Invasive Species Compendium

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Dikerogammarus villosus
(killer shrimp)

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Datasheet

Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dikerogammarus villosus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • killer shrimp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. villosus is a freshwater amphipod originating from the Ponto-Caspian region. Its range expansion began in the late twentieth century and was associated with re-opening of the shipping canal between the Danube...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, lateral view.
TitleAdult
CaptionDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, lateral view.
Copyright©Environment Agency
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, lateral view.
AdultDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, lateral view. ©Environment Agency
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, lateral view.
TitleAdult
CaptionDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, lateral view.
Copyright©Environment Agency
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, lateral view.
AdultDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, lateral view.©Environment Agency
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, dorsal view.
TitleAdult
CaptionDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, dorsal view.
Copyright©Environment Agency
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, dorsal view.
AdultDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult, dorsal view. ©Environment Agency
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult and various life stages.
TitleLife stages
CaptionDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult and various life stages.
Copyright©Environment Agency
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult and various life stages.
Life stagesDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); adult and various life stages.©Environment Agency
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); dorsal tubercles on urosome (arrowed). Collected in the Dnieper River, Belarus in July 2006. Specimen preserved in formalin.
TitleDorsal tubercles
CaptionDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); dorsal tubercles on urosome (arrowed). Collected in the Dnieper River, Belarus in July 2006. Specimen preserved in formalin.
Copyright©Sergey E. Mastitsky
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); dorsal tubercles on urosome (arrowed). Collected in the Dnieper River, Belarus in July 2006. Specimen preserved in formalin.
Dorsal tuberclesDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); dorsal tubercles on urosome (arrowed). Collected in the Dnieper River, Belarus in July 2006. Specimen preserved in formalin.©Sergey E. Mastitsky
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); general view. Collected in the Dnieper River, Belarus in July 2006. Specimen preserved in formalin. (Note scale)
TitleLateral view
CaptionDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); general view. Collected in the Dnieper River, Belarus in July 2006. Specimen preserved in formalin. (Note scale)
Copyright©Sergey E. Mastitsky
Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); general view. Collected in the Dnieper River, Belarus in July 2006. Specimen preserved in formalin. (Note scale)
Lateral viewDikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp); general view. Collected in the Dnieper River, Belarus in July 2006. Specimen preserved in formalin. (Note scale)©Sergey E. Mastitsky

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dikerogammarus villosus Sowinsky, 1894

Preferred Common Name

  • killer shrimp

Other Scientific Names

  • Dikerogammarus villosus bispinosus Martynov 1925

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. villosus is a freshwater amphipod originating from the Ponto-Caspian region. Its range expansion began in the late twentieth century and was associated with re-opening of the shipping canal between the Danube River and Main River (Vaate et al., 2002). Large body size, extremely voracious predatory behaviour, high fecundity and wide environmental tolerance make this amphipod a very successful invader of European waters. Invasion of D. villosus often results in significant local reduction or even extinction of native amphipods and other macroinvertebrates on which it preys (reviewed in Haas et al., 2002; Grabowski et al., 2007). D. villosus is included on the list of the 100 most invasive exotic species of Europe (Devin and Beisel, 2009), and has been deemed the worst non-native invader of England and Wales's waterways by the Environment Agency (BBC, 2011b).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Amphipoda
  •                             Suborder: Gammaridea
  •                                 Family: Gammaridae
  •                                     Genus: Dikerogammarus
  •                                         Species: Dikerogammarus villosus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Dikerogammarus villosus Sowinsky 1894 is a valid amphipod species. Martynov (1925) described Dikerogammarus bispinosus as a subspecies of D. villosus. However, a recent genetic study by Müller et al. (2002) demonstrated that these two taxa should be considered as separate species.

Description

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As with other gammarids, D. villosus has a typical laterally compressed, arched, and semi-transparent body (See Pictures). The maximum reported body length is 30 mm (Nesemann et al., 1995). The species demonstrates conspicuous pigmentation polymorphisms, with striped, spotted and uniform morphs. This polymorphism is not related to the moult cycle or the life cycle, and may rather serve as a mechanism allowing D. villosus to minimize the probability of being detected by predators on different substrata (Müller et al., 2002; Devin et al., 2004). The other prominent morphological features of the species include: large and powerful mandibles making D. villosus an effective predator (Mayer et al., 2008); long densely situated setae on the flagellum but not on other parts of antenna II; dorsal tubercles on urosome segments I and II with 3-5 spines (Eggers and Martens, 2001; See Pictures). Juvenile individuals resemble adults, but are much smaller in size. Their growth undergoes a number of moultings. Detailed descriptions of D. villosus morphology can be found in Carausu (1943), Eggers and Martens (2001) and Konopacka (2004).

Distribution

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D. villosus is a recent invader of Central and Western Europe freshwater ecosystems. The amphipod is native to the lower reaches of the rivers discharging into the Black Sea and Caspian Sea (Dedju, 1967; Nesemann et al., 1995; Vaate et al., 2002). Between 1920 and 1980, D. villosus invaded the entire lower and middle sections of the Danube River and in 1994 it was recorded in the lower Rhine River in the Netherlands for the first time (Vaate and Klink, 1995). Further spread of the species occurred through the southern migration corridor, including the Danube River (Black Sea basin) and the Rhine River (North Sea basin) hydrologically connected through the Main-Danube canal (Vaate et al., 2002). D. villosus has now been documented in all major rivers of Western Europe (reviewed in Nesemann et al., 1995; Vaate et al., 2002; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Bollache et al., 2004). In 2003, this amphipod was found in the Bug River in Poland (Konopacka, 2004), indicating its migration through the central European invasion corridor (Dnieper > Vistula > Oder > Elbe > Rhine). Currently, D. villosus continues its rapid spread throughout Europe and is considered as one of the most probable future amphipod invaders of the North American waters (Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1998).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedNesemann et al. (1995); Füreder and Pöckl (2007)
BelarusPresent, Widespread2006IntroducedMastitsky and Makarevich (2007)Dnieper River near Kholmech village, and near Staiki village
BelgiumPresent1998IntroducedInvasiveJosens et al. (2005)River Meuse
BulgariaPresent2006NativeGrabowski and Pešic (2007)
CzechiaPresentIntroducedBerezina and Ďuriš (2008)Elbe River near Hrensko, also near Loubi and Strekov, and Elbe River near Melnik and Vltava River in Prague, near the Charles and Manes bridges
FrancePresentIntroducedInvasiveDevin et al. (2001); Bollache et al. (2004); Josens et al. (2005); Grabowski and Pešic (2007); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresentIntroducedInvasiveNesemann et al. (1995); Tittizer et al. (2000); Haas et al. (2002); Bernauer and Jansen (2006); Mayer et al. (2007)
HungaryPresentIntroducedMuskó (1994); Nesemann et al. (1995); Vaate et al. (2002)
ItalyPresentIntroducedInvasiveCasellato et al. (2006); Casellato et al. (2008)
MoldovaPresentNativeDedju (1967)Kuchurganskiy Liman
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveBij de Vaate and Klink (1995); Josens et al. (2005)
PolandPresentIntroducedInvasiveKonopacka (2004); Jazdzewski et al. (2005); Bącela et al. (2008); Gruszka and Woźniczka (2008); CABI (Undated)
RomaniaPresentNativeWattier et al. (2006)
RussiaPresent1967NativeDedju (1967)Lower Don River
SerbiaPresent2001IntroducedInvasivePaunovic et al. (2007)Danube River (river km 1429-925)
SlovakiaPresent1999IntroducedSporka (1999)Danube River
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedBollache (2004); Lods-Crozet and Reymond (2006)
UkrainePresentIntroducedLubyanov (1957); Dedju (1967); Emelyanova (1982); Pligin and Emelyanova (1989); Emelyanova et al. (1999); Pligin (2005)
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedUK, BBC (2010); BBC (2011); BBC (2011a)Cambridgeshire

History of Introduction and Spread

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D. villosus is native to the lower reaches of the rivers discharging into the Black Sea and Caspian Sea (Dedju, 1967; Nesemann et al., 1995; Vaate et al., 2002). Its spread to Central and Western Europe initially occurred by active migration and transportation with boats and ships via the southern invasion corridor, which includes the Danube River (Black Sea Basin) and the Rhine River (North Sea Basin) connected through the Main-Danube Canal (Vaate et al., 2002). The first records of the species from the middle Danube in Hungary are dated 1920s to 1930s (Nesemann et al., 1995). In 1989, the species was recorded in the Austrian part of the Danube River, and three years later – in Germany near Straubing and Regensburg (Nesemann et al., 1995). By 1994, following the opening of the Main-Danube Canal, D. villosus invaded the rivers Main and Rhine (Vaate and Klink, 1995). The amphipod then very rapidly spread westwards colonizing the French rivers Moselle (1996), Saône (1997), Rhône (1998), Meuse (1998), Seine (2000), and eastwards through the Mittelland Canal to colonize the German rivers Weser (1998), Elbe (1999) and Oder (2000) (reviewed in Devin et al., 2001; Vaate et al., 2002; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Bollache et al., 2004). By 2002, D. villosus had, through the River Oder, reached the brackish Szczecin Lagoon of the Baltic Sea in Poland (Gruszka and Wozniczka, 2008). In the early 2000s, D. villosus was found in a number of European lakes, including Lake Constance (2002), Germany (Mayer et al., 2007); Lake Geneva (2002), Lake Bienne (2005), Lake Zurich (2006), Switzerland (Lods-Crozet and Reymond, 2006); Lake Garda (2003), Italy (Casellato et al., 2006), and Lac du Bourget (2007), France (Grabowski et al., 2007).

In 2003, D. villosus was also recorded in the Bug River in Poland (Konopacka, 2004), indicating on its migration through the central European invasion corridor (Dnieper > Vistula > Oder > Elbe > Rhine). This is proved by the recent (2006) collections of the amphipod in the Belarusian section of the Dnieper River (Mastitsky and Makarevich, 2007).

New records of D. villosus in continental Europe regularly occur. The species has now been found in the UK (BBC, 2010; 2011a, b) and is also expected to arrive soon in North America (Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1998).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Austria Hungary 1992 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Nesemann et al. (1995)
Belarus Ukraine 2000-2005 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Mastitsky and Makarevich (2007)
Belgium 1998 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) Yes Josens et al. (2005)
Czech Republic 2003 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) Yes Berezina and Duriš (2008)
France 1997 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) Yes Devin et al. (2001)
Germany 1992 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) Yes Bollache et al. (2004); Casellato et al. (2007)
Hungary Romania 1926 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Vaate et al. (2002)
Italy 2006 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) Yes Casellato et al. (2006)
Netherlands 1995 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) Yes Vaate and Klink (1995)
Poland Ukraine 2001 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) ,
Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)
Yes Jazdzewski and Konopacka (2002)
Slovakia Romania 1999 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Sporka (1999)
Switzerland 2002 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) Yes Lods-Crozet and Reymond (2006)
Ukraine Ukraine 1940-1950s Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Lubyanov (1957) D. villosus is native to the lower section of the Dnieper River, Ukraine. However, around 1940s it began its spread upstream

Risk of Introduction

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The spread of D. villosus across Europe has been facilitated by the construction of interbasin canals, in particular the Main-Danube Canal (Vaate et al., 2002) and the Dnieper-Bug Canal (Grabowski et al., 2007; Mastitsky and Makarevich, 2007). The most common mechanisms of dispersal include the active migration and transportation of the species along with boats and ships (Dick, 2009). Using these pathways, D. villosus will likely become widely distributed in continental Europe. In addition, due to its broad tolerance to salinity and temperature, D. villosus may survive in ballast waters of cargo ships and thus become globally dispersed in temperate areas (Bruijs et al., 2001). The examples of the most likely regions to be invaded by D. villosus in the near future include the Great Britain (Dick, 2009) and North America (Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1998).

Habitat

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D. villosus inhabits fresh and brackish waters of continental Europe. It occupies a wide range of substrates, with a preference for mats of algae near the water surface (Dedju, 1967; Devin et al., 2003).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
 
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Brackish
 
Estuaries Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Lagoons Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lagoons Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The population genetics of D. villosus has been examined in several studies. Müller et al. (2002) analysed two mitochondrial fragments (16S and COI) in individuals collected widely in Central Europe, including the native range of the species in the lower Danube River. Both markers revealed similar low numbers of unique haplotypes in D. villosus (9 for the 322 bp fragment of the 16S gene and 6 for the 338 bp fragment of the COI gene). The authors also found that the conspicuous colour variation typical for D. villosus does not differentiate at the allozyme level, indicating on panmixia among colour morphs and thus conspecificity. 

Wattier et al. (2006) developed three D. villosus-specific polymorphic microsatellite markers (DikF, DikQ and DikS, GeneBank numbers BV678051 to BV678053). Using these novel markers and the COI gene for samples from the whole geographic range of D. villosus in Central and Western Europe, Wattier et al. (2007) found no evidence of genetic bottlenecks during the invasion of the species.

Reproductive Biology

D. villosus is a dioecious species. Its reproduction was studied in detail by Devin et al. (2004b) on a sample of a population from the Moselle River, France. The authors found D. villosus to reach sexual maturity rather early, at 6 mm in length. The ovigerous females were observed in the population all year round; however, their percentage did not correlate with such parameters as the percentage of juveniles, water temperature, and chlorophyll a. The number of juveniles demonstrated three peaks centered in mid-April, August and mid-October. The hatching length of juveniles varied among reproduction peaks from 1.8 mm to 4.7 mm.
 
The mean fecundity of D. villosus from the Moselle River was about 30 eggs/female. In combination with short generation time, this makes D. villosus one of the most productive representatives of freshwater gammarids (Devin et al. 2004b).

Physiology and Phenology

D. villosus possesses a number of ecophysiological traits that make it a very successful and competitive colonizer of new environments, including:

Nutrition

D. villosus demonstrates a fairly wide spectrum of diets. The species can effectively act either as a filter-feeder consuming microalgae (Platvoet et al., 2006) or as a predator preying upon diverse invertebrates (Dick and Platvoet, 2000; Devin et al., 2003; MacNeil and Platvoet, 2005; Van Riel et al., 2006) and fish eggs or even juveniles (Casellato et al., 2007). Dick et al. (1999) reported D. villosus to be involved into the intraguild predation on smaller amphipods. This versatility in nutrition is likely one of the key factors determining great invasion success of D. villosus throughout Europe.

Associations

 
D. villosus has been repeatedly observed to have strong affinity to aggregations of the mollusc Dreissena polymorpha, which can be explained by long co-evolution of these two species in their native Ponto-Caspian basin (reviewed in Casellato et al., 2006). In the absence of Dreissena, however, D. villosus often acts as a monodominant species in invaded macroinvertebrate communities due to its voracious predatory behaviour. In a number of European waterbodies, it has been observed to outcompete both native and exotic amphipods (e.g., Kelleher et al., 1999; Dick and Platvoet, 2000; Kley and Maier, 2003; Lods-Crozet and Reymond, 2006). As a result, D. villosus has become one of the key secondary consumers occupying high trophic levels comparable to fish (Van Riel et al., 2006).

 

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Depth (m b.s.l.) 0.5 1.0 Optimum 10 tolerated (Lods-Crozet and Reymond, 2006)
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 10 Optimum 24 tolerated (Bruijs et al., 2001)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20 23 Optimum Lower limit close to 0 and upper limit 35 tolerated (Bruijs et al., 2001; Wijnhoven et al., 2003)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anguilla anguilla Predator Adults/Juveniles not specific Eckmann et al., 2008
Dictyocoela berillonum Parasite Adult not specific Wattier et al., 2007
Dictyocoela muelleri Parasite Adult not specific Wattier et al., 2007
Lota lota Predator Adults/Juveniles not specific Eckmann et al., 2008
Maritrema Parasite Adult not specific Sudarikov et al., 2002
Microsporidium Parasite Adult not specific Wattier et al., 2007
Nosema dikerogammari Parasite Adult to species Ovcharenko and Wita, 1996
Nosema granulosis Parasite Adult not specific Wattier et al., 2007
Perca fluviatilis Predator Adults/Juveniles not specific Eckmann et al., 2008
Plagioporus Parasite Adult not specific Chernogorenko et al., 1978
Pleurogenoides medians Parasite Adult not specific Sudarikov et al., 2002
Spirochona gemmipara Adult not specific Fernandez-Leborans, 2001

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Predators

Being a large-bodied and numerous invertebrate species, D. villosus is readily consumed by fish. In the introduced range, D. villosus has been field-documented as a food item of the European eel Anguilla anguilla, Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis, and burbot Lota lota (Eckmann et al., 2008).

Parasites

Studies on parasites of D. villosus are very scarce. In its native range, this amphipod has been reported to host two microsporidian species (Ovcharenko and Wita, 1996; Wattier et al., 2007), three trematode species (Chernogorenko et al., 1978; Sudarikov et al., 2000), and an epibiont ciliate (Fernandez-Leborans, 2001). In its introduced range, D. villosus has been documented to host only microsporidian parasites (Wattier et al., 2007). There is no published information on the role parasites play in the population dynamics of D. villosus.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Natural dispersal of D. villosus occurs by active migration (Nesemann et al., 1995; Vaate et al., 2002; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Josens et al., 2005). The speed of active D. villosus upstream range extension may reach up to 40 km/year, or approximately 100 m/day (Josens et al., 2005).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Biotic vectors of D. villosus transmission have not been documented.

Accidental Introduction

Shipping has been identified as the primary vector for accidental introductions of D. villosus over large distances (e.g., Vaate et al., 2002; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Dick, 2009).

Intentional Introduction

Intentional introductions of D. villosus, though possible, have not been reported.

Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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D. villosus has been nicknamed the “killer shrimp” for its extremely aggressive behaviour towards native invertebrate species. Due to its large body size and well developed mouthparts, D. villosus is an effective predator, which kills or simply bites off much more prey than it can consume (Dick et al., 2002). In all the European aquatic systems where it has become established, D. villosus has largely replaced both indigenous and exotic amphipod species (Kelleher et al., 1999; Dick and Platvoet, 2000; Whitfield, 2000; Dick et al., 2002; Kley and Maier, 2003; Bollache et al., 2004; MacNeil and Platvoet, 2005; Lods-Crozet and Reymond, 2006). In addition, it readily consumes fish eggs (Casselato et al., 2007) and even attacks fish larvae (Schmidt and Josens, 2004). Due to its predatory activities, D. villosus significantly changes natural food webs of invaded ecosystems and occupies high trophic levels comparable to fish (Van Riel et al., 2006). However, D. villosus is also an omnivorous species able to act as an effective filter-feeder on microalgae (Platvoet et al., 2006).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Gammarus duebeniNo detailsPredationDick et al., 2002
Gammarus fossarumNo detailsPredationLods-Crozet and Reymond, 2006; Whitfield, 2000
Gammarus pulexNo detailsPredationLods-Crozet and Reymond, 2006; Whitfield, 2000
Gammarus roeseliNo detailsPredationWhitfield, 2000

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Filtration
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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D. villosus does not have any economic value or provide any social benefit. It is not used in environmental services.

Diagnosis

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A description of the specific genetic markers for the identification of D. villosus can be found in the work by Wattier et al. (2006).

Detection and Inspection

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Adult D. villosus can relatively easily be identified in the field using the descriptions provided by Carausu (1943), Eggers and Martens (2001)Konopacka (2004) and Dobson (2012). Juveniles are harder to identify as most of the specific morphological features in such individuals are underdeveloped. The amphipods can be collected using standard nets for benthic sampling (e.g., a rectangular dipnet).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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D. villosus can be confused with the two other congeners currently spreading in Europe, namely Dikerogammarus bispinosus and Dikerogammarus haemobaphes. Moreover, for a long time D. bispinosus has been considered a subspecies of D. villosus (e.g., Dedju 1967). However, besides certain morphological differences, these three species are isolated both genetically and reproductively (Müller et al., 2002). One of the most prominent discriminating morphological features is the structure of the dorsal tubercles on urosome segments I and II. Although both D. villosus and D. bispinosus possess well developed, pointed tubercles, the tubercles in D. bispinosus are armed with two main apical spines each, whereas in D. villosus the number of such spines varies from 3 to 5. In D. haemobaphes the tubercles are not pointed and typically carry two main spines each. In addition, these three species differ in the pattern of setation of antenna II and the gnathopods (Carausu, 1943; Eggers and Martens, 2001; Müller et al., 2002). A UK identification guide to invasive freshwater shrimps and isopods includes species present in the UK and others that are invasive across Europe (Dobson, 2012). 

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Early warning systems

A number of open-access Internet databases and thematic web-sites can be used as the early warning systems since they provide maps of the current distribution of D. villosus in Europe, as well as georeferenced information on the recent findings of this amphipod. Examples of such websites include:

·      DAISIE Database on Alien Species in Europe (http://europe-aliens.org/)

·      Aquatic Invaders of Belarus: Alien Species Database (http://www.aliensinbelarus.com)

·      Website of the online journal ‘Aquatic Invasions’ (http://www.aquaticinvasions.net)

Eradication

There are no ecologically sound measures for eradication of D. villosus at a waterbody-wide scale.

Control

There are no acknowledged methods to control or remove D. villosus.

Integrated Pest Management

No Integrated Pest Management programs for D. villosus have been developed.

Monitoring and Surveillance

There are no specific monitoring programs aimed at early detection and tracking of D. villosus.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There are several significant gaps and uncertainties in the current knowledge of the biology and ecology of D. villosus, including:

  • environmental requirements
  • factors controlling the seasonal patterns of reproduction
  • natural enemies
  • control menthods.

References

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Bacela K; Grabowski M; Konopacka A, 2008. Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) enters Vistula - the biggest river in the Baltic basin. Aquatic Invasions ["Invasive species in inland waters of Europe and North America: distribution and impacts" 30th Congress of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 2007.], 3(1):95-98. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_1_Bacela_etal.pdf

BBC, 2010. BBC News: Alien 'killer' shrimp found in UK. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11246642

BBC, 2011. BBC News: Hunt widens for 'killer shrimp' in Wales. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-south-west-wales-12625147

BBC, 2011. 'Killer' shrimp is the worst alien invader of Britain's waterways which officials say are costing billions of pounds to tackle. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14428585

Berezina NA; Duriš Z, 2008. First record of the invasive species Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Vltava River (Czech Republic). Aquatic Invasions, 3(4):455-460. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_4_Berezina_Duris.pdf

Bernauer D; Jansen W, 2006. Recent invasions of neozoa and loss of native macroinvertebrate species in the upper Rhine River, Germany. Aquatic Invasions, 1(2):55-71.

Bollache L, 2004. Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea. Amphipoda): another invasive species in the Lake Geneva. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 111:303-307.

Bollache L; Devin S; Wattier R; Chovet M; Beisel J-N; Moreteau JC; Rigaud T, 2004. Rapid range extension of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus in France: potential consequences. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 160:57-66.

Bruijs MCM; Kelleher B; Velde G van der; Vaate A bij de, 2001. Oxygen consumption, temperature and salinity tolerance of the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus: Indicators of further dispersal via ballast water transport. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 152(4):633-646.

Carausu S, 1943. [Amphipods of Romania I. Gammarids of Caspian type]. (Amphipodes de Roumanie I. Gammaridés de type caspien.) Institutul de Cercetari Pisciole al României Monografia I., Bucuresti.

Casellato S; Masiero L; Piana G la; Gigliotti F, 2008. The alien amphipod crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus in Lake Garda (N-Italy): the invasion continues. Neobiota, 7:115-122.

Casellato S; Piana G la; Latella L; Ruffo S, 2006. Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae) for the first time in Italy. Italian Journal of Zoology, 73:97-104.

Casellato S; Visentin A; Piana G la, 2007. The predatory impact of Dikerogammarus villosus, a danger for fish. In: Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats [ed. by Gherardi, F.]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 495-506.

Chernogorenko MI; Komarova TI; Kurandina DP, 1978. The life-cycle of the trematode Plagioporus skrjabini Kowal, 1951 (Allocreadiata, Opecoelidae). Parazitologiya, 12(6):479-486.

Dedju II, 1967. Amphipods and mysids of the basins of rivers Dniester and Prut. Russia: Nauka Press.

Devin S; Beisel J-N, 2009. Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky), killer shrimp (Gammaridae, Crustacea). In: Handbook of alien species in Europe. Springer, 309.

Devin S; Beisel J-N; Bachmann V; Moreteau JC, 2001. Dikerogammarus villosus (Amphipoda: Gammaridae): another invasive species newly established in the Moselle river and French hydrosystems. Annales de Limnologie, 37:21-27.

Devin S; Bollache L; Beisel J-N; Moreteau JC; Perrot-Minnot M-J, 2004. Pigmentation polymorphism in the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus: some insights into its maintenance. Journal of Zoology (London), 264:391-397.

Devin S; Piscart C; Beisel J-N; Moreteau JC, 2003. Ecological traits of the amphipod invader Dikerogammarus villosus on a mesohabitat scale. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 158:43-56.

Devin S; Piscart C; Beisel J-N; Moreteau J-C, 2004. Life history traits of the invader Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Moselle River, France. International Review of Hydrobiology, 89:21-34.

Dick JTA, 2009. Dikerogammarus villosus, the amphipod. Available at: Invasive Alien Species in Northern Ireland. http://www.habitas.org.uk/invasive/species.asp?item=50005

Dick JTA; Montgomery WI; Elwood RW, 1999. Intraguild predation may explain an amphipod replacement: evidence from laboratory populations. Journal of Zoology of London, 249:463-468.

Dick JTA; Platvoet D, 2000. Invading predatory crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus eliminates both native and exotic species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 267(1447):977-983.

Dick JTA; Platvoet D; Kelly DW, 2002. Predatory impact of the freshwater invader Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 59:1078-1084.

Dobson M, 2012. Identifying Invasive Freshwater Shrimps and Isopods., UK: Freshwater Biological Association, 30 pp. https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/nonnativespecies/news/index.cfm?id=77

Eckmann R; Mörtl M; Baumgärtner D; Berron C; Fischer P; Schleuter D; Weber A, 2008. Consumption of amphipods by littoral fish after the replacement of native Gammarus roeseli by invasive Dikerogammarus villosus in Lake Constance. Aquatic Invasions, 3(2):187-191. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_2_Eckmann_etal.pdf

Eggers TO; Martens A, 2001. [Identification key to the freshwater amphipods (Crustacea) of Germany]. Bestimmungsschlussel der Susswasser-Amphipoda (Crustacea) Deutschlands. Lauterbornia, 42:1-68.

Emelyanova LV, 1982. Species diversity of gammarids in the phytophilous communities of shallows of the Kievskoe Reservoir. In: Hydrobiological studies of the waterbodies of south-western part of the USSR. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 45-47.

Emelyanova LV; Scherbak VI; Klenus VG, 1999. Functioning of the different biotic components of the Kievskoe Reservoir under conditions of chronic radioactive background. Zapovidna Spava v Ukraini, 5(1):73-77.

Fernandez-Leborans G, 2001. A review of the species of protozoan epibionts on crustaceans. III. Chonotrich ciliates. Crustaceana, 74(6):581-607.

Füreder L; Pöckl M, 2007. Ecological traits of aquatic NIS invading Austrian fresh waters. In: Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats [ed. by Gherardi, F.]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 233-257.

Grabowski M; Bacela K; Konopacka A, 2007. How to be an invasive gammarid (Amphipoda: Gammaroidea) - comparison of life history traits. Hydrobiologia [Invasive Crustacea, Symposium 7 at The Sixth International Crustacean Congress (ICC6), Glasgow, UK, 18-22 July 2005.], 590:75-84. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/

Grabowski M; Bacela K; Wattier R, 2007. Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) colonizes next alpine lake - Lac du Bourget, France. Aquatic Invasions, 2(3):268-271. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2007/AI_2007_2_3_Grabowski_etal.pdf

Grabowski M; Jazdzewski K; Konopacka A, 2007. Alien Crustacea in Polish waters - Amphipoda. Aquatic Invasions, 2:25-38.

Grabowski M; Pešic V, 2007. New data on the distribution and checklist of fresh- and brackishwater Gammaridae, Pontogammaridae and Behningiellidae (Amphipoda) in Bulgaria. Lauterbornia, 59:53-62.

Gruszka P; Wozniczka A, 2008. Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinski, 1894) in the River Odra estuary - another invader threatening Baltic Sea coastal lagoons. Aquatic Invasions, 3(4):395-403. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_4_Gruszka_Wozniczka.pdf

Haas G; Brunke M; Strei B, 2002. Fast turnover in dominance of exotic species in the Rhine River determines biodiversity and ecosystem function: an affair between amphipods and mussels. In: Invasive Aquatic Species of Europe: Distribution, Impacts and Management [ed. by Leppakoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin] Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 426-432.

Jazdzewski K; Konopacka A, 2002. Invasive Ponto-Caspian species in waters of the Vistula and Oder basins and the southern Baltic Sea. In: Invasive aquatic species of Europe: Distribution, impacts and management [ed. by Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin] Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 384-398.

Jazdzewski K; Konopacka A; Grabowski M, 2005. Native and alien malacostracan Crustacea along the Polish Baltic Sea coast in the 20th century. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 34:175-193.

Josens G; Vaate A bij de; Usseglio-Polatera P; Cammaerts R; Cherot F; Grisez F; Verboonen P; Bossche JP vanden, 2005. Native and exotic Amphipoda and other Peracarida in the River Meuse: new assemblages emerge from a fast changing fauna. Hydrobiologia, 542:203-220.

Kelleher B; Velde G van der; Giller PS; Vaate A bij de, 1999. Dominant role of exotic mass invaders in the diet of important fish species of the River Lower Rhine, The Netherlands. Crustacean Issues, 12:35-46.

Kley A; Maier G, 2003. Life history characteristics of the invasive freshwater gammarids Dikerogammarus villosus and Echinogammarus ischnus in the river Main and the Main-Donau canal. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 156(4):457-469.

Konopacka A, 2004. Invasive amphipods (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in Polish waters. Przeglad Zoologiczny, XLVIII:141-162.

Lods-Crozet B; Reymond O, 2006. Bathymetric expansion of an invasive gammarid (Dikerogammarus villosus, Crustacea, Amphipoda) in Lake Léman. Journal of Limnology, 65:141-144.

Lubyanov IP, 1957. On the bioecological characteristics of benthic fauna of the middle Dnieper in relation to hydrologic works. In: Proceedings of the Thematic and Problem Workshops of the Zoological Institute. Issue VII, Problems of Hydrobiology of Inland Waters. Leningrad-Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 181-187.

MacNeil C; Platvoet D, 2005. The predatory impact of the freshwater invader Dikerogammarus villosus on native Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda); influences of differential microdistribution and food resources. Journal of Zoology, 267:31-38.

Martynov AW, 1925. [Gammarids of the lower reaches of the Dnieper]. (Gammaridae des unteren Laufes des Dnjepr.) In: Arbeiten der All-Ukarainischen Wissenschaftlich-Praktischen Staats-Station des Schwarzen und Asow Meeres, B1. 133-153.

Mastitsky SE; Makarevich OA, 2007. Distribution and abundance of Ponto-Caspian amphipods in the Belarusian section of the Dnieper River. Aquatic Invasions, 2(1):39-44.

Mayer G; Maas A; Waloszek D, 2007. Comparison between the mouthparts of Gammarus roeseli and Dikerogammarus villosus - an attempt to understand the success of an invader to Lake Constance. In: Abstracts of the XIII International Colloquium on Amphipoda, Tihany, Hungary, 20-25 May 2007 [ed. by Muskó, I. B.]. 28-29.

Mayer G; Maier G; Maas A; Waloszek D, 2008. Mouthparts of the Ponto-Caspian invader Dikerogammarus villosus (Amphipoda: Pontogammaridae). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 28:1-15.

Muskó IB, 1994. Occurrence of Amphipoda in Hungary since 1853. Crustaceana, 66:144-152.

Müller JC; Schramm S; Seitz A, 2002. Genetic and morphological differentiation of Dikerogammarus invaders and their invasion history in Central Europe. Freshwater Biology, 47:2039-2048.

Nesemann H; Pöcki M; Wittmann KJ, 1995. Distribution of epigean Malacostraca in the middle and upper Danube (Hungary, Austria, Germany). Miscellanea Zoologica Hungarica, 10:49-68.

Ovcharenko NA; Wita I, 1996. New data on microsporidium Nosema dikerogammari. Parasitologiya, 30:333-335.

Paunovic MM; Jakovcev-Todorovic DG; Simic VM; Stojanovic BD; Cakic PD, 2007. Macroinvertebrates along the Serbian section of the Danube River (stream km 1429-925). Biologia, 62:214-221.

Platvoet D; Dick JTA; Konijnendijk N; Velde G van der, 2006. Feeding on micro-algae in the invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894). Aquatic Ecology, 40(2):237-245.

Pligin YV, 2005. Formation and current state of macrozoobenthos of the Kanevskoe Reservoir. Gidrobiologicheskiy Zhurnal, 41(5):24-44.

Pligin YV; Emelyanova LV, 1989. Results of the acclimatization of invertebrates of the Caspian fauna in the Dnieper and its reservoirs. Gidrobiologicheskiy Zhurnal, 25(1):3-11.

Ricciardi A; Rasmussen JB, 1998. Predicting the identity and impact of future biological invaders: a priority for aquatic resource management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55(7):1759-1765.

Riel MC van; Velde G van der; Rajagopal S; Marguillier S; Dehairs F; Vaate A bij de, 2006. Trophic relationships in the Rhine food web during invasion and after establishment of the Ponto-Caspian invader Dikerogammarus villosus. Hydrobiologia, 565:39-58.

Schmidt O; Josens G, 2004. Preliminary study of the scars borne by Gammaridae (Amphipoda, Crustacea). Belgian Journal of Zoology, 134:75-78.

Sporka F, 1999. First record of Dikerogammarus villosus (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) and Jaera istri (Isopoda, Asselota) from the Slovak-Hungarian part of the Danube river. Biologia, 54(5):538.

Sudarikov VE; Shigin AA; Kurochkin YV; Lomakin VV; Stenko RP; Yurlova NI, 2002. Matacercariae of trematodes - parasites of the freshwater molluscs of the Central Russia. Moscow: Nauka Press.

Tittizer T; Scholl F; Banning M; Haybach A; Schleuter M, 2000. [Aquatic macrobenthic aliens of German inland waterways]. (Aquatische Neozoen im Makrozoobenthos der Binnenwasserstrassen Deutschlands.) Lauterbornia, 39:1-72.

Vaate A bij de; Jazdzewski K; Ketelaars HAM; Gollash S; Velde G van der, 2002. Geographical patterns in range extension of Ponto-Caspian macroinvertebrate species in Europe. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 59:1159-1174.

Vaate A bij de; Klink AG, 1995. Dikerogammarus villosus Sowinsky (Crustacea: Gammaridae), a new immigrant in the Dutch part of the Lower Rhine. Lauterbornia, 20:51-54.

Wattier RA; Beguet J; Gaillard M; Müller JC; Bollache L; Perrot-Minnot M-J, 2006. Molecular markers for systematic identification and population genetics of the invasive Ponto-Caspian freshwater gammarid Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Molecular Ecology Notes, 6:487-489.

Wattier RA; Haine ER; Beguet J; Martin G; Bollache L; Muskó IB; Platvoet D; Rigaud T, 2007. No genetic bottleneck or associated microparasite loss in invasive populations of a freshwater amphipod. Oikos, 116(11):1941-1953. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.15921.x

Whitfield J, 2000. Shrimp eat shrimp. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, 267:977-983.

Wijnhoven S; Riel MC van; Velde G van der, 2003. Exotic and indigenous freshwater gammarid species: physiological tolerance to water temperature in relation to ionic content of the water. Aquatic Ecology, 37:151-158.

Distribution References

Bącela K, Grabowski M, Konopacka A, 2008. Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) enters Vistula - the biggest river in the Baltic basin. Aquatic Invasions. 3 (1), 95-98. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_1_Bacela_etal.pdf DOI:10.3391/ai.2008.3.1.16

BBC, 2011. BBC News: Hunt widens for 'killer shrimp' in Wales. In: BBC News: Hunt widens for 'killer shrimp' in Wales, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-south-west-wales-12625147

BBC, 2011a. Killer' shrimp is the worst alien invader of Britain's waterways which officials say are costing billions of pounds to tackle. In: BBC News, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14428585

Berezina N A, Ďuriš Z, 2008. First record of the invasive species Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Vltava River (Czech Republic). Aquatic Invasions. 3 (4), 455-460. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_4_Berezina_Duris.pdf DOI:10.3391/ai.2008.3.4.17

Bernauer D, Jansen W, 2006. Recent invasions of neozoa and loss of native macroinvertebrate species in the upper Rhine River, Germany. Aquatic Invasions. 1 (2), 55-71.

Bij de Vaate A, Klink A G, 1995. Dikerogammarus villosus Sowinsky (Crustacea: Gammaridae), a new immigrant in the Dutch part of the Lower Rhine. Lauterbornia. 51-54.

Bollache L, 2004. Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea. Amphipoda): another invasive species in the Lake Geneva. Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 303-307.

Bollache L, Devin S, Wattier R, Chovet M, Beisel J-N, Moreteau J C, Rigaud T, 2004. Rapid range extension of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus in France: potential consequences. Archiv für Hydrobiologie. 57-66.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Casellato S, Masiero L, Piana G la, Gigliotti F, 2008. The alien amphipod crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus in Lake Garda (N-Italy): the invasion continues. Neobiota. 115-122.

Casellato S, Piana G la, Latella L, Ruffo S, 2006. Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae) for the first time in Italy. Italian Journal of Zoology. 97-104.

Dedju I I, 1967. Amphipods and mysids of the basins of rivers Dniester and Prut. Russia: Nauka Press.

Devin S, Beisel J-N, Bachmann V, Moreteau J C, 2001. Dikerogammarus villosus (Amphipoda: Gammaridae): another invasive species newly established in the Moselle river and French hydrosystems. Annales de Limnologie. 21-27.

Emelyanova L V, 1982. Species diversity of gammarids in the phytophilous communities of shallows of the Kievskoe Reservoir. In: Hydrobiological studies of the waterbodies of south-western part of the USSR. Kiev, Ukraine, USSR: Naukova Dumka. 45-47.

Emelyanova L V, Scherbak V I, Klenus V G, 1999. Functioning of the different biotic components of the Kievskoe Reservoir under conditions of chronic radioactive background. Zapovidna Spava v Ukraini. 5 (1), 73-77.

Füreder L, Pöckl M, 2007. Ecological traits of aquatic NIS invading Austrian fresh waters. In: Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats. [ed. by Gherardi F]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. 233-257.

Grabowski M, Pešic V, 2007. New data on the distribution and checklist of fresh- and brackishwater Gammaridae, Pontogammaridae and Behningiellidae (Amphipoda) in Bulgaria. Lauterbornia. 53-62.

Gruszka P, Woźniczka A, 2008. Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinski, 1894) in the River Odra estuary - another invader threatening Baltic Sea coastal lagoons. Aquatic Invasions. 3 (4), 395-403. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_4_Gruszka_Wozniczka.pdf DOI:10.3391/ai.2008.3.4.5

Haas G, Brunke M, Strei B, 2002. Fast turnover in dominance of exotic species in the Rhine River determines biodiversity and ecosystem function: an affair between amphipods and mussels. In: Invasive Aquatic Species of Europe: Distribution, Impacts and Management. [ed. by Leppakoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 426-432.

Jazdzewski K, Konopacka A, Grabowski M, 2005. Native and alien malacostracan Crustacea along the Polish Baltic Sea coast in the 20th century. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies. 175-193.

Josens G, Vaate A bij de, Usseglio-Polatera P, Cammaerts R, Cherot F, Grisez F, Verboonen P, Bossche J P vanden, 2005. Native and exotic Amphipoda and other Peracarida in the River Meuse: new assemblages emerge from a fast changing fauna. Hydrobiologia. 203-220.

Konopacka A, 2004. Invasive amphipods (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in Polish waters. Przeglad Zoologiczny. 141-162.

Lods-Crozet B, Reymond O, 2006. Bathymetric expansion of an invasive gammarid (Dikerogammarus villosus, Crustacea, Amphipoda) in Lake Léman. Journal of Limnology. 141-144.

Lubyanov I P, 1957. On the bioecological characteristics of benthic fauna of the middle Dnieper in relation to hydrologic works. In: Proceedings of the Thematic and Problem Workshops of the Zoological Institute. Issue VII, Problems of Hydrobiology of Inland Waters [Proceedings of the Thematic and Problem Workshops of the Zoological Institute. Issue VII, Problems of Hydrobiology of Inland Waters], Leningrad-Moscow, USSR: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 181-187.

Mastitsky S E, Makarevich O A, 2007. Distribution and abundance of Ponto-Caspian amphipods in the Belarusian section of the Dnieper River. Aquatic Invasions. 2 (1), 39-44.

Mayer G, Maas A, Waloszek D, 2007. Comparison between the mouthparts of Gammarus roeseli and Dikerogammarus villosus - an attempt to understand the success of an invader to Lake Constance. In: Abstracts of the XIII International Colloquium on Amphipoda, Tihany, Hungary, 20-25 May 2007 [Abstracts of the XIII International Colloquium on Amphipoda, Tihany, Hungary, 20-25 May 2007], [ed. by Muskó I B]. 28-29.

Muskó I B, 1994. Occurrence of Amphipoda in Hungary since 1853. Crustaceana. 144-152.

Nesemann H, Pöcki M, Wittmann K J, 1995. Distribution of epigean Malacostraca in the middle and upper Danube (Hungary, Austria, Germany). Miscellanea Zoologica Hungarica. 49-68.

Paunovic M M, Jakovcev-Todorovic D G, Simic V M, Stojanovic B D, Cakic P D, 2007. Macroinvertebrates along the Serbian section of the Danube River (stream km 1429-925). Biologia. 214-221.

Pligin Y V, 2005. Formation and current state of macrozoobenthos of the Kanevskoe Reservoir. Gidrobiologicheskiy Zhurnal. 41 (5), 24-44.

Pligin Y V, Emelyanova L V, 1989. Results of the acclimatization of invertebrates of the Caspian fauna in the Dnieper and its reservoirs. Gidrobiologicheskiy Zhurnal. 25 (1), 3-11.

Sporka F, 1999. First record of Dikerogammarus villosus (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) and Jaera istri (Isopoda, Asselota) from the Slovak-Hungarian part of the Danube river. Biologia. 54 (5), 538.

Tittizer T, Scholl F, Banning M, Haybach A, Schleuter M, 2000. Aquatic macrobenthic aliens of German inland waterways. (Aquatische Neozoen im Makrozoobenthos der Binnenwasserstrassen Deutschlands). Lauterbornia. 1-72.

UK, BBC, 2010. BBC News: Alien 'killer' shrimp found in UK. In: BBC News: Alien 'killer' shrimp found in UK, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11246642

Vaate A bij de, Jazdzewski K, Ketelaars H A M, Gollash S, Velde G van der, 2002. Geographical patterns in range extension of Ponto-Caspian macroinvertebrate species in Europe. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 1159-1174.

Wattier R A, Beguet J, Gaillard M, Müller J C, Bollache L, Perrot-Minnot M-J, 2006. Molecular markers for systematic identification and population genetics of the invasive Ponto-Caspian freshwater gammarid Dikerogammarus villosus (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Molecular Ecology Notes. 487-489.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Aquatic Invaders of Belarus: Alien Species Databasehttp://aliensinbelarus.com
Baltic Sea Alien Species Databasehttp://www.corpi.ku.lt/nemo/
DAISIE Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europehttp://www.europe-aliens.org/index.jsp
Open-access electronic journal Aquatic Invasionshttp://aquaticinvasions.net
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Programhttp://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/ansrp/

Organizations

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France: Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversité, Ecosystèmes, Campus Bridoux, Rue du Général Delestraint - 57070 METZ, http://www.liebe.univ-metz.fr/tebe-e.htm

Russian Federation: Institute of Zoology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya emb. 1, St.-Petersburg, 199034, http://www.zin.ru

Ukraine: Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12 Heroyiv Stalingradu Ave, Kyiv, 04210, http://www.nas.gov.ua/en/Structure/dgb/ihb/Pages/default.aspx

Contributors

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04/06/09 Original text by:

Sergey Mastitsky, Belarusian State University, Biology Faculty, General Ecology Dept., Nezalezhnasti 4 ave., 220030 Minsk, Belarus, Russia

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