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Datasheet

Chelicorophium curvispinum
(Caspian mud shrimp)

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Datasheet

Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chelicorophium curvispinum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Caspian mud shrimp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Rapid growth rate, early maturation, ability to produce several generations per year, and high fecundity made C. curvispinum a very successful invader of European waters (Van den ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
TitleAdult
CaptionChelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
Copyright©Silvia Waajen/onderwaterwereld.org - All Rights Reserved
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
AdultChelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.©Silvia Waajen/onderwaterwereld.org - All Rights Reserved
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
TitleAdult
CaptionChelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
Copyright©Silvia Waajen/onderwaterwereld.org - All Rights Reserved
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
AdultChelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.©Silvia Waajen/onderwaterwereld.org - All Rights Reserved
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
TitleAdult
CaptionChelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
Copyright©Silvia Waajen/onderwaterwereld.org - All Rights Reserved
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
AdultChelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.©Silvia Waajen/onderwaterwereld.org - All Rights Reserved
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
TitleAdult
CaptionChelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
Copyright©Silvia Waajen/onderwaterwereld.org - All Rights Reserved
Chelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.
AdultChelicorophium curvispinum (Caspian mud shrimp); adult. Netherlands.©Silvia Waajen/onderwaterwereld.org - All Rights Reserved

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chelicorophium curvispinum (G. O. Sars, 1895)

Preferred Common Name

  • Caspian mud shrimp

Other Scientific Names

  • Corophium curvispinum G. O Sars, 1895

Local Common Names

  • Finland: liejukatka
  • Germany: Schlickkrebs; Süßwasser-Röhrenkrebs
  • Netherlands: kaspische slijkgarnaal
  • Poland: belkaczek wschodni

Summary of Invasiveness

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Rapid growth rate, early maturation, ability to produce several generations per year, and high fecundity made C. curvispinum a very successful invader of European waters (Van den Brink et al., 1993; Haas et al., 2002; Grabowski et al., 2007). Due to extremely high densities it reaches and its filter feeding, this species became one of the most important primary consumers, as well as an important prey item for fish in invaded ecosystems (Van den Brink et al., 1993; Haas et al., 2002; Van Riel et al., 2006). In addition, C. curvispinum is known to build mud tubes on stony substrates, often resulting in change of the physical structure of bottom relief (so called “corophiid grounds”). This may promote some epifaunal species (other amphipods, chironomids, oligochaetes, leeches, etc.), and also inhibit lithophilic organisms (e.g., Dreissena polymorpha, whose larvae fail to settle) (Van den Brink et al., 1991; Van der Velde et al., 1998; Haas et al., 2002).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Amphipoda
  •                             Suborder: Gammaridea
  •                                 Family: Corophiidae
  •                                     Genus: Chelicorophium
  •                                         Species: Chelicorophium curvispinum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The species was initially described as Corophium curvispinum by G. O. Sars (1985) from material collected in the Caspian Sea. A new name for this species (Corophium devium) was introduced by Wundsch (1912), who found a “new” corophiid in the Havel-Spree system near Berlin. However, it soon became apparent that C. devium was conspecific with C. curvispinum. Because of great morphological variability, C. curvispinum appeared in subsequent papers under different names, including C. curvispinum subsp. sowinskyi, C. sowinskyi, C. curvispinum subsp. sowinskyi praenatio devium, C. curvispinum praenatio fluviatilis, Cyrtophium spongicola (reviewed in Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 1996). This taxonomic problem was resolved by Mordukhaj-Boltovskoj (1947), who re-examined the original material of G. O. Sars and concluded that C. curvispinum was a good species, which, in particular, significantly differs from the sympatrically occurring C. sowinskyi. However, recent revision of the family Corophiidae has placed C. curvispinum into the new genus Chelicorophium (Bousfield and Hoover, 1997).

Description

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As with other gammarids, C. curvispinum has a typical laterally compressed, arched, and grey-yellow body of up to 7 mm in length (Van den Brink et al., 1993). Prominent morphological features of this species include:

·        very large antennae II, with one long, well developed, and 1-2 smaller spurs on the fourth segment

·        8-10 spines and 1-2 setae on the outer margin of the pedunculus of uropod I, and 4-6 spines on its inner margin

·        a sharp triangular rostrum on the head (Eggers and Martens, 2001).

Juvenile individuals resemble adults, but are much smaller in size. Detailed descriptions of C. curvispinum morphology can be found in Carausu (1943), Jazdzewski and Konopacka (1996), Eggers and Martens (2001) and Konopacka (2004).

Distribution

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C. curvispinum originates from the lower reaches of large rivers of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea basins (Dedju, 1967; Vaate et al., 2002). It is one of the oldest invaders in Europe, whose spread was associated with ship traffic through the artificially constructed interbasin canals. The earliest report of this species was in the Spree-Havel system near Berlin in 1912; in 1920s it also was found in Poland where, probably, it had been established for some time (Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Vaate et al., 2002). Thus, there is no doubt that initially C. curvispinum colonized Europe through the Dnieper-Bug Canal. The second wave of its invasion in Europe occurred after re-opening of the Maine-Danube canal in 1992 (Vaate et al., 2002; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Karatayev et al., 2008). The most westerly current locality of the species is in Ireland where it was found in 2001 (Lucy et al., 2004). It is likely that C. curvispinum was transferred to Ireland with ships coming from the United Kingdom (Crawford, 1935), a country colonised by the species in the early 1930s due to ships that were sailing from northern Germany ports (Vaate et al., 2002). Introduction of the species into Ireland from continental Europe is also possible. Nowadays, C. curvispinum is widely distributed in Europe and is considered as one of the most probable future invaders of North American waters (Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1998). In addition to the distribution table records for Belarus, C. curvispinum is also found in the Belarusian section of the Neman River (S Mastitsky, Belarusian State University, Russia, personal communication, 2009).

 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Europe

BelarusPresent1914IntroducedWolski, 1930; Tischikov and Tischikov, 1999; Mastitsky and Makarevich, 2007Pripyat River near Mozyr
BelgiumPresent1981Introduced Invasive Brink et al., 1993River Meuse
Bosnia-HercegovinaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Žganec et al., 2009
CroatiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Žganec et al., 2009Drava River near Molve, Novo Virje, Karaska, Luka, Kriznica, Donji Miholjac and Sarvas. Sava River near Stara Gradiska, Davor, Slavonski Brod, Slavonski Samac, Zupanja and Gunja. Danube River near Baltina, Aljmas, Dalj and Sarengrad. Kupa River near Petrinja
EstoniaPresent2005Introduced2005 Invasive Herkül and Kotta, 2007Eastern Gulf of Finland near Sillamäe, in Narva Bay
FranceWidespread1994Introduced Invasive Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Devin et al., 2003Moselle River
GermanyPresent1912Introduced1912Wundsch, 1912; Schellenberg, 1942; Nesemann et al., 1995; Haas et al., 2002; Riel et al., 2006Spree-Havel river system near Berlin
HungaryPresentIntroducedMuskó, 1994; Nesemann et al., 1995; Muskó et al., 2007
IrelandPresent2001IntroducedLucy et al., 2004Upper Lough Erne Geaglum, Lough Key, Lough Derg, Dromineer
LithuaniaPresent1921IntroducedGasiunas, 1964; Arbaciauskas, 2008
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedBrink et al., 1993; Josens et al., 2005Meuse River close to the St. Andries Canal, which connects the rivers Waal and Meuse, Meuse River near Grave, close to the Meuse-Waal Canal, Lake IJsselmeer, Rhine River delta, Waal River near Nijmegen, IJssel River near Kampen
PolandPresent1925IntroducedJazdzewski and Konopacka, 1996; Konopacka, 2004; Jazdzewski et al., 2005; Grabowski et al., 2007Szczecin Lagoon of the Baltic Sea
RomaniaPresentNative Not invasive Carausu, 1943Danube River delta
Russian FederationPresentIntroduced Invasive Osadchikh, 1977; Mordukhaj-Boltovskoj, 1978; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 1996; Malyavin et al., 2008
-Northern RussiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Malyavin et al., 2008
-Southern RussiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Mordukhaj-Boltovskoj, 1978
SerbiaWidespread2001Introduced Invasive Paunovic et al., 2007Serbian section of the Danube River
UKPresent1935IntroducedCrawford, 1935; Pygott and Douglas, 1989
UkrainePresentIntroduced Invasive Lubyanov and Fatovenko, 1967; Lubyanov et al., 1967; Bortkevich, 1987; Pligin, 2005; Silaeva and Protasov, 2005Dneprovskoe Reservoir, Dnieper River

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. curvispinum is native to the lower reaches of large rivers discharging into the Black Sea and Caspian Sea (Dedju, 1967; Vaate et al., 2002; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002). Its initial spread into the Baltic Sea and North Sea drainage systems likely occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century through the canals connecting the Dnieper, Vistula, Oder and Elbe basins (Vaate et al., 2002; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Karatayev et al., 2008). The earliest report of C. curvispinum in Europe was in the Spree-Havel system near Berlin in 1912. In 1914, it was recorded from Belarus (Wolski, 1930), and then in 1920s from Poland (Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002); however, in both of these countries C. curvispinum was probably established well before its discovery. Through the Oginskiy Canal that linked the Dnieper River (Black Sea basin) with the Neman River (Baltic Sea basin), C. curvispinum dispersed to Lithuania, where it was found in was found in 1921 (Gasiunas, 1964). However, it may have colonized the Lithuanian section of Neman long before, sometime during the nineteenth century. By this time it may have also been present in the Belarusian part of this river (Karatayev et al., 2008). The species reached the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea via the Vistula and Neman rivers (Baltic Sea Alien Species Database, 2009).

From Poland, C. curvispinum expanded its range further westward via the canals of northern Germany, with records from the Spree-Havel river system near Berlin in 1912 (Wundsch, 1912), the Mittelland Canal in 1956, the Dortmund-Ems Canal in 1977 (Herbst and Bäthe, 1993), and then from the lower Rhine River in the Netherlands in 1987 (Van den Brink et al., 1993). In 1981, C. curvispinum was found in the Belgian part of the River Meuse, and in 1990 in the Dutch part of this river (Van den Brink et al., 1993). The species is common along the whole River Meuse (Josens et al., 2005). In 1991, C. curvispinum was also documented to have extended its Dutch distribution from the lower River Rhine to several interconnected canals and Lake Ijsselmeer (Van den Brink et al., 1993).

The first records of C. curvospinum in the middle Danube River (Hungary) were made as early as the beginning of the twentieth century (Muskó, 1994; Žganec et al., 2009). Further spread of C. curvispinum in the river occurred on the opening of the Main-Danube canal (1992) which facilitated the second wave of invasion of this species into the North Sea basin.

In 2009, C. curvispinum is likely the most widespread Ponto-Caspian species in continental Europe. Beyond the continent, this amphipod has also been recorded in the United Kingdom in the 1930s (Crawford, 1935), and in Ireland in 2001 (Lucy et al., 2004). In the near future, C. curvispinum may also invade North America (Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1998).

 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Belarus Ukraine 1850-1900 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) ,
Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)
Yes Wolski (1930)
Belgium 1970-1980 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Brink et al. (1993); Josens et al. (2005)
Estonia Lithuania 2005 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Herkül and Kotta (2007)
France 1970-1980 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Brink et al. (1993); Josens et al. (2005)
Germany Poland 1912 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) ,
Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)
Yes Wundsch (1912)
Hungary Romania 1850-1900 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Muskó (1994)
Ireland 2001 Yes Lucy et al. (2004) Ship ballast water/ sediment
Lithuania Ukraine 1850-1900 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) Yes Gasiunas (1964)
Netherlands Germany 1987 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Brink et al. (1993)
Poland Ukraine 1850-1900 Interbasin transfers (pathway cause) Yes Jazdzewski and Konopacka (2002)
UK Germany 1925-1935 Yes Crawford (1935) Ship ballast water/ sediment
Ukraine Ukraine 1850-1900 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Silaeva and Protasov (2005) Native to the lower section of the Dnieper River, Ukraine. Shipping activity has spread it to upper sections of the river

Risk of Introduction

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The spread of Dikerogammarus villosus across Europe has been facilitated by construction of the interbasin canals, in particular the Dnieper-Bug Canal, Dnieper-Neman Canal, and the Main-Danube Canal (Vaate et al., 2002; Karatayev et al., 2008). Common mechanisms of dispersal this species include its active migration and transportation along with boats and ships (Vaate et al., 2002). Using these pathways, C. curvispinum has also become widely distributed in Europe. The most likely region to be invaded by this amphipod in the near future is North America (Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1998).

 

Habitat

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C. curvispinum inhabits hard surfaces such as rocks, wood, submerged vegetation and bivalve shells (Van den Brink et al., 1993; Mastitsky and Makarevich, 2007). It is common in rivers, estuaries and other areas of brackish water. The highest densities of this species have been reported from riverine habitats with rocky substrates. In addition, there is a positive correlation between the density of C. curvispinum and such factors as water velocity and concentration of phytoplankton (Van den Brink et al., 1993).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Lagoons Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lagoons Present, no further details Natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

C. curvispinum is a dioecious species. Its reproduction was studied in detail by Van den Brink et al. (1993) on a sample of a population from the lower River Rhine, The Netherlands. The authors found C. curvispinum to reproduce from April to September, i.e. during the warmest period of the year. The population was always dominated by females, resulting in a sex ratio below 1. Ovigerous females could be observed at temperatures as low as 12°C (April). The number of eggs per female varied from 3 to 34 (12 on average), with larger females carrying more eggs. The first juveniles were collected in the early May, indicating that embryonal development lasted for about two weeks. In total, three generations were produced from April to September, a pattern in agreement with observations from the native range of C. curvispinum (Bortkevich, 1987). Van den Brink et al. (1993) suggested that fecundity of this species may positively correlate with the availability of food (phytoplankton).

Nutrition

C. curvispinum is an active filter feeder that especially benefits from high concentrations of phytoplankton in large rivers (Van der Velde et al., 1998).

Associations

C. curvispinum was reported to have strong affinity to aggregations of the mollusc Dreissena spp. (Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Devin et al., 2003; Pligin, 2005), this can be explained by long co-evolution of these species in their native Ponto-Caspian basin. The shells of the dreissenids provide C. curvispinum with a good solid substrate for building its mud tubes. These tubes, in turn, often become populated with other gammarids (including the exotic Dikerogammarus haemobaphes and Dikerogammarus villosus), oligochaetes, leeches, molluscs, and chironomids (Lubyanov et al., 1967). However, excessive production of mud tubes may negatively affect lithophilic species by inhibiting their successful settlement (Haas et al., 2002).

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Depth (m b.s.l.) 2 3 Optimum 5 tolerated (Van den Brink et al., 1993)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 9 10 Optimum (Van den Brink et al., 1993)
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum <6 preferred; 6 tolerated (Van den Brink et al., 1993)
Suspended solids (mg/l) 30 Optimum (Van den Brink et al., 1993)
Velocity (cm/h) 100 Optimum Lower limt of <0.1 and upper limit of 200 tolerated (Van den Brink et al., 1993)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20 Optimum Lower limit tolerated close to 0

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Abramis brama Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993
Acipenser ruthenus Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993
Acipenser stellatus Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993
Alburnus alburnus Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993
Anguilla anguilla Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993
Barbatula barbatula Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993
Cottus gobio Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993
Dictyocoela Parasite Adult not specific Prokop et al., 2006
Dikerogammarus villosus Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Riel et al., 2006
Gobio gobio Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993
Gymnocephalus cernuus Predator Adult/Juveniles to species Brink et al., 1993
Neogobius gymnotrachelus Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Grabowska and Grabowski, 2005
Perca fluviatilis Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993
Pomphorhynchus Parasite Adult not specific Riel et al., 2003
Sander lucioperca Predator Adult/Juveniles not specific Brink et al., 1993

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Predators

Being present in high numbers, C. curvispinum is readily consumed by fish. This amphipod has been documented in the field as a food item of at least 12 fish species, 8 of which were reported from the introduced range of C. curvispinum (Van den Brink et al., 1993). In the River Rhine, C. curvispinum was also found to be consumed by another Ponto-Caspian invader – the predacious amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus (Van Riel et al., 2006).

Parasites

Studies on parasites of C. curvispinum are extremely scarce, with data from its native range completely lacking. In its introduced range, C. curvispinum has been documented to host a microsporidian parasite (Prokop et al., 2006) and an acanthocephalan parasite (Van Riel et al., 2003). The latter acanthocephalan species, Pomphorhynchus sp., has been suspected to be responsible for the recent decline of C. curvispinum in two Dutch rivers (Van Riel et al., 2003).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Natural dispersal of C. curvispinum occurs by active migrations (Vaate et al., 2002; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002; Josens et al., 2005). The speed of active upstream range extension of C. curvispinummay reach up to 15 km/year (Josens et al., 2005).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Biotic vectors of C. curvispinum transmission have not been documented.

Accidental Introduction

Shipping has been identified as the primary vector for accidental introductions of D. villosus over large distances (Crawford, 1935; Vaate et al., 2002; Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2002).
 
Intentional Introduction
 

Intentional introductions of C. curvispinum, though possible, have not been reported.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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C. curvispinum is one of the most successful invaders of European fresh and brackish waters. Rapid growth rate, early maturation, ability to produce up to three generations per year, and high fecundity allowed this species to form extremely high densities in a number of invaded waterbodies (Van den Brink et al., 1993; Haas et al., 2002; Grabowski et al., 2007). The maximum density of C. curvispinum in its introduced range was reported from the lower River Rhine, The Netherlands at 700,000 individuals/m2 (Van den Brink et al., 1993). Due to its occurrence at high densities and filter feeding nature, C. curvispinum has become one of the most important primary consumers in the invaded ecosystems (Haas et al., 2002). At the same time, this species can serve as a prey item for a number of other species, including fish (Van den Brink et al., 1993; Grabowska and Grabowski, 2005) and gammarids (Van Riel et al., 2006).

C. curvispinum is also known as an ecological engineer due to its ability to build mud tubes on hard substrates. For example, in 1989, the population density of this amphipod in the middle and lower sections of the River Rhine was so high that its silty tubes covered all available hard surfaces. In addition, these surfaces became totally covered by fine matter removed by the animals from the water column as a result of their filtering activity. This chain of events affected other epilithic species, which became devoid of a substrate to colonize. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, was one of the most affected species as the mud tubes of C. curvispinum impaired larval settlement of this mollusc (Van den Brink et al., 1991; Van der Velde et al., 1998; Haas et al., 2002). Nevertheless, some epifaunal species may benefit from the presence of the mud tubes of C. curvispinum. In the Dnieper River reservoirs, the inter-tube spaces are particularly suitable for the development of communities composed of gammarids (including invasive Dikerogammarus haemobaphes and Dikerogammarus villosus), oligochaetes, leeches, molluscs, and chironomids (Lubyanov, 1967).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Asellus aquaticusNo details No detailsCauses allergic responsesVaate et al., 2002

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Filtration
  • Fouling
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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C. curvispinum does not possess any economic value or social benefits. It is not used in environmental services.

Detection and Inspection

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Adult C. curvispinum can relatively easily be identified in the field using the descriptions provided by Carausu (1943), Jazdzewski and Konopacka (1996), Eggers and Martens (2001)Konopacka (2004) and Dobson (2012). Juveniles are harder to identify as most of the specific morphological features in such individuals are underdeveloped. The amphipods can be collected using standard nets used for benthic sampling (e.g., rectangular dipnet).

 

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. curvispinum can be confused with another congener currently spreading in Europe – Chelicorophium sowinskyi. These two species, however, differ morphologically, and the differences can be seen in both sexes, but in different appendages or in different parts of appendages. In general, C. sowinskyi is a more hairy form, a character that is especially prominent in males. A detailed comparison of distinguishing features of C. curvispinum and C. sowinskyi can be found in Jazdzewski and Konopacka (1996). A UK identification guide to invasive freshwater shrimps and isopods includes species present in the UK and others that are invasive across Europe (Dobson, 2012).

 

Prevention and Control

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Early Warning Systems

A number of open-access Internet databases and thematic websites can be used as the early warning systems since they provide maps of the current distribution of C. curvispinum in Europe, as well as georeferenced information on the recent findings of this amphipod. Examples of such websites are as follows:

DAISIE Database on Alien Species in Europe (http://europe-aliens.org/)
Aquatic Invaders of Belarus: Alien Species Database (http://www.aliensinbelarus.com)
Website of the online journal ‘Aquatic Invasions’ (http://www.aquaticinvasions.net)

Eradication

There are no ecologically sound measures for eradication of C. curvispinum on a waterbody-wide scale.

Control

There are no acknowledged methods to control or remove C. curvispinum.

IPM

No Integrated Pest Management programs for C. curvispinum have been developed.

Monitoring and Surveillance

There are no specific monitoring programmes aimed at early detection and tracking of C. curvispinum.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There are several significant gaps and uncertainties in the current understanding of the biology and ecology of C. curvispinum, including: 


  • environmental requirements
  • natural enemies
  • genetic diversity
  • factors controlling the seasonal patterns of reproduction
  • control menthods.

References

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Amphipods of Romania I. Gammarids of Caspian type. (Amphipodes de Roumanie I. Gammaridés de type caspien) Institutul de Cercetari Pisciole al României Monografia I Bucuresti.

Arbaciauskas K, 2008. Amphipods of the Nemunas River and the Curonian Lagoon, the Baltic Sea Basin: where and which native freshwater amphipods persist? Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 18:10-16.

Baltic Sea Alien Species Database, 2009. Baltic Sea Alien Species Database. Available at: http://www.corpi.ku.lt/nemo

Bortkevich LV, 1987. Ecology and production of Corophium curvispinum G. Sars in the estuary areas of rivers in the northwestern Black Sea area. Gidrobiologicheskiy Zhurnal, 23:91-93.

Bousfield EL; Hoover PM, 1997. The amphipod superfamily Corophioidea on the Pacific coast of North America. Part V. Family Corophiidae. Corophiinae new subfamily. Systematic and distributional ecology. Amphipacifica, 2(3):67-139.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Alien species in Swedish seashttp://www.frammandearter.se
Aquatic Invaders of Belarus: Alien Species Databasehttp://aliensinbelarus.com
Baltic Sea Alien Species Databasehttp://www.corpi.ku.lt/nemo/
MarBEF Data Systemhttp://www.marbef.org
Open-access electronic journal Aquatic Invasionshttp://aquaticinvasions.net

Organizations

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Belgium: Service de systématique et d’écologie animales, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Av. Roosevelt, 50, cp 160/13, B-1050 Bruxelles, http://www.ulb.ac.be/homepage_uk.html

France: Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversité, Ecosystèmes, Campus Bridoux, Rue du Général Delestraint - 57070 METZ, http://www.liebe.univ-metz.fr/tebe-e.htm

Russian Federation: Institute of Zoology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya emb. 1, St.-Petersburg, 199034, http://www.zin.ru

Northern Ireland: Queen's University - School of Biological Sciences, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, BT9 7BL, http://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/SchoolofBiologicalScience

Ukraine: Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12 Heroyiv Stalingradu Ave, Kyiv, 04210, http://www.nas.gov.ua/en/Structure/dgb/ihb/Pages/default.aspx

Contributors

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26/06/09 Original text by:

Sergey Mastitsky, Belarusian State University, Biology Faculty, General Ecology Dept., Nezalezhnasti 4 ave., 220030 Minsk, Belarus, Russia

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