presentRyall (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)PresentIntroducedShireman and Smith (1983); FAO (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDidelphis marsupialis (common opossum)Present, WidespreadNativeCaceres and Monteiro-Filho (2006); IUCN (2015)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDidemnum perlucidumPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEquus asinus (donkeys)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataEquus ferusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataFelis catus (cat)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHoplosternum littorale (armoured catfish)PresentNativeFishBase (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHydrochoerus hydrochaeris (capybara)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004); FishBase (2005); Seebens et al. (2017); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIctalurus punctatus (channel catfish)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWelcomme (1988); Piedras (1990); Froese and Pauly (2004); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataIguana iguana (iguana)PresentNativeLeenders (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLepomis gibbosus (pumpkinseed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLepomis macrochirus (bluegill)PresentWelcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLepus europaeus (European hare)Present, LocalizedIntroducedGrigera and Rapoport (1983); Bonino et al. (2010); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca mulatta (rhesus macaque)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMarmosa cinereaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMicropterus salmoides (largemouth bass)PresentIntroducedScott and Crossman (1973); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMolothrus bonariensis (shiny cowbird)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMus musculus (house mouse)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMyiopsitta monachus (monk parakeet)PresentNativeInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMyocastor coypus (coypu)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Pullin et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Pullin et al. (1997); Starling et al. (2002); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOvis aries (sheep)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPantherophis guttatus (corn snake)Absent, Formerly presentEterovic and Duarte (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPasser domesticus (house sparrow)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPhalloceros caudimaculatus (dusky millions fish)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPhallusia nigra (black sea squirt)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPiaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia latipinna (sailfin molly)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia reticulata (guppy)PresentNativeInvasiveFroese and Pauly (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPoecilia viviparaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPolyandrocarpa zorritensisPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPterois volitans (lionfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRachycentron canadum (cobia)PresentNativeIUCN (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRana catesbeiana (American bullfrog)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLima et al. (1999); Flores Nava (2005); Giovanelli et al. (2008); Kraus (2009); Santos-Barrera et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus norvegicus (brown rat)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus rattus (black rat)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRhinella marina (cane toad)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalmo salar (Atlantic salmon)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataStyela clava (Asian tunicate)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataStyela plicata (pleated sea squirt)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig)PresentIntroducedInvasiveSicuro and Oliveira (2002); Long (2003)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTrichopodus trichopterus (three spot gourami)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTupinambis merianae (black and white tegu)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataTyto alba (Barn owl)PresentNativeBruce (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataXiphophorus helleriiPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataXiphophorus maculatus (southern platyfish)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaCordylophora (euryhaline hydroid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaPhyllorhiza punctata (Australian spotted jellyfish)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaCnidariaTubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaEchinodermataOphiactis savignyiPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAchatina fulica (giant African land snail)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasivePaiva (1999); Fonseca and Nascimento (2004); Franco-Acuña et al. (2009); Vogler et al. (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); Santos et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaBiomphalaria glabrata (marsh snail)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCorbicula fluminea (Asian clam)PresentIntroducedInvasiveDuarte and Diefenbach (1994)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCornu aspersum (common garden snail)PresentIntroducedInvasiveTaylor (1914); Reichling (1950); Flechtmann and Baggio (1985); Escargots Funcia (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCrassostrea virginica (eastern oyster)Present, WidespreadNativeFIGIS (2005)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras invadens (tramp slug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveBarker (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaDeroceras laeve (meadow slug)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMaurer et al. (2002); Landal et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLimacus flavusPresentLandal et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLimax maximus (leopard slug)PresentIntroducedBoffi (1979); Simone (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaLimnoperna fortunei (golden mussel)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMagallana gigas (Pacific oyster)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMarisa cornuarietis (giant ramshorn)Present, WidespreadNativeCowie and Thiengo (2003); Simone (2006)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMeghimatium pictumPresentIntroducedInvasiveGomes et al. (2011); Baronio et al. (2014); Landal et al. (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMelanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPinctada imbricata radiata (rayed pearl oyster)PresentNativeLeal (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail)PresentEPPO (2022); Dos Santos and Mendes (1981); Santos et al. (1987); Cowie and Thiengo (2003); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaPomacea maculataPresent, WidespreadNativeHayes et al. (2012); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaRapana venosa (veined rapana whelk)Present, LocalizedIntroducedCABI (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaTheba pisana (white garden snail)Absent, Formerly presentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAnguina tritici (wheat seed gall nematode)Absent, Formerly presentCHRISTIE and PERRY (1959); CABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)PresentLordello (1969); CABI and EPPO (2000); Favoreto et al. (2018); Noronha et al. (2021); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides fragariae (strawberry crimp nematode)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Almeida (1992); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm)PresentCuri and Pitta (1971); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaDitylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematode)PresentBecker (1999); Subbotin et al. (2005); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaGlobodera rostochiensis (yellow potato cyst nematode)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHelicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)PresentSiddiqi (1973); Zem and Lordello (1981); CABI and EPPO (2003); Lima et al. (2013)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaHeterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode)Present, LocalizedIntroducedLordello et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode)PresentTaylor et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2003); Lima et al. (2005); Moura et al. (2010); Araújo Filho et al. (2012); Lima et al. (2013); Machado et al. (2013); Bellé et al. (2016); Kaspary et al. (2017); Neves et al. (2017); Souza et al. (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne enterolobii (Pacara earpod tree root-knot nematode)Present, WidespreadCarneiro et al. (2001); Carneiro et al. (2004); Hernandez et al. (2004); Torres et al. (2004); Torres et al. (2005); Carneiro et al. (2006); Silva et al. (2006); Oliveira et al. (2007); Almeida et al. (2008); Gomes et al. (2008); Silva et al. (2008); Arevalo et al. (2009); Charchar et al. (2009); Castro and Santana (2010); Tigano et al. (2010); Almeida et al. (2012); Gomes et al. (2012); Paes et al. (2012); Jindapunnapat et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2014); Rosa et al. (2014); Groth et al. (2017); Silva and Santos (2017); Soares et al. (2018); Luquini et al. (2019); Galbieri et al. (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne ethiopica (Root-knot nematode)PresentCABI/EPPO (2013); Carneiro et al. (2003); Carneiro et al. (2004); Bellé et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode)Present, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); Bellé et al. (2019); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne hapla (root knot nematode)PresentLordello and Monteiro (1974); CABI and EPPO (2002)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2002); Lima et al. (2005); Moura et al. (2010); Lima et al. (2013); Mota et al. (2013); Galbieri et al. (2020); Souza Junior et al. (2020); Nascimento et al. (2021)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne javanica (sugarcane eelworm)PresentSharma (1980); CABI and EPPO (2002); Araújo Filho et al. (2012); Machado et al. (2013); Silva et al. (2014); Ito et al. (2015); Souza et al. (2015); Bellé et al. (2019); Galbieri et al. (2020); Nascimento et al. (2020); Nascimento et al. (2020)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne mayaguensisPresent, WidespreadCarneiro et al. (2001); Torres et al. (2004); Lima et al. (2005); Torres et al. (2005); EPPO (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2000); Muniz et al. (2012); Lima et al. (2013); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRadopholus similis (burrowing nematode)PresentZem and Lordello (1983); CABI and EPPO (1999); Lima et al. (2013); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaRhadinaphelenchus cocophilus (red ring nematode)Present, WidespreadSchuiling and Dinther (1982); Lande (1986); Araújo et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (1999); Duarte et al. (2008); Magalhães et al. (2008); Silva et al. (2016); Silva et al. (2016); Bierhals et al. (2018); Silva et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaScutellonema bradys (yam nematode)Present, LocalizedLordello (1959); CABI and EPPO (2011); Muniz et al. (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTrichinellaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)Present, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaXiphinema index (fan-leaf virus nematode)PresentAndrade and Peruzzo (1993); CABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesBothriocephalus acheilognathiPresent, LocalizedIntroducedRego et al. (1999)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus granulosusPresentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesEchinococcus multilocularisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesGyrodactylus salarisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesObama nungaraPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila abortusPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlanctomycetes [kingdom]Chlamydophila psittaciPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAdiantum raddianum (delta maidenhair fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaAzolla filiculoides (water fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaBlechnum appendiculatum (palm fern)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaBlechnum cordatumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaCeratopteris thalictroides (watersprite)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaChristella dentata (soft fern)PresentCABI (Undated); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaDeparia petersenii subsp. petersenii (Petersen’s lady fern)PresentCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaEquisetum arvense (field horsetail)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaMacrothelypteris torresiana (swordfern)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaNephrolepis brownii (Asian swordfern)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); GBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteridium aquilinum (bracken)Present, WidespreadNativeLorenzi (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris tripartita (giant brake)PresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)PresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2019); Flora do Brasil (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia auriculata (giant salvinia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia minimaPresentNativeGBIF (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaSalvinia molesta (kariba weed)Present, WidespreadForno (1983); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaThelypteris opulenta (jewelled maiden fern)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaAcanthophora spiciferaPresentNativeLourenço et al. (2005); Taylor (1930); Joly (1957); Taylor (1960); Joly (1965)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaEucheuma spp.PresentIntroducedde Paula et al. (1998); Paula et al. (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaHypnea musciformisPresentNativeJoly (1965); Falcão and Menezes Széchy (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeRhodophytaKappaphycusPresentIntroducedPaula et al. (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbelmoschus esculentus (okra)PresentGasparotto et al. (2017); Culik et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbrus precatorius (rosary pea)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon grandifolium (hairy Indian mallow)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon indicum (country mallow)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon pictumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia angustissima (prairie acacia)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveZenni and Ziller (2011); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia caven (Roman cassie)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia crassicarpa (northern wattle)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia decurrens (green wattle)PresentIntroducedHanelt et al. (2001); CSIRO (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)PresentNativeILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia longifolia (golden wattle)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveInstituto Horus (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mangium (brown salwood)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveInstituto Horus (2011); Duke (1983); Francis (2010); Parreira et al. (2014); Kew Royal Botanic Gardens (2016); Lima and Zucchi (2016); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mearnsii (black wattle)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Higa and Resende (1994); Stein and Tonietto (1997); ILDIS (2002); Santos et al. (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia melanoxylon (Australian blackwood)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mellifera (blackthorn)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur)Present, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Carvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveLorenzi (1982); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchillea millefolium (yarrow)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcmella uliginosa (marsh para cress)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdenanthera pavonina (red-bead tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAdonidia merrillii (Christmas palm)PresentIntroducedFélix et al. (2017); Rodrigues and Antony (2011); Melo et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene americana (shyleaf)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgave sisalana (sisal hemp)PresentIntroducedFAO (2012); Forzza RC et al. (2012); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgeratum conyzoides (billy goat weed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979); Culik et al. (2013); Mesquita et al. (2013); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgrostis capillaris (common bent)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia chinensis (Chinese albizia)Present, PlantedIntroducedPIER (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia julibrissin (silk tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia procera (white siris)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAleurites moluccanus (candlenut tree)PresentIntroducedKrisnawati et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)PresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)PresentCABI (Undated); Miranda et al. (2007); Rodrigues et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAllium neapolitanum (False onion weed)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)PresentIntroducedLeón (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAloysia citrodora (lemon verbena)PresentIntroducedSalimena and Múlgura (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia purpurata (red ginger)PresentMiranda et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)PresentIntroducedFLORIDATA (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlstroemeria aureaPresentMeneses et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlstroemeria pulchellaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera ficoidea (rabbit meat)PresentMesquita et al. (2013); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera halimifolia (hairy joyweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed)Present, WidespreadNativeAbud (1985); Julien et al. (1995); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera pungens (Khaki weed)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)PresentCABI (Undated); Santos-Filho et al. (2015); Tomchinsky et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)PresentLorenzi (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus cruentus (red amaranth)PresentIntroducedSiqueira (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus deflexus (Perennial Pigweed)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Specht et al. (2015); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Specht et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth)PresentIntroducedInvasiveDe Andrade Jr et al. (2015); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Specht et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Kaspary et al. (2017); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)PresentHaselwood and Motter (1966); Holm et al. (1979); Fleck et al. (1989); USDA-ARS (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia peruviana (Peruvian ragweed)PresentNativeMondin and Nakajima (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmbrosia tenuifolia (lacy ragweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel)PresentCosta et al. (1984); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAndropogon gayanusPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAndropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnethum graveolens (dill)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona cherimola (cherimoya)PresentBonaventure (1999); Morton (1987)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona glabra (pond apple)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona muricata (soursop)Present, PlantedTaira et al. (2013); Sousa et al. (2015); Costa et al. (2016); Adaime et al. (2017); Lemos et al. (2017); Belisário et al. (2018); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona reticulata (bullock's heart)PresentIntroducedMorton (1987); Hanelt et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnnona squamosa (sugar apple)PresentIntroducedUSA, Missouri Botanical Garden (2009); Sousa et al. (2015); Cardoso et al. (2017); Silva et al. (2017); Ramos et al. (2018); Lopes et al. (2019); Vieira et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnredera cordifolia (Madeira vine)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnthemis cotula (dog fennel)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAntigonon leptopus (coral vine)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgemone mexicana (Mexican poppy)PresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArgyreia nervosa (elephant creeper)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora do Brasil (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe)PresentNativeForzza (2010); USDA-ARS (2015); Weeds of Australia (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia littoralis (elegant dutchman's pipe)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)PresentNativeGonzalez (1990)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArrhenatherum elatius (false oat-grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2016); eMonocot (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtemisia biennis (biennial wormwood)PresentLing (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtemisia verlotiorumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus altilis (breadfruit)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)PresentIntroducedInvasiveInstituto Horus (2019); Alvim et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundina graminifolia (bamboo orchid)PresentRodrigues et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsclepias curassavica (bloodflower)PresentInvasiveHolm et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsystasia gangetica (chinese violet)PresentIntroducedForzza RC et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena barbata (slender oat)Present, LocalizedInvasiveGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena fatua (wild oat)PresentSilveira (1983)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena sterilis (winter wild oat)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAverrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus compressus (carpet grass)Present, WidespreadManidool (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAxonopus fissifoliusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); Costa et al. (2013); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBacopa monnieri (water hyssop)PresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa longispiculata (mahal bamboo)PresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa textilisPresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa tuldoides (punting pole bamboo)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFilgueiras (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBambusa vulgaris (common bamboo)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBasella alba (malabar spinach)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2017); Flora do Brasil (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBatis maritima (saltwort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia monandra (Napoleon's plume)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBauhinia variegata (mountain ebony)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); Miranda et al. (2007); Lemes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018); Fleck et al. (1989); Savaris et al. (2015); Specht et al. (2015); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019); Lopes et al. (2019); Pereira et al. (2019); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens subalternansPresentNativeEPPO (2022); Savaris et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBixa orellana (annatto)Present, WidespreadNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia coccinea (scarlet spiderling)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentAzevedo and Beltrão (1984)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBorreria latifolia (broadleaf buttonweed)Present, LocalizedGomes et al. (1991); Vergaças et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)PresentNativeSá CFC (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrachypodium distachyon (purple false brome)PresentKaspary et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica juncea (mustard)PresentIntroducedInvasiveOliveira et al. (2011); Reis and Boiteux (2010); Silva et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica nigra (black mustard)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica rapa (field mustard)PresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil (2018); Reis and Boiteux (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus hordeaceus (soft brome)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrugmansia suaveolens (white angel's trumpet)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuddleja davidii (butterfly bush)PresentGBIF (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort)PresentNativeWashington State Department of Ecology (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)PresentIntroducedForzza (2010); ILDIS (2014); Lima and Zucchi (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)PresentNativeCoelho et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalliandra houstoniana var. calothyrsus (calliandra)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCallisia repens (creeping inch-plant)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium caeruleum (jicama)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalopogonium mucunoides (calopo)PresentCABI (Undated); Mesquita et al. (2013); Lima and Zucchi (2016); Carvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis procera (apple of sodom)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveBrandão (1995); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCananga odorata (ylang-ylang)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHanelt et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia ensiformis (jack bean)PresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden (2016); Queiroz et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanavalia gladiata (sword bean)PresentIntroducedQueiroz and Snak (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna indica (canna lilly)Present, WidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCanna x generalis (canna lily)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum annuum (bell pepper)PresentNativeCABI (Undated); Barbosa et al. (2010); Caires et al. (2014); Spadotti et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCapsicum baccatum (pepper)PresentNativeEshbaugh (1970); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum grandiflorum (balloon vine)PresentCABI (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCardiospermum halicacabum (balloon vine)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarludovica palmata (Panama hat plant)PresentNativeIUCN (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCascabela thevetia (yellow oleander)PresentNativeGovaerts (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia fistula (Indian laburnum)PresentIntroducedBotsaris (2007); Grace et al. (2012); Rabuske et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia grandis (pink shower)PresentNativeForzza (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCassia javanica (pink shower)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCastilla elastica (Mexican rubber tree)PresentGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina cunninghamiana (Australian beefwood)PresentIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasivePoletto et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCasuarina glauca (scaly oak (Australia))Present, PlantedIntroducedPoderoso et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCatharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)PresentCABI (Undated); Duarte et al. (2013); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCecropia peltata (trumpet tree)PresentFenner et al. (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCedrela odorata (Spanish cedar)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Clayton et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1977); Machado and Marchezan (1989); Holm et al. (1991); Carmona (1995); Mesquita et al. (2013); Vergaças et al. (2018); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentella asiatica (Asiatic pennywort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Camelo-Garcia et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentratherum punctatum (lark daisy)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratophyllum demersum (coontail)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCereus hildmannianusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCereus jamacaru (Queen of the Night)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Coelho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)PresentMiranda et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCestrum parqui (Chilean jessamine)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaecrista nictitans (sensitive partridge pea)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChamaesyce prostrataPresentGobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium album (fat hen)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot)PresentPio-Ribeiro et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris barbata (purpletop chloris)PresentHafliger and Scholz (1981)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris gayana (Rhodes grass)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFilgueiras and Valls (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris pycnothrixPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChondrilla juncea (rush skeletonweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChromolaena odorata (Siam weed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysanthemum carinatumPresentGobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFilgueiras (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum burmanni (padang cassia)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)PresentIntroducedFrizzo et al. (2000); Dorneles et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCinnamomum verum (cinnamon)Present, PlantedIntroducedKoketsu et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCissus verticillata (possum grape vine)PresentNativeLombardi (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantiifolia (lime)PresentFAO (2013); Silva et al. (2014); Almeida et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantium (sour orange)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome gynandraPresentNativeForzza and Janeiro (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome hasslerianaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)PresentIntroducedPhilcox (1996)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)PresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClerodendrum speciosissimum (Java glory bower)PresentRodrigues et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClidemia hirta (Koster's curse)PresentNativeWester and Wood (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClusia roseaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClytostoma callistegioidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCocos nucifera (coconut)PresentCABI (Undated); Navia et al. (2011); Rodrigues and Antony (2011); Poderoso et al. (2013); Rosado et al. (2015); Bartlett et al. (2018); Melo et al. (2018); Ramos et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCoix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora do Brasil (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina benghalensis (wandering jew)PresentCiba Geigy (1982); Nunes et al. (2012); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina diffusa (spreading dayflower)PresentCiba Geigy (1982); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCommelina virginicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConium maculatum (poison hemlock)Present, WidespreadIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1977); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)Present, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019); Pazdiora et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2004); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCopaifera officinalis (copaiba balsam)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordia alliodora (Ecuador laurel)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCordyline fruticosa (ti plant)PresentHinkle (2007); Miranda et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCortaderia selloana (pampas grass)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCorymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)PresentIntroducedSherff (1932)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCosmos sulphureus (sulphur cosmos)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016); Botsaris (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCostus spicatus (spiked spiralflag ginger)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria retusa (rattleweed)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2013); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlores (2015); Mesquita et al. (2013); Oliveira et al. (2015); Specht et al. (2015); Alfenas et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia grandiflora (rubber vine)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCryptostegia madagascariensis (Madagascar rubbervine)PresentCABI (Undated); Silva et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCucumis anguria (West Indian gherkin)PresentIntroducedLima (2020); Yuki et al. (2000); Adaime et al. (2017); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea carthagenensis (Colombian waxweed)PresentBarroso (1954); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuphea hyssopifolia (false heather)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSpeciesLink (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyathula prostrata (pasture weed)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)PresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon nardus (citronella grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedeMonocot (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCymbopogon schoenanthus (camel grass)PresentIntroducedSousa et al. (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynara cardunculus (cardoon)PresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982); Mesquita et al. (2013); Ribeiro et al. (2016); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon nlemfuensis (African Bermuda-grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon plectostachyus (African stargrass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedI3N-Brasil (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus aggregatusPresentMesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus compressus (annual sedge)PresentMesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)PresentAbud (1986); Carvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus entrerianus (deeprooted sedge)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus iria (rice flatsedge)PresentLorenzi (1982); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus meyenianus (Meyen's flatsedge)Present, WidespreadNativeSchwirkowski (2012); IABIN (2013); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus papyrus (papyrus)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentCABI (Undated); Mesquita et al. (2013); Seebens et al. (2017); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLeón Cordero et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura ferox (fierce thornapple)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura innoxia (downy thorn apple)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura metel (Hindu datura)PresentBoldingh (1909)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura stramonium (jimsonweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDaucus carota (carrot)PresentFernandes et al. (2017); Boiteux et al. (2017); Silva et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDelonix regia (flamboyant)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmodium incanum (creeping beggerweed)PresentCABI (Undated); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmodium uncinatum (Silver-leaf desmodium)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Salazar Yepes and Carvalho Júnior (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichorisandra thyrsifloraPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichrostachys cinerea (sickle bush)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDieffenbachia seguine (dumb cane)PresentNativeCaliman et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Carvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass)PresentCABI (Undated); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria eriantha (pangola grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria fuscescens (yellow crab grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria insularis (sourgrass)Present, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); Carvalho et al. (2018); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDigitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass)PresentIntroducedRozanski et al. (1988); Kissman and Groth (1993); Mesquita et al. (2013); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDiodia teres (poorjoe)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea alata (white yam)PresentCABI (Undated); Moura et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea bulbifera (air potato)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDioscorea cayenensis (Guinea yam)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPROTA (2017); Noronha et al. (2021)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDolichandra unguis-cati (cat's claw creeper)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDombeya wallichii (pink ball)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDracaena fragrans (corn plant)PresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDrymaria cordata (tropical chickweed)Present, WidespreadLorenzi (1982); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDuranta erecta (golden dewdrop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDypsis lutescens (yellow butterfly palm)PresentMelo et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)PresentCABI (Undated); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)PresentAzevedo et al. (1989); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass)PresentNativeTropicos (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa pyramidalisPresentIntroducedGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinodorus grisebachiiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinodorus horizontalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinodorus uruguayensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchium plantagineum (Paterson's curse)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEclipta prostrata (eclipta)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Mesquita et al. (2013); Gobatto et al. (2019); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEgeria densa (leafy elodea)Present, LocalizedNativeCook and Urmi-König (1984); Kissmann (1997); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia azurea (anchored water hyacinth)PresentNativeLorenzi (1982); UK, Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew) (2009); USA, Missouri Botanical Garden (2009); USDA-ARS (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth)Present, WidespreadNativeGopal (1987); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeis guineensis (African oil palm)PresentFAO (2009); Seebens et al. (2017); Melo et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElephantopus mollis (elephant's foot)PresentNativeLorenzi (1982); Savaris et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEleusine indica (goose grass)PresentCABI (Undated); Mesquita et al. (2013); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmex spinosa (spiny emex)PresentIntroducedSteinheil (1838)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)PresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018); Mesquita et al. (2013); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)PresentCABI (Undated); Silva and Santos (2017); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEmilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLorenzi (2000); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedZappi et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis amabilis (Japanese lovegrass)PresentIntroducedPeterson and Vega (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis ciliaris (gophertail lovegrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis japonica (pond lovegrass)PresentIntroducedLonghi-Wagner (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass)PresentIntroducedPeterson et al. (2001); Soreng et al. (2014); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis plana (South African lovegrass)PresentIntroducedWelker and Longhi-Wagner (2007); Seebens et al. (2017); Carvalho et al. (2018); Dorneles et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites hieraciifolius (American burnweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErechtites valerianifolius (tropical burnweed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEriobotrya japonica (loquat)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEryngium pandanifoliumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErythrina poeppigiana (coral tree)PresentCABI (Undated); Azevedo et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptusPresentConstantino (2002); Ribeiro et al. (2013); Arriel et al. (2014); Liebsch and Mikich (2015); Saliba et al. (2019); Arruda et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)PresentSaliba et al. (2019); GBIF (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)Present, PlantedAlfenas et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus paniculata (grey ironbark)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEucalyptus sideroxylon (black ironbark)Present, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); Rodrigues et al. (2008); Maia and Souza (2013); Alvim et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia heterophylla (wild poinsettia)Present, LocalizedBarreto and Evans (1998); Nechet et al. (2004); Vergaças et al. (2018); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hirta (garden spurge)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Mesquita et al. (2013); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)PresentNativeGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia leucocephala (white Christmas bush)PresentIntroducedPedroso et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tirucalli (Indian-tree spurge)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia umbellata (African milk bush)PresentIntroducedLuz et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEustachys retusaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)PresentHashimoto (1982); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFestuca arundinacea (tall fescue)PresentIntroducedeMonocot (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus carica (common fig)PresentFAO (2009); Benito et al. (2016); Roque et al. (2017); Santos et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus microcarpusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis cymosa (tropical fimbry)PresentNativeIUCN (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis dichotoma (tall fringe rush)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveLorenzi (1982); Kissmann (1997); Mesquita et al. (2013); Carvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia macrophylla (large leaf flemingia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFlemingia strobilifera (wild hops)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFoeniculum vulgare (fennel)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013); Rosa et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFragaria vesca (wild strawberry)PresentDarrow (1966); Benito et al. (2016); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFurcraea foetida (Mauritius hemp)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)PresentCABI (Undated); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalium aparine (cleavers)PresentHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalphimia gracilis (goldshower)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGlechoma hederacea (ground ivy)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGliricidia sepium (gliricidia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2002); WAC (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGmelina arborea (candahar)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); Miranda et al. (2007); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)PresentCABI (Undated); Fischer et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)PresentNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2015); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGomphrena serrata (arrasa con todo)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGrevillea robusta (silky oak)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedBaggio et al. (1997); I3N-Brasil (2014); Lopes et al. (2019); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979); USA, USDA-ARS (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMissouri Botanical Garden (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coccineum (scarlet ginger lily)PresentIntroducedRio de Janerio Botanic Garden Research Institute (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveLorenzi (1982); Kissmann (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelianthus annuus (sunflower)PresentFAO (2009); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliconia bihai (macaw flower)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliocarpus americanus (white moho)Present, LocalizedNativeLay (1949); USDA-ARS (2012); Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (2013); Bernardi et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium curassavicum (salt heliotrope)PresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHeliotropium indicum (Indian heliotrope)Present, WidespreadJohnston (1928); Holm et al. (1977); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHemerocallis lilioasphodelus (yellow daylily)PresentVieira et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHevea brasiliensis (rubber)PresentFAO (2009); Oliveira et al. (2008); Pieroni et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedWeaver and Francis (1989); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Miranda et al. (2007); Rodrigues et al. (2008); Specht et al. (2015); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHolcus lanatus (common velvet grass)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2013); USDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHordeum euclastonPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHovenia dulcisPresentLucini and Panizzi (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHura crepitans (sand box)PresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveSousa et al. (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrocotyle ranunculoides (floating pennywort)PresentUSDA-ARS (2004); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)PresentIntroducedInvasiveTaylor and Zappi (2004); Flora do Brasil (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHymenachne amplexicaulis (hymenachne)Present, WidespreadNativeZuloaga et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyparrhenia rufa (Jaragua grass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHypochaeris radicata (cat's ear)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis brevipes (lesser roundweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis spicigera (black sesame)PresentNativeSeidemann (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyptis suaveolens (pignut)PresentNativeGBIF (2016); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens balsamina (garden balsam)PresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018); Silva et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)PresentIntroducedInvasiveZenni and Ziller (2011); Soares et al. (2009); Duarte et al. (2013); Specht et al. (2015); Borges et al. (2019); Trindade et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo)PresentIntroducedRandall (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera spicata (creeping indigo)PresentNativeForzza RC et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIndigofera suffruticosa (Anil indigo)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaInga punctata (ice cream bean tree)Present, WidespreadNativeIUCN (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea alba (white moonflower )PresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2015); Witt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea aquatica (swamp morning-glory)PresentIntroducedSnyder et al. (1981); Colares and Colares (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea cairica (five-fingered morning glory)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLorenzi (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea carneaPresentWitt and Luke (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (bush morning glory)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea hederifolia (scarlet-creeper )PresentNativeStaples (2016); Witt and Luke (2017); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea imperatiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedSimão-Bianchini R and Ferreira PPA (2015); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea purpurea (tall morning glory)PresentCABI (Undated); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIpomoea quamoclit (cypress vine)PresentAnon. (2016); Staples (2017); Flora do Brasil (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIschaemum rugosum (saramollagrass)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1977); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIxora finlaysoniana (white jungle flame)PresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJacaranda mimosifolia (jacaranda)PresentNativeOrwa et al. (2009); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha curcas (jatropha)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008); Pereira et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJatropha gossypiifolia (bellyache bush)Present, WidespreadNativePadua et al. (1999); Ocampo and Balick (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Balslev (1996); Kirschner (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus tenuis (slender rush)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJusticia pectoralis (freshcut)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe delagoensis (chandelier plant)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe integra (Never die)PresentIntroducedVoeks (1996); New York Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)PresentIntroducedBoiteau and Allorge-Boiteau (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKyllinga nemoralis (white kyllinga)PresentIntroducedAlves et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)PresentIntroducedGomes-Klein et al. (2015); Yuki et al. (2000); Dorneles et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLagerstroemia speciosa (Pride of India)PresentIntroducedLorenzi et al. (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLamarckia aureaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana camara (lantana)PresentCABI (Undated); Miranda et al. (2007); Maia and Souza (2013); Carvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLantana montevidensisPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeersia hexandra (southern cut grass)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna minutaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonotis nepetifolia (Christmas candlestick)PresentIntroducedReflora (2013); Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeonurus japonicus (honeyweed)PresentCABI (Undated); Lourenção et al. (2008); Barbosa et al. (2013); Flôres and Bedendo (2013); Fernandes-Acioli et al. (2014); Ferro et al. (2017); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium virginicum (Virginian peppercress)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2016); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeptochloa mucronata (mucronate sprangletop )PresentNativeInvasiveMaia et al. (2004); Procópio et al. (2006); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena diversifoliaPresent, PlantedIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLeucaena leucocephala (leucaena)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCronk and Fuller (1995); Hughes (1998); ILDIS (2007); Lima and Zucchi (2016); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)PresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigustrum lucidum (broad-leaf privet)PresentIntroducedNesom (2009); Forzza (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigustrum sinense (Chinese privet)PresentMiranda et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLigustrum vulgare (common privet)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLimnobium laevigatum (South American spongeplant)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLindernia crustacea (Malaysian false pimpernel)PresentCABI (Undated); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLitsea glutinosa (Indian laurel)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); Machado et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013); Specht et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium temulentum (darnel)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLorenzi (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia grandiflora (water primrose)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia octovalvis (primrose willow)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLudwigia peploides (water primrose)PresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa acutangula (angled luffa)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated); Yuki et al. (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLuffa aegyptiaca (loofah)PresentZipcode Zoo (2007); Silva et al. (2013); Bellé et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLupinus polyphyllus (garden lupin)PresentGobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLythrum maritimum (pukamole)PresentNativeJSTOR Global Plants (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMacroptilium atropurpureum (siratro)PresentNative and IntroducedUSDA-ARS (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalvaviscus arboreus (wax mallow)PresentMiranda et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMangifera indica (mango)PresentIntroducedSilva-Luz and Pirani (2014); Gonçalves et al. (2006); Peres Filho et al. (2006); Lima et al. (2013); Lemos et al. (2014); Silva et al. (2015); Alvim et al. (2016); Ramos et al. (2018); Lopes et al. (2019); Vieira et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaManilkara zapota (sapodilla)PresentIntroducedAlmeida (2015); Bittencourt et al. (2013); Lemos et al. (2014); Lemos et al. (2017); Martins et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMaranta arundinacea (arrowroot)PresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago lupulina (black medick)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago polymorpha (bur clover)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHitchcock and Chase (1910); Alves and Xavier (1986); Mesquita et al. (2013); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree)PresentIntroducedInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)PresentIntroducedInvasiveWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002); Instituto Horus (2003); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelilotus albus (honey clover)PresentIntroducedSchneider (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis minutiflora (molasses grass)Present, WidespreadInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelinis repens (natal redtop)Present, WidespreadIntroducedGBIF (2012); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMentha pulegium (pennyroyal)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia aegyptia (hairy woodrose)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia cissoides (roadside woodrose)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia tuberosa (woodrose)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMerremia umbellata (hogvine)PresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLorenzi (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMiconia calvescens (miconia)PresentNativeMeyer (1994); Seixas et al. (2007); Alves et al. (2010); Morais et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMikania micrantha (bitter vine)PresentBarreto and Evans (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa arenosa (elegant mimosa)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa casta (graceful mimosa)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa ceratonia (climbing mimosa)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa diplotricha (giant sensitive plant)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1977); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); Willson and Garcia (1992)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pigra (giant sensitive plant)PresentNativeLonsdale et al. (1989)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMimosa pudica (sensitive plant)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1977); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Duarte et al. (2016); Lamas et al. (2017); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMiscanthus sinensis (eulalia)PresentIntroducedFilgueiras (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMomordica charantia (bitter gourd)PresentBacchi et al. (1972); Lorenzi (1986); Scholz (1988); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997); Alves et al. (2017); Lopes et al. (2019); Souza Junior et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMonochoria hastata (hastate-leaved pondweed)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)India Biodiversity Portal (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)PresentIntroducedMaio and Oliveira (2015); Souza et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse radish tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorus alba (mora)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveInstituto Horus (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorus nigra (black mulberry)PresentLim (2012); Castro et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMucuna pruriens (velvet bean)PresentILDIS (2014); Lima and Zucchi (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMuntingia calabura (Jamaica cherry)PresentNativeSouza (2015); Souza and Lorenzi (2005); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurdannia nudiflora (doveweed)PresentIntroducedAona and Pellegrini (2015); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMurraya paniculata (orange jessamine)PresentIntroducedInvasiveISSG (2020); Flora do Brasil (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)PresentIntroducedZappi (2015); Rodrigues et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMussaenda philippica (Queen of Philippines)PresentIntroducedForzza and Dalcin (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather)PresentNativeEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMyroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam)Present, PlantedNativeILDIS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNandina domestica (Nandina)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNassella neesiana (Chilean needlegrass)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNassella trichotoma (serrated tussock grass)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNasturtium officinale (watercress)PresentCosta et al. (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeomarica caerulea (walking iris)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNeonotonia wightii (perennial soybean)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNerium oleander (oleander)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicandra physalodes (apple of Peru)PresentCABI (Undated); Gobatto et al. (2019); Souza et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana glauca (tree tobacco)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana langsdorffiiPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana plumbaginifolia (Tex-Mex tobacco)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNicotiana tabacum (tobacco)PresentIntroducedForzza (2010); Lacroix et al. (2011); Pereira et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNopalea cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)PresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil (2017); Feijó et al. (2016); Conforto et al. (2017); Santiago et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea ampla (dot-leaf water-lily)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNymphaea lotus (white Egyptian lotus)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Wiersema (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum gratissimum (African basil)PresentIntroducedWCSP (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOcimum tenuiflorum (holy basil)PresentIntroducedMachado et al. (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOeceoclades maculata (monk orchid)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)PresentInvasiveOliveira and Souza (2015); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia cochenillifera (cochineal cactus)PresentConforto et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear)PresentIntroducedAndrade et al. (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia humifusaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia monacantha (common prickly pear)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOpuntia stricta (erect prickly pear)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedZappi et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrbea variegata (carrion-flower)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza rufipogon (wild rice)PresentAbud (1981); Ge Song et al. (1999)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis articulataPresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Bellé et al. (2016); Gobatto et al. (2019); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis debilis (pink woodsorrel)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis latifolia (sorrel)PresentCABI (Undated); Soares (2008); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPachira aquatica (pachira nut)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPachira insignis (wild chestnut)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPachystachys coccinea (Cardinal's guard)PresentNativeProfice et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPanicum repens (torpedo grass)PresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParkinsonia aculeata (Mexican palo-verde)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaParthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)PresentNativeDale (1981); Flora do Brasil (2018); Vergaças et al. (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalidium geminatum (Egyptian paspalidium)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum conjugatum (buffalo grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018); Lorenzi (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum densum (dense crowngrass)PresentNativeOliveira and Valls (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass)PresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum distichum (knotgrass)PresentNativeChase (1929); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum fasciculatum (bull grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum millegrana (yerba brava)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum notatum (Bahia grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum paniculatum (Russell River grass)PresentNativeOliveira and Valls (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum scrobiculatum (ricegrass paspalum)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); de Moura Araujo et al. (2017); Garbin (2018); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum urvillei (Vasey grass)PresentNativeD'Urville (1822); Parodi (1937); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaspalum virgatum (sword grass)PresentNativeOliveira RC and de Valls JFM (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora caerulea (blue passionflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Nunes et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora edulis (passionfruit)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Nunes et al. (2008); Firmino et al. (2013); Melo et al. (2015); Potin et al. (2016); Santos et al. (2018); Vidal et al. (2018); Mituti et al. (2019); Pirovani et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora foetida (red fruit passion flower)Present, Few occurrencesNativeKillip (1938); Holm et al. (1997); Nunes et al. (2008); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora ligularis (sweet granadilla)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora morifoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Nunes et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPassiflora suberosa (corkystem passionflower)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012); Nunes et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPaulownia tomentosa (paulownia)Present, PlantedIntroducedJiang (1988)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveLorenzi (1982); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum polystachion (mission grass)PresentIntroducedHafliger and Scholz (1981)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum purpureum (elephant grass)PresentCABI (Undated); Silva et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)PresentIntroducedZappi (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPereskia aculeata (Lemon-vine)PresentWitt and Luke (2017); Almeida et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria maculosa (redshank)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria punctata (dotted smartweed)PresentNativeFlora of North America (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPetiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris minor (littleseed canarygrass)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris platensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhaseolus lunatus (lima bean)PresentCABI (Undated); Sousa et al. (2017); Sousa et al. (2017); Cavalcante et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhleum pratense (timothy grass)PresentIntroducedKew (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhormium tenax (New Zealand flax)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHanelt et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhragmites australis (common reed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllanthus urinaria (leafflower)Present, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveCruz et al. (1994); Mesquita et al. (2013); Specht et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo)Present, PlantedIntroducedUSDA-APHIS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhyllostachys reticulata (giant timber bamboo)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis angulata (cutleaf groundcherry)Present, WidespreadNativeLorenzi (1982); Branch and Silva (1983); Matos (2000); Santos et al. (2003); Bastos et al. (2006); Fonseca et al. (2013); Mesquita et al. (2013); Duarte et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhysalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)PresentCABI (Undated); Esquivel et al. (2018); Pazdiora et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta dioica (allspice)PresentNativeSeidemann (2005); Parthasarathy et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPimenta racemosa (bay rum tree)PresentNativeGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PresentCABI (Undated); Ferreira Filho et al. (2014); Castro et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus elliottii (slash pine)Present, Widespread, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveZenni and Ziller (2011); Maciel et al. (2013); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus oocarpa (ocote pine)PresentBraga et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPinus patula (Mexican weeping pine)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPiper aduncum (spiked pepper)PresentNativeStarr et al. (2003); Rocha et al. (2013); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)PresentUSDA-ARS (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)Present, PlantedNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2012); GBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentHoletz et al. (2002); Dias-Arieira et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage)PresentLukhoba et al. (2006); Govaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlectranthus scutellarioides (coleus)PresentGorayeb et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPluchea carolinensis (sourbush)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolycarpon tetraphyllum (fourleaf allseed)PresentIntroducedReflora (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum hydropiper (marsh pepper)PresentHafliger and Wolf (1988); Holm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria)PresentPitelli et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolypogon elongatusPresentSalazar Yepes and Carvalho Júnior (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPontederia cordata (pickerel weed)PresentWitt and Luke (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPopulus alba (silver-leaf poplar)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPopulus nigra (black poplar)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentIntroducedLegrand (1952); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca pilosa (kiss-me-quick)PresentNativeCoelho and Giulietti (2010); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis juliflora (mesquite)Present, Localized, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveBurkart (1976); Seebens et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis pallida (mesquite)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLima and Pasiecznik (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaProsopis ruscifoliaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPrunella vulgaris (self-heal)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)PresentNativeBorges and Teles (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)PresentMarsaro Júnior et al. (2015); Battisti et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPsidium guajava (guava)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveZiller and Rosa (2001); Gonçalves et al. (2006); USDA-ARS (2012); FAO (2013); Salazar Yepes and Carvalho Júnior (2013); Taira et al. (2013); Lemos et al. (2014); Adaime et al. (2017); Adaime et al. (2017); Lemos et al. (2017); Silva and Santos (2017); Santos et al. (2018); Almeida et al. (2019); Alves et al. (2019); Galli et al. (2019); Trindade et al. (2019); Vieira et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPterolepis glomerata (false meadowbeauty)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPtychosperma elegans (solitaire palm)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBatista et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu)PresentIntroducedMorel (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu)PresentCABI (Undated); Lisboa et al. (2016); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPycreus polystachyosPresentCarvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPyracantha coccinea (scarlet firethorn)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora do Brasil (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaQuamoclit hederifoliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRaphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)Present, WidespreadLorenzi (1982); Holm et al. (1991); Reis and Boiteux (2010); Boiteux et al. (2016); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRaphanus sativus (radish)PresentBoiteux et al. (2016); Reis and Boiteux (2010); Cabral et al. (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhizophora mangle (red mangrove)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)PresentCABI (Undated); Basseto et al. (2008); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRivina humilis (bloodberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)PresentIntroducedFenner et al. (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedMillhollon and Burner (1993); Valverde et al. (1999); Alves et al. (2003); Silva et al. (2009); Funez et al. (2016); Macedo et al. (2016); Dias et al. (2017); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRoystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)PresentCABI (Undated); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRuellia simplex (Mexican petunia)PresentNativeEzcurra and Daniel (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex acetosella (sheep's sorrel)PresentIntroducedDiscover Life (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex crispus (curled dock)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Specht et al. (2015); Dorneles et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)PresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979); Moccellin et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRusselia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRytidostylis carthagenensisPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSacciolepis indica (glen woodgrass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalix humboldtiana (pencil willow)PresentNativeMarquete et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia coccinea (scarlet sage)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSamanea saman (rain tree)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2002); World Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSambucus canadensis (American black elderberry)PresentIntroducedJørgensen et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree)PresentCABI (Undated); Miranda et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchinus molle (false pepper tree)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree)Present, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated); Cuda et al. (2009); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchizolobium parahyba (Brazilian fern tree)PresentNativeOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Seebens et al. (2017); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSechium edule (chayote)PresentIntroducedInvasiveZenni (2014); Yuki et al. (2000); Bezerra et al. (2016); Lima and Souza Filho (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenecio jacobaea (common ragwort)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenecio madagascariensis (fireweed)PresentMatzenbacher and Schneider (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna alata (candle bush)PresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); Lima and Zucchi (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna bacillaris (whitebark senna)PresentILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna corymbosaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna hirsuta (hairy senna)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna multijuga (November shower)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna obtusifolia (sicklepod)PresentNativeLorenzi (1982); Lima and Zucchi (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna occidentalis (coffee senna)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)PresentIntroducedIrwin and Barneby (1982); ILDIS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna siamea (yellow cassia)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenna spectabilis (whitebark senna)PresentNativeForzza (2010); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania grandiflora (sesbania)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania punicea (red sesbania)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sesban (sesban)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria palmifolia (palm grass)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail)Present, WidespreadNativePensiero (1999); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria verticillata (bristly foxtail)PresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida acuta (sida)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Flora do Brasil (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene gallica (common catchfly)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene latifolia subsp. alba (white campion)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilybum marianum (variegated thistle)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSinapis arvensis (wild mustard)PresentReis and Boiteux (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum americanumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Culik et al. (2013); Marsaro Júnior et al. (2015); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum capsicastrumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum carolinense (horsenettle)PresentD'Arcy (1974)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mammosum (nipplefruit nightshade)PresentIntroducedForzza (2010); USDA-ARS (2014); Boiteux et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum mauritianum (tobacco tree)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveLorenzi (1991); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)PresentAranha et al. (1982); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)PresentIntroducedStehmann et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum sisymbriifolium (sticky nightshade)PresentNativePOWO (2020); CABI Data Mining (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum torvum (turkey berry)PresentBarbosa et al. (2012); Moreira et al. (2010); Nurit-Silva et al. (2011); Silva et al. (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum tuberosum (potato)PresentCasa-Coila et al. (2017); Cardoza et al. (2017); Gobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum viarum (tropical soda apple)PresentNativeGRIN (2008); Lourenção et al. (2008); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolidago canadensis (Canadian goldenrod)Present, LocalizedIntroducedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSoliva sessilisPresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2010); GBIF (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)PresentIntroducedInvasiveFonseca et al. (2013); Vieira and Barreto (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014); Usteri (1911); Vieira and Barreto (2006); Lourenção et al. (2008); Specht et al. (2015); Vergaças et al. (2018); Gobatto et al. (2019); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSorghum halepense (Johnson grass)Present, LocalizedIntroducedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpartina densifloraPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpartium junceum (Spanish broom)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpathodea campanulata (African tulip tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpergula arvensis (corn spurry)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpermacoce verticillata (shrubby false buttonwood)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Mesquita et al. (2013); Carvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphagneticola trilobata (wedelia)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpondias purpurea (red mombin)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Lemos et al. (2017); Santos et al. (2018); Vieira et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus indicus (rat tail grass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus pyramidalis (giant rat’s tail grass)Present, WidespreadeMonocot (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus pyramidatus (whorled dropseed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachys arvensis (staggerweed)PresentInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachys byzantinaPresentNascimento et al. (2021)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta cayennensis (blue snakeweed)Present, Few occurrencesNativeForzza (2010); Davidse et al. (2012); Carvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachytarpheta urticifolia (rattail)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Moldenke (1948); Moldenke (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStellaria media (common chickweed)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1977); Lorenzi (1982); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); CABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSterculia apetala (Panama tree)PresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStictocardia tiliifolia (spottedheart)PresentSpecht et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStylosanthes hamata (Caribbean Stylo)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSynedrella nodiflora (synedrella)Present, WidespreadAranha et al. (1982); Friere et al. (1988); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)PresentNativeCroat (1981); Englberger (2009); Govaerts (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium cumini (black plum)Present, PlantedIntroducedMorton (1987); Pinho et al. (2014); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSyzygium jambos (rose apple)Present, PlantedIntroducedMorton (1987); Salazar Yepes and Carvalho Júnior (2013); Alvim et al. (2016); Soares et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTabebuia rosea (pink poui)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora do Brasil (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedNakajima (2015); Savaris et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTagetes minuta (stinking Roger)PresentNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTalinum paniculatumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011); Mesquita et al. (2013); Vergaças et al. (2018); Lopes et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarindus indica (tamarind)PresentIntroducedLewis GP (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997); Leite et al. (1997); Collier et al. (2001); Silva et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTecoma stans (yellow bells)PresentIntroducedInvasiveLorenzi (1991); Miranda et al. (2007); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTectona grandis (teak)Present, PlantedPeres Filho et al. (2006); Araújo Filho et al. (2012); Borges et al. (2014); Borges et al. (2015); Rosa et al. (2016); Peres-Filho et al. (2017); Borges et al. (2018); Borges et al. (2019); Cipriani et al. (2019); Osorio et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTephrosia candida (white tephrosia)Present, Few occurrencesIntroducedBrasil (1992); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTephrosia vogelii (Vogel's tephrosia)PresentIto et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)PresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThalia geniculata (alligator flag)PresentMesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThemeda quadrivalvis (grader grass)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThespesia populnea (portia tree)PresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThlaspi arvense (field pennycress)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia alata (black eyed Susan)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia erecta (bush clockvine)PresentAlves et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThunbergia fragrans (whitelady)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTibouchina urvilleana (princessflower)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower)PresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTithonia rotundifolia (red sunflower)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToona ciliata (toon)Present, PlantedSilva et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaToxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)PresentIntroducedInvasiveKubitzki (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrachelospermum jasminoides (star-jasmine)PresentMiranda et al. (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTrachypogon spicatus (spiked crinkleawn)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia fluminensis (wandering Jew)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003); Macedo et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTradescantia zebrina (wandering jew)PresentCABI (Undated); Trindade et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTribulus terrestris (puncture vine)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTridax procumbens (coat buttons)Present, LocalizedLorenzi (1982); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriplaris americana (ant tree)PresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); Pires et al. (2015); USDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta rhomboidea (diamond burbark)Present, WidespreadNativeLay KK (1950)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriumfetta semitriloba (burweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTropaeolum majus (common nasturtium)PresentGobatto et al. (2019); Duarte et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurbina corymbosa (Christmas vine)PresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTurnera ulmifolia (West Indian holly)PresentGracioso et al. (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha domingensis (southern cattail)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha latifolia (broadleaf cattail)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUlex europaeus (gorse)Present, Localized, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentFerraz (1979); Mesquita et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa brizantha (palisadegrass)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated); Seebens et al. (2017);
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa decumbens (signal grass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Vergaças et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa distachya (signal grass)PresentIntroducedNew Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa humidicola (koronivia grass)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); CABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa mutica (para grass)PresentIntroducedShirasuna (2014); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa platyphylla (broadleaf signalgrass)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrtica dioica (stinging nettle)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrtica urens (annual nettle)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUtricularia gibbaPresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbena bonariensis (clusterflower vervain)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbena brasiliensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbena litoralis (blue vervain)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbena rigida (stiff verbena)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbesina encelioides (golden crownbeard)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVernicia fordii (tung-oil tree)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia villosa (hairy vetch)PresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVigna marina (beach bean)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex agnus-castus (chaste tree)PresentIntroducedHarley et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia bromoides (squirreltail fescue)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia myuros (annual fescue)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaWaltheria indicaPresentAlves et al. (2017); Carvalho et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaWisteria sinensis (Chinese wisteria)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthium spinosum (bathurst burr)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); Missouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthium strumarium (common cocklebur)PresentGobatto et al. (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYoungia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedRolim et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYucca aloifolia (Spanish bayonet)Present, LocalizedIntroducedGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZelkova serrata (Japanese selkova)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZingiber officinale (ginger)PresentMoreira et al. (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZoysia matrella (Manila grass)PresentIntroducedPeterson et al. (2001)
EukaryotaPlantaeStreptophytaCampylopus introflexusPresentNativeFrahm (1975)
EukaryotaProtistaParamyxeaMarteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaAlexandrium tamarensePresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia bigeminaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia bovisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia caballiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBabesia equiPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia exitiosaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia ostreaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaGymnodinium catenatumPresent, LocalizedOliveira-Proença et al. (2001); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaMikrocystos mackiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus marinusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPlasmodium relictumPresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTritrichomonas foetusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma equiperdumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiPresentIntroducedInvasiveDesquesnes (2004); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma vivaxPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusArterivirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusavian metapneumovirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAvipoxvirusPresentReis and Nobrega (1937); OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusBanana bunchy top virus (bunchy top of banana)Absent, Intercepted onlyOliveira et al. (2002)
VirusBanana streak diseasePresentNativeInvasiveDiekmann and Putter (1996); Brioso et al. (2000)
VirusBarley yellow dwarf viruses (barley yellow dwarf)PresentCaetano (1984); Ramirez (1990)
Virusbluetongue virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine herpesvirus 1PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine leukemia virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscamelpox virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruscaprine arthritis encephalitis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusChelonid herpesvirus 5Present, WidespreadRodenbusch et al. (2014)
VirusChrysanthemum stem necrosis virusPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Duarte et al. (2014); EPPO (2022)
VirusCitrus leprosis virus C (leprosis of citrus)Present, WidespreadCABI/EPPO (2013); Locali-Fabris et al. (2006); Nunes et al. (2012); EPPO (2022)
Virusclassical swine fever virusPresentOIE (2020)
VirusCowpea aphid-borne mosaic virusPresent, WidespreadPio-Ribeiro and Kuhn (1980); Lima et al. (1981); Pio-Ribeiro et al. (2000); Nascimento et al. (2004); Nascimento et al. (2006); CABI and EPPO (2010); Melo et al. (2015); Vidal et al. (2018)
VirusCowpea mild mottle virus (angular mosaic of beans)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); Almeida et al. (2005); Lamas et al. (2017); CABI and EPPO (2019)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusduck hepatitis A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Viruseastern equine encephalitis virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusepizootic haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequid herpesvirus 1PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine arteritis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine infectious anaemia virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusequine influenzavirusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusGrapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus)PresentCABI (Undated); Alabi et al. (2014)
VirusHaliotid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious haematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious myonecrosis virusPresentOIE (2019); Costa et al. (2009); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious salmon anemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfluenza A virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
VirusIris yellow spot virus (iris yellow spot)PresentIntroducedNagata et al. (1999); Pozzer et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusMaize chlorotic mottle virusPresentCABI and EPPO (2014)
VirusMaize dwarf mosaic virus (dwarf mosaic of maize)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
Virusmyxoma virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNewcastle disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNipah virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPapaya ringspot virusPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); Nakano et al. (2008)
VirusPassion fruit woodiness virus (passionfruit woodiness disease)AbsentCerqueira-Silva et al. (2014); Brunt et al. (1996)
VirusPepper mild mottle virus (PMMV)PresentCezar et al. (2003); Lima et al. (2011)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPlum pox virus (sharka)Absent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2022); Rezende et al. (2016);
VirusPotato spindle tuber viroid (spindle tuber of potato)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Singh (1983); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrabies virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusred sea bream iridovirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusspring viraemia of carp virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusStrawberry vein banding virus (vein banding of strawberry)PresentCABI and EPPO (2002); EPPO (2022)
VirusSugarcane mosaic virus (sugarcane mosaic)PresentISSCT (1989); EPPO (2022)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1AbsentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
VirusSweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato)PresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2022)
Virusswine vesicular disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusTaura syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusTomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt)Present, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1978); Alexandre et al. (2014); EPPO (2022)
Virustransmissible gastroenteritis virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusviral hemorrhagic septicemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvisna/maedi virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
VirusWest Nile virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
VirusWheat streak mosaic virus (wheat streak)PresentIntroducedMar et al. (2013)
VirusWhite spot syndrome virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
abalone viral ganglioneuritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Acanthocephalan infections of fishPresentKnoff et al. (2001)
acarapisosis of honey beesPresentOIE (2019); EPPO (2009); OIE (2019)
Actinobaculum suis infectionsPresentVaz et al. (1997)
actinomycosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
acute hepatopancreatic necrosis diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Aeromonas infection in fishPresentOIE (2009)
African horse sicknessAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
African swine feverAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
American foul broodPresentSchuch et al. (2003); OIE (2009)
anaplasmosisPresentHorn (1983); OIE Handistatus (2005)
anthraxAbsentOIE (2019); Food & Agriculture Organization (1972); Langenegger (1994); OIE (1997); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
atrophic rhinitis of swinePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian chlamydiosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
avian encephalomyelitisPresentFreitas and Back (2015)
avian infectious bronchitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian influenzaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); Resende et al. (1990); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
avian leukosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)PresentOIE (2019); Balen and Fiorentin (1990); OIE (2019)
avian nephritisPresent, LocalizedNuñez et al. (2018)
avian trichomoniasisPresentCABI (Undated)
avipoxPresentReis and Nobrega (1937); OIE Handistatus (2005)
babesiosisPresentOIE (2009)
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
blacklegPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
bluetonguePresentOIE (2019); Hawkes (1996); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
Bonamia roughleyi (Australian winter disease) of oystersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
bonamiosis (Bonamia exitiosa)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bonamiosis (Bonamia ostreae)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Borrelia anserina infectionsPresentAtaliba et al. (2007)
Bothriocephalus acheilognathi infectionPresent, LocalizedIntroducedRego et al. (1999)
botulismPresentSilva et al. (1998); OIE Handistatus (2005)
bovine anaplasmosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine babesiosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine enterovirus infectionPresentCABI (Undated)
bovine genital campylobacteriosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine herpesvirus 1 infectionsPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine herpesvirus 2 infectionPresentScott (1989)
bovine herpesvirus 5 infectionPresentCarillo et al. (1983)
bovine papillomatosisPresentBezerra et al. (1994)
bovine parainfluenza 3 infectionPresent, WidespreadPizzol et al. (1989)
bovine parvovirus infectionPresentCABI (Undated)
bovine respiratory syncytial virus infectionPresentCABI (Undated)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine tuberculosisPresentOIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine venereal trichomonosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine viral diarrhoeaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BP virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella ovis)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella suis)AbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bubonic leishmaniasisPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Burkholderia pseudomallei infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
camel poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
caprine arthritis encephalitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
caseous lymphadenitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
chicken anaemiaPresent, WidespreadBrentano et al. (1991)
chlamydial infections of livestock and poultryPresentRaso et al. (2002)
chronic obstructive pulmonary diseasePresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Chrysomya bezziana infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
ChytridiomycosisPresentCABI (Undated); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
classical swine feverPresentOIE (2020); CABI (Undated)
Clostridium perfringens enteritis and enterotoxaemiaPresentAzevado et al. (1998); OIE Handistatus (2005)
coccidiosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cochliomyia hominivorax infestationPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious agalactiaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious bovine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious equine metritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
crayfish plagueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
cryptosporidiosis in livestock and poultryPresent, WidespreadLima et al. (1992); Newman et al. (1993); Newman et al. (1994); Pena et al. (1997); Newman et al. (1999); Cabral et al. (2001); Silva et al. (2003); CABI (Undated)
Denman island diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
dermatophilosisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Dichelobacter nodosus infectionPresentRibeiro (1994); CABI (Undated)
dourineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
duck viral enteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
duck virus hepatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EchinococcusPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
Echinococcus granulosusPresentOIE (2019); CABI Data Mining (2001); OIE (2019)
Echinococcus multilocularisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Edwardsiella septicaemia (Edwardsiella tarda infection)PresentMuratori et al. (2000)
encephalomyocarditisPresentRoehe et al. (1985)
enzootic abortion of ewesPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
enzootic bovine leukosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
eperythrozoonosis in pigsPresentLopes et al. (1982)
epitheliocystisPresentSzakolczai et al. (1999)
epizootic haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
epizootic haemorrhagic diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
epizootic lymphangitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
epizootic ulcerative syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine coital exanthemaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Present, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
equine encephalomyelitis (Western)Present, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine infectious anaemiaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine influenzaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine piroplasmosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine rhinopneumonitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine viral arteritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Escherichia coli infectionsPresentCastro et al. (1984); Silva et al. (1994); Mores et al. (1998)
European foul broodPresentOIE (2019); Bailey (1984); Schotman (1989); OIE (2019)
fibropapillomatosis of sea turtlesPresent, WidespreadRodenbusch et al. (2014)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsAbsentOIE (2019); Kitching (1998); OIE (2019)
fowl choleraPresentOIE (2009)
fowl typhoidPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
fowlpoxPresentFallavena et al. (1993); Back et al. (1995)
Fusobacterium necrophorum infectionsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
giardiasisPresentVargas et al. (1994); Rigolon and Vargas (1996)
glandersPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Glässer's diseasePresentSantos et al. (1997)
Gyrodactylus salaris infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
haplosporidiosis of pacific oystersAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
heartwaterAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
hepatitis E virus infectionPresent, WidespreadGardinali et al. (2012); Costa Lana et al. (2014)
Hirudinea as vectors and disease agents in fishPresentLainson (1981)
horse poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
infection with Marteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Perkinsus marinusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Infection with salmonid alphavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Infection with Senecavirus APresentLeme et al. (2016)
infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitisPresent, WidespreadBedford (1992)
infectious bursal diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious coryzaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
infectious haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
infectious laryngotracheitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
infectious myonecrosisPresentOIE (2019); Costa et al. (2009); OIE (2019)
infectious salmon anaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious spleen and kidney necrosisPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
Japanese encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced mastitisPresentSilva and Costa (2001); CABI (Undated)
koi herpesvirus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
leishmaniosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
leptospirosisPresentOIE (2009)
lumpy skin diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Mannheimia haemolytica infectionsPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)
Marek's diseasePresentOIE (2009)
Monogenean infections of fishPresentSantos et al. (2000)
mycobacteriosis in fishPresentCABI (Undated)
Mycoplasma agalactiae infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Mycoplasma bovigenitalium infectionsPresentPardo et al. (1998)
Mycoplasma bovirhinis bovine respiratory diseasePresent, WidespreadNascimento et al. (1998)
Mycoplasma bovis infectionsPresentMettifogo et al. (1996)
Mycoplasma dispar infectionsPresentMarques et al. (2007)
Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (LC) infectionsPresentNascimento et al. (1986)
myxomatosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Myxozoan infections of fishPresentMartins and Souza (1997); CABI (Undated)
Nairobi sheep diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
necrotizing hepatopancreatitisPresentGomes et al. (2010)
nematodes in fishPresentFreitas and Lent (1946)
neosporosisPresentCABI (Undated)
Newcastle diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Nipah virus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Oncorhynchus masou virus diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
oomycete infections in fishPresentCABI (Undated)
paratuberculosisPresentWhittington et al. (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
peste des petits ruminantsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Philornis downsi infestationPresentCABI (Undated)
Plasmodium relictum infectionPresentNativeCABI (Undated)
porcine enterovirus infectionsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
porcine intestinal spirochaetosisPresentBarcellos et al. (2000)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
proliferative enteropathyPresentAlberton et al. (2011)
pullorum diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Q feverPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rabbit haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rabiesPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
red sea bream iridoviral diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Rhodococcus equi infectionsPresentRibeiro et al. (2011)
Rift Valley feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rinderpestAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rotavirus infections in livestock and poultryPresent, WidespreadGabbay et al. (2003); Alfieri et al. (2004)
Sapelovirus A infectionsPresentDonin et al. (2015)
scrapiePresentOIE (2019); Ribeiro and Rodrigues (2001); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2PresentOIE (2020); OIE (2020)
sheep and goat poxAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
small hive beetle infestationPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2009); OIE (2020)
spherical baculovirosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
spring viraemia of carpPresentCABI (Undated)
Staphylococcus aureus infectionsPresent, WidespreadDomingues et al. (1996)
Staphylococcus hyicus infectionPresentFreitas et al. (1985); Barcellos et al. (1989); Sobestiansky et al. (1989)
stranglesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in pigs (and ruminants)PresentGarcia and Schonhofen (1988)
Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in poultryPresentCABI (Undated)
surraPresentIntroducedInvasiveDesquesnes (2004); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
swine dysenteryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
swine influenzaPresentCABI (Undated)
swine vesicular diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Taura syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
theileriosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
torovirus infectionsPresentNogueira et al. (2013)
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
TrichinellaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2018); OIE (2019)
trichomonosisPresentOIE (2009)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
trypanosomosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
tuberculosisPresentOIE (2019); Thoen (1999); OIE (2019)
tularaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
turkey rhinotracheitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Ureaplasma infectionsPresentViana (1990)
varroosis of honey beesPresentOIE (2019); Alves et al. (1975); Moretto and Leonidas (2003); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
vesicular stomatitisPresentOIE (2009); Federer et al. (1967)
viral haemorrhagic septicaemiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
visna/maediPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
West Nile feverPresent, LocalizedOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
white spot diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
white tail diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Xenohaliotis californiensis infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
yellow head diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
yersiniosisPresentCABI (Undated)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Almonds, with shellArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
ApplesArea harvested32,40533,22933,32834,21435,842
Production quantity1,222,9791,203,0071,307,6421,055,3831,264,651
Yield377,404 Fc362,035 Fc392,355 Fc308,465 Fc352,841 Fc
AvocadosArea harvested15,31514,32512,99610,92010,356
Production quantity242,932236,177212,873196,545180,652
Yield158,624 Fc164,871 Fc163,799 Fc179,986 Fc174,442 Fc
BananasArea harvested461,751458,054461,365463,771478,169
Production quantity6,812,7086,723,5906,584,9676,625,2116,859,227
Yield147,541 Fc146,786 Fc142,728 Fc142,855 Fc143,448 Fc
BarleyArea harvested113,814101,370121,56291,05586,409
Production quantity409,099330,374302,731379,687186,285
Yield35,945 Fc32,591 Fc24,903 Fc41,699 Fc21,559 Fc
Bastfibres, otherArea harvested1,9552,1522,0562,9264,625
Production quantity2,5502,8922,8072,8604,917
Yield13,043 Fc13,439 Fc13,653 Fc9,774 Fc10,631 Fc
Beans, dryArea harvested2,610,5852,837,6752,801,2482,587,7722,865,396
Production quantity2,906,5082,916,3653,046,0792,621,2673,088,926
Yield11,134 Fc10,277 Fc10,874 Fc10,129 Fc10,780 Fc
Brazil nuts, with shellProduction quantity32,90534,17023,35733,880 Im40,643
Broad beans, horse beans, dryArea harvested32,45036,06123,20416,53318,621
Production quantity11,44911,42510,0193,6554,048
Yield3,528 Fc3,168 Fc4,318 Fc2,211 Fc2,174 Fc
BuckwheatArea harvested47,086 Im47,076 Im47,174 Im47,111 Im46,793 Im
Production quantity65,255 Im64,313 Im63,516 Im62,104 Im61,392 Im
Yield13,859 Fc13,662 Fc13,464 Fc13,182 Fc13,120 Fc
Cashew nuts, with shellArea harvested426,417439,090488,683567,587590,913
Production quantity138,754141,386133,60874,568103,363
Yield3,254 Fc3,220 Fc2,734 Fc1,314 Fc1,749 Fc
CashewappleArea harvested426,417439,090488,683567,557590,913
Production quantity1,078,558 Im1,107,965 Im1,230,158 Im1,420,799 Im1,591,751 Im
Yield25,294 Fc25,233 Fc25,173 Fc25,034 Fc26,937 Fc
CassavaArea harvested1,190,1211,215,9881,266,4711,396,2041,512,660
Production quantity17,497,11517,877,16318,501,64521,036,31423,059,704
Yield147,020 Fc147,018 Fc146,088 Fc150,668 Fc152,445 Fc
Castor oil seedArea harvested50,56746,07547,14744,35182,424
Production quantity16,34914,22413,48124,62046,735
Yield3,233 Fc3,087 Fc2,859 Fc5,551 Fc5,670 Fc
Cereals, TotalArea harvested22,771,973 A21,483,188 A22,645,821 A20,127,681 A21,202,900 A
Production quantity121,222,813 A103,260,887 A117,977,880 A84,166,731 A106,026,685 A
Yield53,233 Fc48,066 Fc52,097 Fc41,816 Fc50,006 Fc
ChestnutProduction quantityImImImImIm
Citrus Fruit, TotalArea harvested703,337 A700,047 A735,636 A742,683 A778,259 A
Production quantity19,652,788 A19,416,268 A19,835,117 A19,308,564 A19,213,805 A
Yield279,422 Fc277,357 Fc269,632 Fc259,984 Fc246,882 Fc
Cocoa, beansArea harvested581,884577,191590,813720,055702,841
Production quantity259,425239,318235,809213,871278,299
Yield4,458 Fc4,146 Fc3,991 Fc2,970 Fc3,960 Fc
CoconutsArea harvested186,950198,655209,406233,933242,253
Production quantity2,330,9492,345,4002,210,1392,634,3962,679,218
Yield124,683 Fc118,064 Fc105,543 Fc112,613 Fc110,596 Fc
Coffee, greenArea harvested1,823,4031,863,9661,802,4171,996,6041,977,714
Production quantity3,009,4023,552,7292,684,5083,024,4662,647,504
Yield16,504 Fc19,060 Fc14,894 Fc15,148 Fc13,387 Fc
Fibre crops nesProduction quantity101,312 Im101,167 Im101,021 Im100,876 Im101,222 Im
Fibre Crops PrimaryArea harvested1,728,284 A1,247,603 A1,015,024 A1,198,459 A1,236,092 A
Production quantity190,691 A187,013 A183,579 A285,018 A290,868 A
Yield1,103 Fc1,499 Fc1,809 Fc2,378 Fc2,353 Fc
FigsArea harvested2,2082,4102,5922,8042,856
Production quantity22,52623,67425,89126,91029,071
Yield102,020 Fc98,232 Fc99,888 Fc95,970 Fc101,789 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested2,092,387 A2,107,657 A2,181,134 A2,268,636 A2,354,203 A
Production quantity40,098,467 A39,925,947 A39,868,756 A38,924,077 A40,082,730 A
Yield191,640 Fc189,433 Fc182,789 Fc171,575 Fc170,260 Fc
Fruit, stone nesArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
Fruit, tropical fresh nesArea harvested41,58442,86741,06741,65351,442
Production quantity593,429604,271548,088618,298704,369
Yield142,706 Fc140,964 Fc133,462 Fc148,440 Fc136,925 Fc
GarlicArea harvested11,20910,56210,58811,40410,789
Production quantity131,523118,869120,896132,361117,272
Yield117,337 Fc112,544 Fc114,182 Fc116,065 Fc108,696 Fc
Grapefruit (inc. pomelos)Area harvested4,436 Im4,414 Im4,391 Im4,368 Im4,365 Im
Production quantity83,113 Im82,217 Im81,322 Im80,427 Im79,801 Im
Yield187,360 Fc186,264 Fc185,202 Fc184,128 Fc182,820 Fc
GrapesArea harvested74,62574,47775,73477,16478,011
Production quantity1,485,2921,592,0311,743,4301,113,3451,497,302
Yield199,034 Fc213,761 Fc230,204 Fc144,283 Fc191,935 Fc
Groundnuts, with shellArea harvested171,567151,832154,300154,556147,872
Production quantity580,574563,344546,929560,463500,060
Yield33,839 Fc37,103 Fc35,446 Fc36,263 Fc33,817 Fc
JuteArea harvested93135156664
Production quantity93142181953
Yield10,000 Fc10,000 Fc12,000 Fc11,603 Fc14,352 Fc
Lemons and limesArea harvested56,49153,85948,16246,46546,088
Production quantity1,511,1851,501,7831,293,7741,234,6911,180,443
Yield267,509 Fc278,836 Fc268,630 Fc265,725 Fc256,128 Fc
LinseedArea harvested3,9576,0507,52511,66014,655
Production quantity3,7725,9725,95312,97312,245
Yield9,532 Fc9,871 Fc7,911 Fc11,126 Fc8,356 Fc
MaizeArea harvested17,518,05416,126,36817,427,20614,970,50215,407,143
Production quantity101,138,61782,366,53197,910,65864,188,31485,283,074
Yield57,734 Fc51,076 Fc56,183 Fc42,877 Fc55,353 Fc
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavasArea harvested89,45687,20183,34981,72481,868
Production quantity1,998,5611,899,2611,547,9281,515,1671,400,342
Yield223,413 Fc217,803 Fc185,716 Fc185,400 Fc171,049 Fc
MatéArea harvested67,23065,66775,79974,94370,650
Production quantity517,779509,949619,771630,556602,929
Yield77,016 Fc77,657 Fc81,765 Fc84,138 Fc85,340 Fc
Melons, other (inc.cantaloupes)Area harvested22,12723,32423,41323,10520,762
Production quantity587,692581,478541,298596,430521,596
Yield265,599 Fc249,305 Fc231,195 Fc258,139 Fc251,226 Fc
Nuts nesArea harvested4,269 Im4,217 Im4,166 Im4,114 Im4,024 Im
Production quantity3,129 Im3,089 Im3,048 Im3,007 Im2,976 Im
Yield7,330 Fc7,325 Fc7,316 Fc7,309 Fc7,396 Fc
OatsArea harvested448,072437,822371,650330,184296,608
Production quantity920,439899,244625,769872,830504,957
Yield20,542 Fc20,539 Fc16,838 Fc26,435 Fc17,024 Fc
Oil palm fruitArea harvested177,475161,558115,133135,546140,082
Production quantity2,583,2932,249,7701,687,3711,621,0171,585,088
Yield145,558 Fc139,255 Fc146,558 Fc119,592 Fc113,154 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested38,376,162 A36,664,885 A35,550,565 A34,896,158 A34,025,713 A
Production quantity127,034,278 A128,317,589 A123,258,665 A104,911,762 A106,582,370 A
Yield33,102 Fc34,997 Fc34,671 Fc30,064 Fc31,324 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested38,324,110 A36,617,627 A35,502,409 A34,851,169 A33,942,843 A
Production quantity93,161,214 A95,358,566 A92,429,423 A77,854,207 A78,896,041 A
Yield24,309 Fc26,042 Fc26,035 Fc22,339 Fc23,244 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested38,376,162 A36,664,885 A35,550,565 A34,896,158 A34,025,713 A
Production quantity22,452,369 A22,800,167 A21,949,574 A18,653,985 A18,924,899 A
Yield5,851 Fc6,219 Fc6,174 Fc5,346 Fc5,562 Fc
Oilseeds nesProduction quantity44,874 Im42,500 F40,200 F37,800 F40,700 F
OlivesArea harvested1,4181,116946574366
Production quantity2,5051,6201,250647435
Yield17,666 Fc14,516 Fc13,214 Fc11,272 Fc11,885 Fc
Onions, dryArea harvested48,14647,64451,68257,34956,677
Production quantity1,556,8851,540,1911,615,3161,654,5461,445,989
Yield323,367 Fc323,271 Fc312,549 Fc288,505 Fc255,128 Fc
OrangesArea harvested589,610589,329632,939642,210678,807
Production quantity17,073,59316,841,54917,492,88216,980,37916,953,015
Yield289,574 Fc285,775 Fc276,375 Fc264,405 Fc249,747 Fc
PapayasArea harvested27,55627,40226,67535,15730,545
Production quantity1,161,8081,065,4211,058,4871,296,9401,481,190
Yield421,617 Fc388,811 Fc396,809 Fc368,900 Fc484,921 Fc
Peaches and nectarinesArea harvested15,99517,60517,18717,36417,436
Production quantity183,132219,603250,449193,480216,241
Yield114,493 Fc124,739 Fc145,720 Fc111,426 Fc124,020 Fc
PearsArea harvested1,1561,2841,3061,2491,453
Production quantity16,72219,81322,12514,91521,160
Yield144,654 Fc154,307 Fc169,410 Fc119,416 Fc145,630 Fc
Peas, dryArea harvested7118371,1171,0521,373
Production quantity2,7152,8132,7633,6192,561
Yield38,186 Fc33,608 Fc24,736 Fc34,401 Fc18,653 Fc
Pepper (piper spp.)Area harvested35,32034,29928,63125,83322,105
Production quantity109,401101,62479,10654,43051,739
Yield30,974 Fc29,629 Fc27,629 Fc21,070 Fc23,406 Fc
PersimmonsArea harvested8,2298,1338,1598,2378,588
Production quantity168,658156,935182,185162,184192,327
Yield204,956 Fc192,961 Fc223,293 Fc196,897 Fc223,949 Fc
PineapplesArea harvested67,16771,65962,07866,90567,922
Production quantity2,426,5262,652,2312,309,6342,559,1172,653,646
Yield361,268 Fc370,118 Fc372,054 Fc382,500 Fc390,690 Fc
PotatoesArea harvested116,682119,609118,130129,842131,931
Production quantity3,696,9303,728,9533,655,0693,851,3963,867,681
Yield316,838 Fc311,762 Fc309,411 Fc296,622 Fc293,159 Fc
Pulses, TotalArea harvested2,643,746 A2,874,573 A2,825,569 A2,605,357 A2,885,390 A
Production quantity2,920,672 A2,930,603 A3,058,861 A2,628,541 A3,095,535 A
Yield11,047 Fc10,195 Fc10,826 Fc10,089 Fc10,728 Fc
Pyrethrum, driedArea harvestedMMMMM
Production quantityMMMMM
QuincesArea harvested707062113116
Production quantity530521491741841
Yield75,714 Fc74,429 Fc79,194 Fc65,575 Fc72,500 Fc
RamieArea harvested8585120
Production quantity80153216
Yield9,412 Fc18,000 Fc18,000 Fc
RapeseedArea harvested34,000 *34,000 *36,000 *48,000 *48,000 *
Production quantity48,000 *49,000 *50,000 *60,000 *72,000 *
Yield14,118 Fc14,412 Fc13,889 Fc12,500 Fc15,000 Fc
Rice, paddyArea harvested1,710,0491,872,1552,006,2021,943,9382,138,397
Production quantity10,368,61111,808,41212,464,76610,622,18912,301,201
Yield60,633 Fc63,074 Fc62,131 Fc54,643 Fc57,525 Fc
Rice, paddy (rice milled equivalent)Production quantity6,915,864 Fc7,876,211 Fc8,313,999 Fc7,085,000 Fc8,204,901 Fc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested1,389,481 A1,413,960 A1,464,128 A1,599,676 A1,714,278 A
Production quantity22,248,979 A22,596,288 A23,185,996 A25,810,326 A27,772,054 A
Yield160,124 Fc159,809 Fc158,360 Fc161,347 Fc162,004 Fc
Rubber, naturalArea harvested158,771152,326147,166146,669143,972
Production quantity217,387199,717190,505189,780191,450
Yield13,692 Fc13,111 Fc12,945 Fc12,939 Fc13,298 Fc
RyeArea harvested5,6304,8975,5653,4693,615
Production quantity10,3208,2977,5776,4774,916
Yield18,330 Fc16,943 Fc13,615 Fc18,671 Fc13,599 Fc
Seed cottonArea harvested1,627,1631,150,014927,987996,1881,032,935
Production quantity6,893,3404,956,1253,842,8723,464,1034,007,326
Yield42,364 Fc43,096 Fc41,411 Fc34,774 Fc38,796 Fc
Sesame seedArea harvested160,000 *53,000 *32,000 *27,000 *24,000 *
Production quantity128,000 *41,000 *24,000 *20,000 *18,000 *
Yield8,000 Fc7,736 Fc7,500 Fc7,407 Fc7,500 Fc
SisalArea harvested99,15795,40684,861199,104197,748
Production quantity86,82082,92379,629180,948183,560
Yield8,756 Fc8,692 Fc9,383 Fc9,088 Fc9,283 Fc
SorghumArea harvested818,301800,175744,571558,189732,981
Production quantity2,672,2452,281,3162,223,6271,154,4562,136,450
Yield32,656 Fc28,510 Fc29,865 Fc20,682 Fc29,147 Fc
SoybeansArea harvested35,881,44734,777,93633,959,87933,183,11932,181,243
Production quantity114,269,392117,912,450114,732,10196,394,82097,464,936
Yield31,846 Fc33,904 Fc33,785 Fc29,049 Fc30,286 Fc
StrawberriesArea harvested4,500 *4,500 F4,300 F3,700 F3,700 F
Production quantity165,440 *179,700 F155,000 F132,000 F135,000 F
Yield367,644 Fc399,333 Fc360,465 Fc356,757 Fc364,865 Fc
Sugar caneArea harvested10,081,17010,013,45210,189,20810,223,89410,111,376
Production quantity752,895,389747,060,316758,646,205768,594,154750,290,277
Yield746,833 Fc746,057 Fc744,559 Fc751,763 Fc742,026 Fc
Sugar Crops PrimaryArea harvested10,081,170 A10,013,452 A10,189,208 A10,223,894 A10,111,376 A
Production quantity752,895,389 A747,060,316 A758,646,205 A768,594,154 A750,290,277 A
Yield746,833 Fc746,057 Fc744,559 Fc751,763 Fc742,026 Fc
Sunflower seedArea harvested81,55184,58260,17961,167111,803
Production quantity132,958135,872104,14480,695155,018
Yield16,304 Fc16,064 Fc17,306 Fc13,193 Fc13,865 Fc
Sweet potatoesArea harvested57,29052,92854,04547,94443,920
Production quantity805,412741,000780,461672,866595,977
Yield140,585 Fc140,002 Fc144,409 Fc140,344 Fc135,696 Fc
Tangerines, mandarins, clementines, satsumasArea harvested52,80052,44550,14449,64048,999
Production quantity984,897990,719967,1391,013,0671,000,546
Yield186,534 Fc188,906 Fc192,872 Fc204,083 Fc204,197 Fc
TeaArea harvested210211185185215
Production quantity475483459459633
Yield22,619 Fc22,891 Fc24,811 Fc24,811 Fc29,442 Fc
Tobacco, unmanufacturedArea harvested361,827356,212391,188376,503405,881
Production quantity769,801756,232865,620677,472867,355
Yield21,275 Fc21,230 Fc22,128 Fc17,994 Fc21,370 Fc
TomatoesArea harvested54,53757,38861,40363,99563,572
Production quantity3,917,9674,126,9884,225,4144,166,7894,187,729
Yield718,405 Fc719,138 Fc688,145 Fc651,112 Fc658,738 Fc
Treenuts, TotalArea harvested434,234 A447,178 A496,704 A575,209 A598,066 A
Production quantity180,963 A185,849 A167,920 A116,956 A152,183 A
Yield4,167 Fc4,156 Fc3,381 Fc2,033 Fc2,545 Fc
TriticaleArea harvested12,96413,12116,27417,06318,326
Production quantity34,06933,16436,42446,25339,959
Yield26,280 Fc25,276 Fc22,382 Fc27,107 Fc21,805 Fc
Tung nutsArea harvested6767636480
Production quantity272312225228609
Yield40,597 Fc46,567 Fc35,714 Fc35,625 Fc76,125 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested363,667 A362,946 A368,570 A375,156 A370,976 A
Production quantity8,854,139 A8,981,096 A9,103,958 A9,043,312 A8,777,355 A
Yield243,468 Fc247,450 Fc247,008 Fc241,055 Fc236,602 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested249,775 Im247,352 Im244,897 Im242,408 Im239,938 Im
Production quantity3,247,764 Im3,195,048 Im3,142,332 Im3,089,616 Im3,026,365 Im
Yield130,028 Fc129,170 Fc128,312 Fc127,455 Fc126,131 Fc
Walnuts, with shellArea harvested3,5483,8713,8553,5083,129
Production quantity6,1757,2047,9075,5015,201
Yield17,404 Fc18,610 Fc20,511 Fc15,681 Fc16,622 Fc
WatermelonsArea harvested98,489101,980103,20490,31695,965
Production quantity2,278,1862,244,0012,312,9932,088,0482,119,559
Yield231,314 Fc220,043 Fc224,119 Fc231,194 Fc220,868 Fc
WheatArea harvested2,098,0032,080,2041,905,6172,166,1702,472,628
Production quantity5,604,1585,469,2364,342,8126,834,4215,508,451
Yield26,712 Fc26,292 Fc22,790 Fc31,551 Fc22,278 Fc
YamsArea harvested25,388 Im25,435 Im25,482 Im25,686 Im25,767 Im
Production quantity249,522 Im249,172 Im248,821 Im249,750 Im248,692 Im
Yield98,283 Fc97,964 Fc97,646 Fc97,232 Fc96,516 Fc
Flag
No flag = Official data
* = Unofficial figure
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
F = FAO estimate
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology
M = Data not available

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea236,879 Fm236,879 Fm236,159 Fm235,438 Fm234,717 Fm
AgricultureArea236,879 Fc236,879 Fc236,159 Fc235,438 Fc234,717 Fc
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area1,188 I1,137 I750 I750 I750 I
Arable landArea55,762 Fm55,762 W55,140 Fm54,518 Fm53,895 Fm
Country areaArea851,577 Fm851,577 W851,577 W851,577 W851,577 W
CroplandArea63,518 Fm63,518 W63,253 Fm62,987 Fm62,721 Fm
Forest landArea499,051 Q500,092 Q502,082 Q503,885 Q505,424 Fm
Inland watersArea15,763 Fm15,763 Fm15,763 Fm15,763 Fm15,763 Fm
Land areaArea835,814 Fm835,814 Fm835,814 Fm835,814 Fm835,814 Fm
Land area equipped for irrigationArea6,955 Fm6,955 Fm6,955 Fm6,955 W6,644 Fm
Land under perm. meadows and pasturesArea173,361 Fm173,361 W172,906 Fm172,451 Fm171,996 Fm
Land under permanent cropsArea7,756 Fm7,756 W8,113 Fm8,469 Fm8,826 Fm
Naturally regenerating forestArea488,548 Fm490,252 Q492,059 Fm493,947 Fm496,008 Fm
Other landArea99,884 Fc98,844 Fc97,573 Fc96,491 Fc95,673 Fc
Perm. meadows & pastures - CultivatedArea126,037 Fm126,037 W124,645 Fm123,253 Fm121,861 Fm
Perm. meadows & pastures - Nat. growingArea47,323 Fm47,323 W48,261 Fm49,198 Fm50,135 Fm
Planted ForestArea10,503 Q9,840 Q10,023 Q9,938 Q9,416 Fm
Agriculture area actually irrigatedArea6,903 W
Primary ForestArea202,691 Fm202,691 Fm202,691 Q202,691 Fm
Agriculture area certified organicArea
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc.
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries
W = Data reported on country official publications or web sites (Official) or trade country files

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.