Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Afghanistan

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Datasheet

Afghanistan

Summary

  • Population, total
  • 38,041,754 (2019)
  • GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
  • 530 (2019)
  • GNI, Atlas method (current US$ in millions)
  • 20,043.57 (2019)
  • GDP (current US$ in millions)
  • 19,291.10 (2019)
  • Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
  • 25.77 (2019)

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List of Species

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The table lists the species recorded in the Compendium for this region(from the full species datasheets). It includes species that are invasive in this region, those for which there is no data on invasive status, and also species that are not invasive in the region but are reported as invasive elsewhere. This summary table is based on all the information available.When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the distribution record. For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Domain Kingdom Phylum Species Distribution Origin Invasive References
yellow head virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Clavibacter sepedonicus (potato ring rot)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Bradbury (1986); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaActinobacteria [phylum]Mycobacterium bovisPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaFirmicutesBacillus anthracisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniaePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaFirmicutesMycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) typeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaAnaplasma marginaleAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella abortusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella melitensisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaBrucella suisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCandidatus Hepatobacter penaeiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaCoxiella burnetiiPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaEhrlichia ruminantiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaFrancisella tularensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BacteriaProteobacteriaPasteurella multocidaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaTaylorella equigenitalisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaVibrio parahaemolyticusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXanthomonas citri (citrus canker)PresentLi et al. (2007); CABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
BacteriaProteobacteriaXenohaliotis californiensisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaChromistaBacillariophytaDidymosphenia geminata (didymo)Present, WidespreadNativeFoged (1959)
EukaryotaChromistaOomycotaAphanomyces astaciAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaBlumeria graminis (powdery mildew of grasses and cereals)PresentCABI and EPPO (2004)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaDidymella fabae (leaf and pod spot)PresentChérif et al. (2006); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaElsinoë australis (citrus scab)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (Fusarium wilt)PresentUK, CAB International (1982)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaGuignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaMonilinia fructigena (brown rot)PresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiAscomycotaPseudocercospora angolensis (leaf spot of Citrus spp.)Absent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaHeterobasidion annosum sensu lato (Heterobasidion root rot)PresentNativeBuchanan (1988)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaPuccinia graminis (stem rust of cereals)Present, WidespreadGattani and Sadek (1964); Abdel-Hak and Kamel (1972)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaTilletia controversa (dwarf bunt of wheat)PresentUK, CAB International (1992); CABI/EPPO (2012); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaTilletia indica (Karnal bunt of wheat)PresentUK, CAB International (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiBasidiomycotaUrocystis agropyri (flag smut of wheat)PresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaFungiChytridiomycotaBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaAnnelidaLumbricus rubellusPresentIntroducedGates (1972)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAethina tumidaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAgrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1969)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAonidiella aurantii (red scale)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis craccivora (groundnut aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1983)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaAphis gossypii (cotton aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1968)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaApis melliferaPresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBactrocera cucurbitae (melon fly)PresentInvasiveCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBagrada hilaris (painted bug)PresentCABI and EPPO (2016); Hill (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaBemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly)PresentCAB International and European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (1998); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCeratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly)Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChilo partellus (spotted stem borer)PresentUK, CAB International (1989); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCochliomyia hominivorax (New World screwworm)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaCulex quinquefasciatus (southern house mosquito)Present, WidespreadHarbach (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly)PresentInternational Institute of Entomology (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)PresentCABI/EPPO (2011); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale)PresentMohammad Ullah (1988); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaDiuraphis noxia (Russian wheat aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaEriosoma lanigerum (woolly aphid)PresentMohammad Ullah (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaHelicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLiriomyza cicerinaPresentAustralian Government (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaLymantria dispar (gypsy moth)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMeligethes aeneus (rape beetle)Present, LocalizedEaston (1957); CABI and EPPO (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaMyzus persicae (green peach aphid)PresentUK, CAB International (1979)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNezara viridula (green stink bug)Present, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1970); Hoberlandt (1984)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaNipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug)PresentCABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPapilio demoleus (chequered swallowtail)Present, LocalizedHeydemann (1954)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaParthenolecanium persicae (peach scale)PresentKozar et al. (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm)PresentUK, CAB International (1990); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhthorimaea absoluta (tomato leafminer)PresentIntroducedEPPO (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPhyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner)PresentUK, CAB International (1986); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPieris brassicae (large cabbage white)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPieris rapae (cabbage white butterfly)PresentUK, CAB International (1952)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPlutella xylostella (diamondback moth)PresentUK, CAB International (1967)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug)PresentIntroducedKozar et al. (1996); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaPyrrhalta luteola (elm leaf beetle)PresentIntroducedLopatin (1977); Aslan et al. (2000)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaRhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot)Absent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSepedon aenescens (snail-killing fly)PresentKnutson and Orth (1984)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus granarius (grain weevil)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil)PresentChamp and Dyte (1976)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaSpodoptera litura (taro caterpillar)PresentInvasiveUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite)PresentInternational Institute of Entomology (1996)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrirachys sartus (city longhorn beetle)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTrogoderma granarium (khapra beetle)PresentHáva and Kadej (2014); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelapsPresentAnderson and Roberts (2013); Schotman (1989); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaTropilaelaps clareaePresentSchotman (1989)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa destructor (Varroa mite)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVarroa jacobsoni (Varroa mite)PresentCABI Data Mining (undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespa velutina (Asian hornet)PresentNativeArcher (2012); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaArthropodaVespula germanica (German wasp)PresentNativeGiordani Soika (1962); Gusenleitner (1972); Archer (1998)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAcridotheres tristis (common myna)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAnser indicus (bar-headed goose)PresentNativeBirdLife International (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataAspius aspius (asp)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004); Froese and Pauly (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataBubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Present, Only in captivity/cultivationCockrill (1977)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCamelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Present, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCapra hircus (goats)PresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCarassius auratus auratus (goldfish)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2009)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCervus elaphus (red deer)Present, LocalizedNativeMoheb et al. (2016)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataColumba livia (pigeons)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCorvus splendens (house crow)Present, LocalizedNativeRyall (2010); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCtenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)PresentIntroducedShireman and Smith (1983); Welcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataCyprinus carpio (common carp)PresentIntroducedSeebens et al. (2017); Welcomme (1988)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataDicrurus macrocercusPresentNativeSibley and Monroe (1990)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGambusia holbrooki (eastern mosquitofish)PresentIntroducedInvasiveMotabar (1978)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataGymnocephalus cernuus (ruffe)PresentNativeCoad (1981)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHemiculter leucisculus (common sawbelly)PresentIntroducedCoad (1981)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHerpestes auropunctatus (small Indian mongoose)PresentNativeIUCN (2016); Prater (1965); Corbet and Hill (1992)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataHypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)PresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004); FishBase (2005); Froese and Pauly (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataLeuciscus leuciscus (common dace)PresentNativeCoad (1981)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataMacaca mulatta (rhesus macaque)PresentNativeTimmins et al. (2008)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataOncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)PresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPerca fluviatilis (perch)PresentNativeFishbase (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon)PresentIntroducedCoad (1981)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet)Present, Widespread, Confirmed present by surveyNativeForshaw (2010)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataPsittacula krameri (rose-ringed parakeet)Present, Few occurrencesNativeCramp (1985); BirdLife International (2009); Seebens et al. (2017)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRattus tanezumi (Asian house rat)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataRutilus rutilus (roach)PresentNativeCoad (1981); Froese and Pauly (2004); Kottelat and Freyhof (2007)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSalmo trutta (sea trout)PresentNativeCoad (1981); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSander lucioperca (pike-perch)PresentNativeCoad (1981); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataScardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004); Coad (1981)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSilurus glanis (wels catfish)PresentNativeFroese R and Pauly D (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove)PresentNativeBirdLife International (2014)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSuncus murinus (Asian house shrew)PresentNativeInvasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaChordataSus scrofa [ISC] (feral pig)PresentNativeIUCN (2012)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaAeluropus littoralisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaCorbicula fluminalisPresentNativeAnnandale et al. (1919); Jaeckel (1956); Likharev and Starobogatov (1967); Solem (1979)
EukaryotaMetazoaMolluscaMelanoides tuberculata (red-rimmed melania)PresentNativeHägg (1903)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAnguina tritici (wheat seed gall nematode)PresentBrown (1987); CABI and EPPO (2002); Asaad and Abang (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaAphelenchoides besseyi (rice leaf nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaMeloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode)PresentJamily et al. (2018)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaPratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode)PresentCABI and EPPO (2000); EPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaMetazoaNematodaTylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode)PresentRoivainen et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (1999); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesBothriocephalus acheilognathiPresentIntroducedMoravec and Amin (1978)
EukaryotaMetazoaPlatyhelminthesTaenia soliumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaePteridophytaPteridium aquilinum (bracken)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)PresentNativeAchigan-Dako (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAbutilon indicum (country mallow)PresentNativePROTA (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia farnesiana (huisache)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcacia mearnsii (black wattle)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAcer platanoides (Norway maple)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchillea millefolium (yarrow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAegilops cylindricaPresent, Few occurrencesNativeSlageren (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAeschynomene indica (Indian jointvetch)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAgrostis capillaris (common bent)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia julibrissin (silk tree)Present, PlantedIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlbizia lebbeck (Indian siris)PresentILDIS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlhagi maurorum (camelthorn)Present, WidespreadNativeFAO (2002); ILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlopecurus myosuroides (black-grass)PresentNativeGBIF (2008); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlthaea armeniacaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlyssum alyssoidesPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlyssum desertorum (desert madwort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAlyssum linifoliumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAmaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAnthemis altissimaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaApera interruptaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArenaria serpyllifolia (thymeleaf sandwort)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArtemisia capillarisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaArundo donax (giant reed)Present, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2007); Clayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAsphodelus tenuifolius (onionweed)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAstragalus crenatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAstragalus hamosusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena barbata (slender oat)Present, LocalizedInvasiveGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena fatua (wild oat)PresentHolm et al. (1977)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAvena sterilis (winter wild oat)Present, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaAzadirachta indica (neem tree)PresentNaturalizedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBidens pilosa (blackjack)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBoerhavia diffusa (red spiderling)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBothriochloa ischaemum (yellow bluestem)Present, WidespreadNativeCook et al. (2005); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrachypodium distachyon (purple false brome)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica juncea (mustard)PresentIntroducedWarwick and Francis (1994)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica nigra (black mustard)PresentNativeGBIF (2013); USDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBrassica rapa (field mustard)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus japonicus (Japanese brome)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus madritensis (compact brome)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus racemosus (bald brome)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus sterilis (barren brome)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBromus tectorum (downy brome)Present, WidespreadNativeKostivkovsky and Young (2000)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaBuglossoides arvensis (corn gromwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalendula arvensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCalotropis procera (apple of sodom)PresentNativeInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCamelina rumelicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarduus pycnocephalus (Italian thistle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCarex acutiformis (Swamp sedge)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCenchrus ciliaris (Buffel grass)PresentNativeCook et al. (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentaurea iberica (Iberian starthistle)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCentaurea virgata (squarrose knapweed)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCerastium dichotomumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratocephala testiculata (bur buttercup)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCeratophyllum demersum (coontail)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium album (fat hen)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChloris virgata (feather finger grass)PresentIntroducedClayton et al. (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaChorispora tenella (blue mustard)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium arvense (creeping thistle)Present, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979); USDA-ARS (2004); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCirsium vulgare (spear thistle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCitrus aurantium (sour orange)PresentFAO (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClematis montanaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClematis orientalis (oriental virginsbower)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaClematis vitalba (old man's beard)PresentNativeRechinger (1992); USDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCleome gynandraPresentNativeMishra et al. (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConium maculatum (poison hemlock)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConringia orientalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConsolida orientalisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConvolvulus arvensis (bindweed)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1977); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaConyza sumatrensis (tall fleabane)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster hissaricusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster insignisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster multiflorusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCotoneaster roseusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrupina vulgaris (bearded creeper)PresentNativeRechinger (1980)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCrypsis schoenoides (swamp pricklegrass)PresentNativeeMonocot (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta campestris (field dodder)Present, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta epithymum (alfalfa dodder)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta europaea (European dodder)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta monogyna (eastern dodder)PresentNativeWorld Flora Online (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta reflexa (dodder)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCuscuta scandensPresentNativeWorld Flora Online (2019)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCutandia memphiticaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus difformis (small-flowered nutsedge)PresentNativeMoody et al. (1984); Govaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)PresentGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus imbricatus (shingle flatsedge)PresentNativeGovaerts (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus iria (rice flatsedge)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaCyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge)PresentNativeGovaerts (2014); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactylis glomerata (cocksfoot)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDalbergia sissooPresentNativeILDIS (2007)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura innoxia (downy thorn apple)PresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura metel (Hindu datura)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDatura stramonium (jimsonweed)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDescurainia sophia (flixweed)PresentUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDesmostachya bipinnata (halfa grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichanthium annulatum (Kleberg's bluestem)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDichrostachys cinerea (sickle bush)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaDittrichia graveolens (stinkwort)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa colona (junglerice)PresentClayton et al. (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEchinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEclipta prostrata (eclipta)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElsholtzia ciliataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaElymus repens (quackgrass)Present, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis papposaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEragrostis pilosa (India lovegrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEremopoa persicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErodium cicutarium (common storksbill)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaErysimum repandumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia esula (leafy spurge)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaEuphorbia seguierianaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia baldschuanica (Russian vine)PresentEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1991); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFestuca arundinacea (tall fescue)Present, WidespreadNativeeMonocot (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFestuca pratensis (meadow fescue)PresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus benghalensis (banyan)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFicus carica (common fig)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); FAO (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis dichotoma (tall fringe rush)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis)PresentNativeGovaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFoeniculum vulgare (fennel)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaFragaria vesca (wild strawberry)PresentNativeDarrow (1966)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGalium aparine (cleavers)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium dissectum (cutleaf geranium)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium himalayensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium nepalensePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium pusillumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGeranium rotundifoliumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2003)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaGypsophila pilosaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHelianthus annuus (sunflower)PresentFAO (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHerniaria glabraPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHibiscus trionum (Venice mallow)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHordeum marinum (seaside barley)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHydrilla verticillata (hydrilla)PresentNativeGovaerts (2016); Cook and Luond (1982)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyoscyamus niger (black henbane)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015); Flora of Pakistan (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHyoscyamus pusillusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaHypericum perforatum (St John's wort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImpatiens parviflora (small balsam)PresentNativeTrepl (1984); USA, USDA-ARS (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaImperata cylindrica (cogon grass)Present, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaIsatis tinctoria (dyer's woad)PresentNativeMoazzeni and Zarre (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJasminum officinalePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaJuncus effusus (common rush)PresentNativeKirschner (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKochia indicaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaKoeleria macranthaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLactuca tataricaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLamium amplexicaule (henbit deadnettle)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLappula barbataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus annuusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus aphacaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus hirsutusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLathyrus pratensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLawsonia inermis (Egyptian privet)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLemna perpusilla (duckweed)PresentUSDA-ARS (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium draba (hoary cress)Present, LocalizedNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium latifolium (perennial pepperweed)PresentNativeGBIF (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium perfoliatum (clasping pepperweed)PresentNativeGBIF (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLepidium pinnatifidumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza)PresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2020); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLithospermum officinalePresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass)Present, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2004)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium rigidum (rigid ryegrass)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLolium temulentum (darnel)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaLythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalva neglecta (common mallow)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMalva sylvestrisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMarrubium vulgare (horehound)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago laciniataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago lupulina (black medick)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago monanthaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago orbicularisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago polymorpha (bur clover)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMedicago rigidulaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMegathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelia azedarach (Chinaberry)Present, PlantedIntroducedWorld Agroforestry Centre (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelilotus albus (honey clover)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMelilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMirabilis jalapa (four o'clock flower)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoorochloa eruciformis (sweet signal grass)PresentNativePodlech (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMoringa oleifera (horse radish tree)PresentIntroducedPROTA (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorus alba (mora)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMorus nigra (black mulberry)PresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaMuscari neglectum (starch grape hyacinth)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNasturtium officinale (watercress)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2006)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaNerium oleander (oleander)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOlea europaea subsp. cuspidata (wild olive)Present, PlantedNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOlea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)PresentIntroducedIRIN (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOnopordum acanthium (scotch thistle)PresentNativeRechinger (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche aegyptiaca (Egyptian broomrape)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Parker and Wilson (1986)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche cernua (nodding broomrape)PresentNativeParker and Wilson (1986); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape)PresentIntroducedITIS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOrobanche ramosa (branched broomrape)PresentNativeParker and Wilson (1986)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOryza rufipogon (wild rice)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaOxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)PresentQ-bank (2013); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPapaver dubiumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPapaver hybridumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPastinaca sativa (parsnip)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPennisetum flaccidumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria maculosa (redshank)PresentInvasiveHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPersicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris minor (littleseed canarygrass)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhalaris paradoxa (awned canary-grass)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPhragmites australis (common reed)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPistia stratiotes (water lettuce)PresentUSDA-ARS (2009); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago arenariaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago coronopus (Buck's-horn plantain)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain)PresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPlantago major (broad-leaved plantain)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa annua (annual meadowgrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2014); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa bulbosa (bulbous bluegrass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa nemoralis (wood bluegrass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa pratensis (smooth meadow-grass)PresentNativeISSG (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPoa supinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)PresentNativeGBIF (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed)Present, Few occurrencesHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum hydropiper (marsh pepper)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolygonum lapathifolium (pale persicaria)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019); Holm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolypogon fugaxPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPolypogon monspeliensis (annual beard grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPopulus alba (silver-leaf poplar)Present, PlantedCABI (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPopulus nigra (black poplar)Present, PlantedCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPortulaca oleracea (purslane)PresentKitamura (1960)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla multifidaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla reptans (sulfur cinquefoil)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPotentilla supinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPrunella vulgaris (self-heal)PresentNativeWCSP (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaPuccinellia distans (weeping alkali grass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRanunculus muricatusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRaphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)Present, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhamnus cathartica (buckthorn)PresentNativeTutin (1968)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRhaponticum repens (Russian knapweed)Present, WidespreadNativeInvasiveMaddox et al. (1985); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRicinus communis (castor bean)Present, PlantedIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRobinia pseudoacacia (black locust)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2002)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRoemeria refractaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRostraria cristataPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus fruticosus (blackberry)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRubus niveus (Mysore raspberry)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex conglomeratusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex crispus (curled dock)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)PresentNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex patientiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaRumex vesicariusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSaccharum ravennae (ravenna grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSaccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane)Present, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalsola kali (common saltwort)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalsola paulsenii (barbwire Russian thistle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSalvia sclareaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchismus arabicus (Arabian schismus)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSchismus barbatus (common Mediterranean grass)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSenecio vulgarisPresentNativeHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSesbania sesban (sesban)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Lock and Simpson (1991); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail)PresentWang RongLin et al. (1995)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSetaria viridis (green foxtail)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSideritis montanaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene gallica (common catchfly)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilene vulgaris (bladder campion)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSilybum marianum (variegated thistle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSinapis arvensis (wild mustard)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSisymbrium irioPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSolanum nigrum (black nightshade)PresentCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)Present, LocalizedEPPO (2022); CABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)PresentNativeKirpichnikov (1964); USDA-ARS (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSorghum halepense (Johnson grass)Present, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2022)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpartium junceum (Spanish broom)PresentIntroducedILDIS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSpergularia marinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaSphaerophysa salsula (swainsonpea)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStachys arvensis (staggerweed)PresentHolm et al. (1979); Govaerts (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStellaria gramineaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStellaria media (common chickweed)PresentHolm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStipa capensisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaStipagrostis pungensPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead wildrye)PresentNativeFrederiksen (1986); Missouri Botanical Garden (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarindus indica (tamarind)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarix aphylla (athel)Present, Few occurrences, PlantedNativeBaum (1978)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarix chinensis (five-stamen tamarisk)PresentNativeCABI (Undated)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTamarix ramosissima (saltcedar)Present, WidespreadNativeBaum (1978)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTaraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)PresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1997)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTerminalia catappa (Singapore almond)PresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTeucrium poliumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThalictrum minusPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThlaspi arvense (field pennycress)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2019); Holm et al. (1991)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaThlaspi perfoliatumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTragus racemosus (stalker bur grass)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTriticum polonicumPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTulipa clusianaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha angustifolia (lesser bulrush)PresentHolm et al. (1991); Chambers et al. (2008)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaTypha latifolia (broadleaf cattail)PresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2010)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrena lobata (caesar weed)PresentHolm et al. (1979)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrochloa reptans (sprawling signalgrass)PresentNativeClayton et al. (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaUrtica dioica (stinging nettle)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVerbascum thapsus (common mullein)PresentNativeISSG (2014)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica anagallis-aquatica (blue water speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica beccabunga (European speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica biloba (twolobe speedwell)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVeronica politaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia hybridaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia peregrinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVicia villosa (hairy vetch)PresentNativeRoskov et al. (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex agnus-castus (chaste tree)PresentNativePOWO (2020)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVitex trifoliaPresentNativeGovaerts (2016)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia myuros (annual fescue)PresentNativeeFloras (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaVulpia unilateralisPresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaXanthium spinosum (bathurst burr)PresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2013)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaYoungia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZiziphus mauritiana (jujube)Present, PlantedNativeCABI (2005)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZiziphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn jujube)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EukaryotaPlantaeSpermatophytaZygophyllum fabago (Syrian caper-bean)PresentCABI Data Mining (2011)
EukaryotaProtistaParamyxeaMarteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia exitiosaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaBonamia ostreaeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaPerkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
EukaryotaProtistaProtozoaTrypanosoma evansiPresentDesquesnes et al. (2013)
VirusAfrican horse sickness virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAfrican swine fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusavian infectious bronchitis virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusAvipoxvirusPresentWinteroll et al. (1979)
Virusbluetongue virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine leukemia virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusbovine viral diarrhea virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusclassical swine fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusCowpea aphid-borne mosaic virusPresentBashir and Hampton (1996); CABI and EPPO (2010)
VirusCrimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virusPresentBente et al. (2013); OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruseastern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusEggplant mottled dwarf virus (tomato vein yellowing virus)PresentCABI and EPPO (2008); Martelli and Lal (1985); EPPO (2022)
Virusfoot-and-mouth disease virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusGrapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus)PresentDigiaro et al. (1999)
VirusHaliotid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious bursal disease virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfectious myonecrosis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusinfluenza A virusPresentOIE (2020); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
VirusJapanese encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruslumpy skin disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusMacrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNairobi sheep disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNewcastle disease virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusNipah virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruspeste des petits ruminants virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusPotato spindle tuber viroid (spindle tuber of potato)PresentCABI and EPPO (2014); EPPO (2022)
Virusrabbit hemorrhagic disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusrabies virusPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusRift Valley fever virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusrinderpest virusAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusSuid herpesvirus 1Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusswine vesicular disease virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VirusTaura syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusTomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (tomato spotted wilt)PresentUK, CAB International (1978); EPPO (2022)
Virustransmissible gastroenteritis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusVenezuelan equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Virusvesicular stomatitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Virusvisna/maedi virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWest Nile virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Viruswestern equine encephalitis virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
VirusWhite spot syndrome virusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)

List of Species CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Species which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database and selected invasive species databases). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

List of Animal Diseases

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The table lists the animal diseases recorded in the Compendium for this region (from the full disease datasheets). For further information, please follow the link to the datasheet.

Disease Distribution Origin Invasive References
abalone viral ganglioneuritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
acute hepatopancreatic necrosis diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Aeromonas infection in fishPresentOIE (2009)
African horse sicknessAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
African swine feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
anthraxPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Aujeszky's diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian infectious bronchitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
avian influenzaPresentOIE (2020); OIE (2009); OIE (2018); OIE (2018); OIE (2019); OIE (2019); OIE (2020)
avipoxPresentWinteroll et al. (1979)
bluetonguePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bonamiosis (Bonamia exitiosa)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bonamiosis (Bonamia ostreae)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Bothriocephalus acheilognathi infectionPresentIntroducedMoravec and Amin (1978)
bovine anaplasmosisAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine babesiosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine spongiform encephalopathyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
bovine tuberculosisPresentOIE (2018); OIE (2018)
bovine viral diarrhoeaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella abortus)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)PresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
brucellosis (Brucella suis)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Chrysomya bezziana infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
ChytridiomycosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
classical swine feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Cochliomyia hominivorax infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious caprine pleuropneumoniaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
contagious equine metritisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
crayfish plagueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic feverAbsentOIE (2019); Bente et al. (2013); OIE (2019)
duck virus hepatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
enzootic bovine leukosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
equine encephalomyelitis (Western)Absent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
foot-and-mouth disease in pigsPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
foot-and-mouth disease in ruminantsPresentOIE (2019); Kitching (1998); OIE (2019)
fowlpoxPresentCABI (Undated)
glandersAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
haemorrhagic septicaemiaPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
heartwaterAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Marteilia refringensAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Perkinsus marinusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infection with Perkinsus olseniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious bursal diseaseAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious laryngotracheitisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
infectious myonecrosisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Japanese encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
listeriosisPresentModjadedy and Seraj (1970)
Nairobi sheep diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
necrotizing hepatopancreatitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Newcastle diseasePresentOIE (2019); OIE (2009); OIE (2019)
Nipah virus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
peste des petits ruminantsPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Q feverPresentOIE (2019); OIE Handistatus (2005); OIE (2019)
rabbit haemorrhagic diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rabiesPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Ranavirus infection in amphibiansAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
rinderpestAbsentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
scrapieAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
sheep and goat poxPresentOIE (2019); OIE (1984); Kitching (1994); OIE (2019)
small hive beetle infestationAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
surraPresentDesquesnes et al. (2013)
swine vesicular diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Taura syndromeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Theileria annulata infectionsPresentBulman et al. (1979)
theileriosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019)
transmissible gastroenteritis and porcine respiratory coronovirus infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); Schotman (1989); Anderson and Roberts (2013); OIE (2019)
tuberculosisPresentOIE (2019); OIE (2019); CABI (Undated)
varroosis of honey beesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Venezuelan equine encephalitisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
visna/maediAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
West Nile feverAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
white spot diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
white tail diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
Xenohaliotis californiensis infectionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2019); OIE (2019)
yellow head diseaseAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2018); OIE (2018)

List of Animal Diseases CSV Output

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Generate a spreadsheet of the List of Animal Diseases which also includes records from basic datasheets.

Basic datasheets include data mined from various sources (including the CAB Abstracts database). Further confirmation of distribution status should be sought before use.

Download CSV file

Agricultural Production

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Crop   2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Almonds, with shellArea harvested29,20320,05319,79319,48114,676
Production quantity38,20534,41327,29132,84324,246
Yield13,083 Fc17,161 Fc13,788 Fc16,859 Fc16,521 Fc
Anise, badian, fennel, corianderArea harvested27,562 Im26,725 Im28,398 Im25,787 Im25,000 F
Production quantity19,025 Im18,436 Im19,490 Im18,005 Im18,000 F
Yield6,903 Fc6,898 Fc6,863 Fc6,982 Fc7,200 Fc
ApplesArea harvested27,55928,38126,84719,36513,038
Production quantity250,324217,192175,000 F140,90389,733
Yield90,832 Fc76,527 Fc65,184 Fc72,762 Fc68,824 Fc
ApricotsArea harvested17,71918,51018,0678,5959,116
Production quantity129,363109,086131,81617,89487,686
Yield73,008 Fc58,934 Fc72,960 Fc20,819 Fc96,189 Fc
BarleyArea harvested84,07084,14768,179219,208282,000
Production quantity123,57656,78194,995301,856403,000
Yield14,699 Fc6,748 Fc13,933 Fc13,770 Fc14,291 Fc
Berries nesArea harvested6,1175,5533,8003,8003,800
Production quantity35,804 Im33,443 Im23,529 Im24,173 Im24,960 Im
Yield58,532 Fc60,225 Fc61,918 Fc63,613 Fc65,684 Fc
Cereals, TotalArea harvested2,641,911 A1,911,426 A2,418,752 A2,793,042 A2,724,070 A
Production quantity5,583,461 A4,133,828 A4,893,685 A5,531,472 A5,808,288 A
Yield21,134 Fc21,627 Fc20,232 Fc19,804 Fc21,322 Fc
Citrus Fruit, TotalArea harvested4,364 A2,670 A2,441 A2,632 A1,305 A
Production quantity43,515 A23,910 A22,042 A22,468 A8,028 A
Yield99,714 Fc89,551 Fc90,299 Fc85,365 Fc61,517 Fc
Fibre Crops PrimaryArea harvested49,371 A39,496 A31,845 A51,102 A42,124 A
Production quantityAAAAA
YieldFcFcFcFcFc
FigsArea harvested3,5291,6441,6238111,525
Production quantity24,3199,416 Im7,887 Im3,1434,996
Yield68,912 Fc57,275 Fc48,595 Fc38,755 Fc32,761 Fc
Fruit PrimaryArea harvested259,569 A232,026 A285,680 A294,211 A204,447 A
Production quantity3,078,485 A2,234,995 A2,805,448 A2,597,548 A1,831,103 A
Yield118,600 Fc96,325 Fc98,202 Fc88,289 Fc89,564 Fc
Fruit, citrus nesArea harvested3,3911,7001,6431,662300
Production quantity38,685 Im19,018 Im18,016 Im18,107 Im3,102 Im
Yield114,081 Fc111,871 Fc109,653 Fc108,947 Fc103,400 Fc
Fruit, fresh nesArea harvested5,813 Im6,168 Im6,546 Im6,932 Im8,317 Im
Production quantity40,507 Im44,542 Im48,932 Im55,680 Im63,670 Im
Yield69,683 Fc72,215 Fc74,751 Fc80,323 Fc76,554 Fc
Fruit, stone nesArea harvested7,748 Im7,578 Im7,408 Im7,238 Im7,120 Im
Production quantity54,617 Im53,446 Im52,274 Im51,103 Im50,316 Im
Yield70,492 Fc70,528 Fc70,564 Fc70,604 Fc70,669 Fc
GrapesArea harvested89,59387,51787,19482,45078,681
Production quantity1,112,927984,081943,056 Im874,541805,072
Yield124,220 Fc112,445 Fc108,156 Fc106,069 Fc102,321 Fc
LinseedArea harvested38,32334,45828,2075773,891
Production quantity55,00026,211 Im19,759 Im2192,622 Im
Yield14,352 Fc7,607 Fc7,005 Fc3,795 Fc6,739 Fc
MaizeArea harvested94,91072,433134,225151,900147,273
Production quantity184,671106,670173,912311,646316,000
Yield19,457 Fc14,727 Fc12,957 Fc20,517 Fc21,457 Fc
Melons, other (inc.cantaloupes)Area harvested37,13635,79854,40679,95134,270
Production quantity464,230366,706 Im545,279 Im506,266302,067
Yield125,008 Fc102,438 Fc100,224 Fc63,322 Fc88,143 Fc
MilletArea harvested1,4012,307 Im2,519 Im2,724 Im2,693 Im
Production quantity2,7144,900 Im5,582 Im6,295 Im6,248 Im
Yield19,372 Fc21,240 Fc22,160 Fc23,109 Fc23,201 Fc
Nuts nesArea harvested1,680 Im1,622 Im1,557 Im1,864 Im1,800 F
Production quantity1,476 Im1,442 Im1,386 Im1,669 Im1,650 F
Yield8,786 Fc8,890 Fc8,902 Fc8,954 Fc9,167 Fc
OilcropsArea harvested106,179 A91,813 A77,805 A69,372 A63,425 A
Production quantity170,579 A125,057 A97,351 A99,703 A92,879 A
Yield16,065 Fc13,621 Fc12,512 Fc14,372 Fc14,644 Fc
Oilcrops, Cake EquivalentArea harvested104,031 A89,566 A75,618 A67,172 A61,225 A
Production quantity75,459 A51,698 A40,961 A35,745 A34,334 A
Yield7,254 Fc5,772 Fc5,417 Fc5,321 Fc5,608 Fc
Oilcrops, Oil EquivalentArea harvested106,179 A91,813 A77,805 A69,372 A63,425 A
Production quantity43,088 A30,956 A26,476 A21,785 A21,534 A
Yield4,058 Fc3,372 Fc3,403 Fc3,140 Fc3,395 Fc
OlivesArea harvested2,148 Im2,247 Im2,187 Im2,2002,200
Production quantity8,438 Im8,531 Im8,017 Im7,782 Im7,472 Im
Yield39,283 Fc37,966 Fc36,658 Fc35,373 Fc33,964 Fc
Onions, dryArea harvested18,34310,55117,72113,33514,300
Production quantity352,725156,143 Im212,000 F141,649197,851
Yield192,294 Fc147,989 Fc119,632 Fc106,223 Fc138,357 Fc
OrangesArea harvested9739707989701,005
Production quantity4,830 Im4,892 Im4,026 Im4,361 Im4,926
Yield49,640 Fc50,433 Fc50,451 Fc44,959 Fc49,015 Fc
Peaches and nectarinesArea harvested8,0767,7997,4653,1102,498
Production quantity61,36147,93551,692 Im15,30627,934
Yield75,979 Fc61,463 Fc69,246 Fc49,215 Fc111,825 Fc
PearsArea harvested2,4731,8061,6801,346717
Production quantity6,9667,551 Im7,598 Im5,2265,058
Yield28,168 Fc41,811 Fc45,226 Fc38,826 Fc70,544 Fc
PistachiosArea harvested2,171 Im2,188 Im2,205 Im2,222 Im2,242 Im
Production quantity2,755 Im2,746 Im2,738 Im2,729 Im2,742 Im
Yield12,690 Fc12,550 Fc12,417 Fc12,282 Fc12,230 Fc
Plums and sloesArea harvested1,1443,083 Im4,0223,3024,931
Production quantity7,562 Im21,354 Im24,988 Im18,50433,397
Yield66,101 Fc69,264 Fc62,128 Fc56,039 Fc67,729 Fc
PotatoesArea harvested57,06632,40032,11635,69925,019
Production quantity921,122615,684513,194427,917327,507
Yield161,413 Fc190,026 Fc159,794 Fc119,868 Fc130,903 Fc
Pulses nesArea harvested67,11461,16652,243111,894143,555
Production quantity45,862 Im42,887 Im37,561 Im82,938 Im106,651 Im
Yield6,833 Fc7,012 Fc7,190 Fc7,412 Fc7,429 Fc
Pulses, TotalArea harvested67,114 A61,166 A52,243 A111,894 A143,555 A
Production quantity45,862 A42,887 A37,561 A82,938 A106,651 A
Yield6,833 Fc7,012 Fc7,190 Fc7,412 Fc7,429 Fc
Rice, paddyArea harvested127,530117,539109,452119,000164,000
Production quantity382,500352,177338,420356,565410,000
Yield29,993 Fc29,963 Fc30,919 Fc29,963 Fc25,000 Fc
Rice, paddy (rice milled equivalent)Production quantity255,128 Fc234,902 Fc225,726 Fc237,829 Fc273,470 Fc
Roots and Tubers, TotalArea harvested57,066 A32,400 A32,116 A35,699 A25,019 A
Production quantity921,122 A615,684 A513,194 A427,917 A327,507 A
Yield161,413 Fc190,026 Fc159,794 Fc119,868 Fc130,903 Fc
Seed cottonArea harvested49,37139,49631,84551,10242,124
Production quantity73,12057,45036,77058,99650,482
Yield14,810 Fc14,546 Fc11,547 Fc11,545 Fc11,984 Fc
Sesame seedArea harvested15,356 Im15,000 *15,000 *15,000 *15,000 *
Production quantity33,13932,000 *32,000 *32,000 *32,000 *
Yield21,580 Fc21,333 Fc21,333 Fc21,333 Fc21,333 Fc
Spices nesArea harvested2,502 Im2,144 Im2,000 F2,5881,108
Production quantity4 Im3 Im2 Im65
Yield16 Fc14 Fc10 Fc23 Fc45 Fc
Sugar beetArea harvested616196201202551
Production quantity9,2845,3632,1021,5824,495
Yield150,714 Fc273,622 Fc104,577 Fc78,317 Fc81,579 Fc
Sugar caneArea harvested1,6531,7661,1451,3333,210
Production quantity36,53825,42133,72517,36446,454
Yield221,041 Fc143,947 Fc294,541 Fc130,263 Fc144,717 Fc
Sugar Crops PrimaryArea harvested2,269 A1,962 A1,346 A1,535 A3,761 A
Production quantity45,822 A30,784 A35,827 A18,946 A50,949 A
Yield201,948 Fc156,901 Fc266,174 Fc123,427 Fc135,467 Fc
Sunflower seedArea harvested981612 Im566 Im493210
Production quantity882865 Im805 Im706 Im303 Im
Yield8,991 Fc14,134 Fc14,223 Fc14,320 Fc14,429 Fc
Treenuts, TotalArea harvested38,079 A28,677 A28,135 A27,516 A21,035 A
Production quantity57,126 A49,405 A38,560 A43,756 A32,288 A
Yield15,002 Fc17,228 Fc13,705 Fc15,902 Fc15,350 Fc
Vegetables PrimaryArea harvested135,313 A92,004 A95,976 A159,315 A103,546 A
Production quantity1,377,857 A875,048 A907,529 A1,448,165 A1,008,465 A
Yield101,827 Fc95,110 Fc94,558 Fc90,899 Fc97,393 Fc
Vegetables, fresh nesArea harvested116,97081,45378,255145,98089,246
Production quantity1,025,132 Im718,905 Im695,529 Im1,306,516 Im810,614 Im
Yield87,641 Fc88,260 Fc88,880 Fc89,500 Fc90,829 Fc
Walnuts, with shellArea harvested5,0254,8144,5803,9492,317
Production quantity14,69010,8047,1456,5153,650
Yield29,234 Fc22,443 Fc15,600 Fc16,498 Fc15,753 Fc
WatermelonsArea harvested48,29825,51964,18174,67939,129
Production quantity846,990316,333 Im771,355 Im862,341328,186
Yield175,368 Fc123,960 Fc120,184 Fc115,473 Fc83,873 Fc
WheatArea harvested2,334,0001,635,0002,104,3772,300,2102,128,104
Production quantity4,890,0003,613,3004,280,7764,555,1104,673,040
Yield20,951 Fc22,100 Fc20,342 Fc19,803 Fc21,959 Fc
Flag
No flag = Official data
* = Unofficial figure
A = Aggregate, may include official, semi-official, estimated or calculated data
F = FAO estimate
Fc = Calculated data
Im = FAO data based on imputation methodology

Units
Area harvested = ha
Production quantity = tonnes
Yield = hg/ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.

Land Usage

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Land Use   2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Agricultural landArea37,919 Q37,910 Q37,910 Q37,910 Q37,910 Q
AgricultureArea37,919 Fc37,910 Fc37,910 Fc37,910 Fc37,910 Fc
Agriculture area actually irrigatedArea1,947 Q2,271 Q2,457 Q2,165 Q2,177 W
Agriculture area certified organicArea1 I0 I0 I0 I
Agriculture area under organic agric.Area1 I0 I0 I0 I
Arable landArea7,703 Q7,699 Q7,729 Q7,765 Q7,771 Q
Country areaArea65,286 Q65,286 Q65,286 Q65,286 Q65,286 Q
CroplandArea7,919 Q7,910 Q7,910 Q7,910 Q7,910 Q
Forest landArea1,208 Q1,208 Q1,208 Q1,208 Q1,208 Fm
Land areaArea65,286 Fm65,286 Fm65,286 Fm65,286 Fm65,286 Fm
Land area equipped for irrigationArea3,208 Fm3,208 Fm3,208 Fm3,208 Fm3,208 Fm
Land under perm. meadows and pasturesArea30,000 Q30,000 Q30,000 Q30,000 Q30,000 Q
Land under permanent cropsArea216 Q211 Q181 Q145 Q139 Q
Land under temporary cropsArea2,209 Q2,872 Q3,419 Q3,355 Q3,485 Q
Land with temporary fallowArea5,494 Q4,827 Fm4,310 Fm4,410 Q4,286 Q
Naturally regenerating forestArea1,208 Q1,208 Q1,208 Q1,208 Q1,208 Fm
Other landArea26,159 Fc26,168 Fc26,168 Fc26,168 Fc26,168 Fc
Perm. meadows & pastures - Nat. growingArea30,000 Q30,000 Q30,000 Q30,000 Q30,000 Q
Planted ForestArea0 Q0 Q0 Q0 Q0 Fm
Primary ForestArea0 Fm0 Fm0 Fm0 Fm
Land area actually irrigatedArea2,165 I2,177 Q
Flag
Fc = Calculated data
Fm = Manual Estimation
I = Country data reported by International Organizations where the country is a member (Semi-official) - WTO, EU, UNSD, etc.
Q = Official data reported on FAO Questionnaires from countries
W = Data reported on country official publications or web sites (Official) or trade country files

Units
Area = 1000 ha

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2021). FAOSTAT - Food and agriculture data, http://www.fao.org/faostat/. Reproduced with permission.