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Hemimysis anomala

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Hemimysis anomala

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hemimysis anomala
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. anomala is a small mysid shrimp native to the Ponto-Caspian region. In the 1950s and 1960s it was used to stock reservoirs in Eastern Europe to promote fish production (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Hemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionHemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.
Copyright©Matthieu Dautriourt/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Hemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.
AdultHemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.©Matthieu Dautriourt/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Hemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionHemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by NOAA-United States Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). Original image by Steve Pothoven, NOAA
Hemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.
AdultHemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.Public Domain - Released by NOAA-United States Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). Original image by Steve Pothoven, NOAA
Hemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionHemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by NOAA-United States Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). Original image by Steve Pothoven, NOAA
Hemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.
AdultHemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adult.Public Domain - Released by NOAA-United States Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). Original image by Steve Pothoven, NOAA
Hemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adults.
TitleAdults
CaptionHemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adults.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by NOAA-United States Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). Original image by Steve Pothoven, NOAA
Hemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adults.
AdultsHemimysis anomala (bloody-red shrimp); adults.Public Domain - Released by NOAA-United States Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). Original image by Steve Pothoven, NOAA

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hemimysis anomala G.O.Sars, 1907

International Common Names

  • English: bloody-red shrimp

Local Common Names

  • Netherlands: Bloedrode Kaspische aasgarnaal; Kaspische aasgarnaal
  • Ukraine: Mizida anomal'na

Summary of Invasiveness

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H. anomala is a small mysid shrimp native to the Ponto-Caspian region. In the 1950s and 1960s it was used to stock reservoirs in Eastern Europe to promote fish production (Gasiunas, 1968; Grigorovich et al., 2002). Following successful population establishment in these reservoirs, H. anomala was passively transported to the Baltic Sea, where the first accidentally introduced invasive populations were reported in the Curonian Lagoon off the Lithuanian coast in 1962 (Gasiunas, 1964). Further range expansion has been facilitated by a wide salinity tolerance (Ellis and MacIsaac, 2009), which has enabled the mysid to be transported over great distances in ballast water. It has now been observed in numerous countries across mainland Europe, in the United Kingdom and in North America and Canada. The mysid’s euryhalinity has allowed invasive populations to become established in a wide variety of habitat types, including coastal waters, lagoons, estuaries, rivers, canals and reservoirs. It can reach high population densities in newly invaded habitats (Holdich et al., 2005; Pothoven et al., 2007; Wittmann, 2007) and acts as a top-down regulator of the plankton community; it can therefore have a significant impact on the ecology of a receiving environment (Ketelaars et al., 1999). No methods have been developed to control invasive mysid populations.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Mysidacea
  •                             Family: Mysidae
  •                                 Genus: Hemimysis
  •                                     Species: Hemimysis anomala

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The order Mysidacea comprises at least 780 species (Borcherding et al., 2006) and according to some sources, more than 1000 species (Meland, 2009). Of these, the vast majority are marine species, with only ~25 inhabiting freshwater and brackish water environments (Mauchline, 1980). The genus Hemimysis was first described by Sars in 1869 and comprises six species, including the brackish and freshwater inhabitant Hemimysis anomala, which Sars described in 1907.

Description

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H. anomala is a relatively small mysid shrimp. The species usually has a distinctive red colouration in live specimens due to the presence of chromatophores; individuals lacking this colouration are ivory yellow to almost transparent (Ketelaars et al., 1999; Pothoven et al., 2007). The species has large spherical eyes with a notch in the dorsal margin. Sex can be determined by consulting the 4th pleopods: in males, these are elongated and modified for copulation, whereas females have rudimentary pleopods (Pothoven et al., 2007); adult females also have a brood pouch. Females are the larger sex, reaching 16.5 mm in marine habitats (Bacescu, 1940), whilst males achieve a maximum length of 11 mm (Komarova, 1991). Individuals from freshwater ecosystems are shorter, for example Pothoven et al. (2007) recorded a mean length of 7.03 mm in females collected from the Great Lakes in November, and similarly the mean length of females collected by Ketelaars et al. (1999) from a Dutch reservoir in September was 8.4 mm (minimum 6.5 mm; maximum 12.5 mm). Males were on average < 0.5 mm shorter in both studies. Ketelaars et al. (1999) noted the body length of juveniles as ranging from 1.4 mm to 9.9 mm. For further description of morphological characteristics, see section ‘Similarities to Other Species/Conditions’.

Distribution

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H. anomala is of Ponto-Caspian origin, and is regarded as native only to freshened parts of the Black Sea (Pothoven et al., 2007) and the estuaries and lower reaches < 60 km upstream) of rivers draining into the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and the eastern Caspian Sea (Audzijonyte et al., 2008, and references therein). The species’ anthropogenic range expansion began in the 1950s and 1960s, when it was successfully inoculated into reservoirs in Eastern Europe to promote fish production (Gasiunas, 1968). These intentional introductions gave H. anomala downstream access to the Baltic Sea. From the Baltic and also from its native range, the species has spread west across Europe, this range expansion being facilitated by ballast water exchange by international vessels. It has recently reached both the United Kingdom and North America as a result of leisure craft activities and international shipping.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentKetelaars et al., 1999; Wittmann and Ariani, 2009

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-OntarioLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Kipp and Ricciardi, 2007Specimens resembling H. anomala found in the stomach contents of a white perch caught near Port Dover on the north shore of Lake Erie in August 2006.
-QuebecPresentIntroduced Invasive Kestrup and Ricciardi, 2008Recorded in the St. Lawrence River near Montreal in 2008.
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MichiganLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Pothoven et al., 2007Observed in a docking basin connected to the channel linking Lake Michigan and Muskegon Lake in 2006.
-New YorkLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Kipp and Ricciardi, 2007Observed in southeastern Lake Ontario at Nine Mile Point near Oswego in May 2006.

Europe

AustriaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Wittmann et al., 1999Observed in two locations, Linz and Vienna, on the Upper Danube in 1998.
BelgiumLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Verslycke et al., 2000First observed in 1999 in a brackish pond on the left bank of the Westerschelde Estuary, near Antwerp Harbour.
BulgariaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Audzijonyte et al., 2008First observed in 2006 in the lower Danube.
CroatiaPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Wittmann, 2007A single specimen caught from the Danube near Vukovar in 2005.
Czech RepublicLocalised Invasive Horecky et al., 2005Observed in Elbe River in 2003.
FinlandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Salemaa and Hietalahti, 1993; Leppäkoski and Olenin, 2000
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive Dumont, 2006; Daufresne et al., 2007; Wittmann and Ariani, 2009
GermanyPresentSchleuter and Schleuter, 1998; Schleuter et al., 1998; Rehage and Terlutter, 2002; Wittmann, 2007
HungaryLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Wittmann, 200740 specimens collected in the middle Danube at Dunaújváros in 2005.
IrelandLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Minchin and Holmes, 2008Swarms observed in a small boating harbour on Lough Derg, the most downstream lake on the Shannon River in 2008.
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced1960 Invasive Gasiunas, 1964First established population of H. anomala outside of its native range, reported in 1962 from the Kaunas reservoirs on the River Nemunas.
MoldovaPresentIntroduced1960s Invasive Grigorovich et al., 2002H. anomala used to stock one reservoir to enhance fish production in the 1960s.
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Kelleher et al., 1999; Ketelaars et al., 1999
PolandPresentIntroduced Invasive Janas and Wysocki, 2005First observed in the coastal waters in the Gulf of Gdansk in 2002. Also recorded from the Odra Estuary in 2002.
RomaniaPresentNative Not invasive Bacescu, 1954First recorded in 1953 in the Danube delta of the Black Sea basin. Recently observed in the lower River Danube (Audzijonyte et al., 2008).
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Southern RussiaPresentMordukhai-Boltovskoi, 1939; Grigorovich et al., 2002; Audzijonyte et al., 2008
SerbiaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive First observations in an impoundment basin in Veliko Gradište, in the middle course of the Danube river, in 2005.
SlovakiaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Wittmann, 2007First record is of a single individual caught in the Danube at the entrance of the dock harbour of Bratislava in 2005.
SwedenPresentIntroduced Invasive Kautsky, 1996; Pienimäki and Leppäkoski, 2004
SwitzerlandLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Wittmann, 2007Recorded in the Rhine system at the harbour of Kleinhüningen, and also in the Rhine at Basel, in 2005.
UKPresentIntroduced Invasive Holdich et al., 2005; Stubbington et al., 2008
UkrainePresent Invasive Bacescu, 1940; Zhuravel, 1959; Grigorovich et al., 2002

History of Introduction and Spread

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H. anomala is one of many Ponto-Caspian species to have undergone considerable range expansion in recent decades, beginning with its deliberate introduction into impounded waters in Lithuania, Ukraine and Moldova in the 1950s and 1960s to promote fish production (Zhuravel, 1960; Gasiunas, 1964; Grigorovich et al., 2002). From the populations introduced into Lithuania, H. anomala spread to the Baltic Sea through passive downstream transport in rivers (Audzijonyte et al., 2008). It was observed in the Curonian Lagoon, connected to the Baltic Sea off the coast of Lithuania, in 1962 (Gasiunas, 1964), and established populations have since been recorded in the Baltic in the coastal waters of Finland in 1992 (Salemaa and Hietalahti, 1993), Sweden in 1995 (Kautsky, 1996) and Poland in 2002 (Janas and Wysocki, 2005). Baltic populations have spread to the Rhine delta in the Netherlands and have progressed upstream into the German Rhine, facilitated by international shipping (Audzijonyte et al., 2008). H. anomala was first observed in the Netherlands in 1997, inhabiting a reservoir in the Rhine basin (Ketelaars et al., 1999), and the mysid was also first recorded in the German Rhine in this year (Schleuter et al., 1998).


International shipping has also facilitated the dispersal of H. anomala via a second route, north-west across mainland Europe from the Black Sea, into the River Danube, through the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal (which opened in 1992) and thence into the River Rhine and the North Sea. First observations in the Danube were recorded in Austria in 1998 (Wittmann et al., 1999), Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Slovakia in 2005 (Wittmann, 2007), and Bulgaria in 2006 (Audzijonyte et al., 2008), the dates of these records reflecting sampling effort and not necessarily indicating the year in which the mysid arrived (Wittmann and Ariani, 2009). Following its assumed transport through the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, H. anomala arrived in the Rhine basin, where invasive populations from this Danubian lineage met those of Baltic origin (Audzijonyte et al., 2008).

 

H. anomala has since extended its range from the German Rhine into a tributary, the River Moselle, and thence into France, where it was first observed in 2007 (Wittmann and Ariani, 2009). Other French observations are from the River Rhône catchment, which it is likely to have reached from the Rhine via a network of navigation canals (Wittmann and Ariani, 2009).

It was observed in the middle course of the Rhône in 2003 (Daufresne et al., 2007), and had reached the estuary of the Grand Rhône at the Mediterranean coast by 2007 (Wittmann and Ariani, 2009).

 

The first records of H. anomala outside of mainland Europe were from England in 2004 (Holdich et al., 2005), and the mysid was subsequently observed in Ireland in 2008 (Minchin and Holmes, 2008). In both countries, the locations of the invaded waters suggest ballast water exchange by vessels from mainland Europe as a likely dispersal vector. In addition, international shipping has transported H. anomala to the North American Great Lakes, the mysid being first observed in Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and a channel linking Lake Michigan with Muskegon Lake in 2006 (Pothoven et al., 2007; NCRAIS, 2009). By 2008, H. anomala had spread by passive downstream drift from Lake Ontario to the St. Lawrence River near Montreal, Canada (Kestrup and Ricciardi, 2008).

 

With many publications to date reporting new or recent observations of H. anomala, it is not always certain if populations have become established (Kestrup and Ricciardi, 2008). However, in many cases, high densities of individuals have been reported (e.g. Ketelaars et al., 1999; Pothoven et al., 2007; Stubbington et al., 2008) and populations include numerous breeding females (Salemaa and Hietalahti, 1993; Borcherding et al., 2006), indicating that population establishment has occurred.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Austria Mediterranean and Black Sea   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
Belgium Mediterranean and Black Sea   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
Croatia Mediterranean and Black Sea   Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
Finland Lithuania 1960s - Intentional release (pathway cause) ,
Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)
Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Janas and Wysocki (2005); Kautsky (1996); Salemaa and Hietalahti (1993) Spread by passive downstream movement to the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea following intentional stocking of a Lithuanian reservoir.
France Mediterranean and Black Sea   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
Germany Mediterranean and Black Sea   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
Hungary Mediterranean and Black Sea Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
Ireland Europe   Yes Minchin and Holmes (2008) Means of movement not certain, leisure craft also proposed as dispersal vector. First record 2008.
Lithuania Ukraine 1960 Intentional release (pathway cause) ,
Stocking (pathway cause)
Yes Gasiunas (1964) First established population outside of native range was in the Kaunas reservoir.
Michigan Europe   Pothoven et al. (2007) First record 2006.
Moldova 1960s Intentional release (pathway cause) ,
Stocking (pathway cause)
Yes Grigorovich et al. (2002) Introduced from the Ponto-Caspian region.
Netherlands Mediterranean and Black Sea Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
New York Europe   Kipp and Ricciardi (2007) First record 2006.
Ontario Europe   Kipp and Ricciardi (2007) First record 2006.
Poland Lithuania 1960s - Intentional release (pathway cause) ,
Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)
Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Janas and Wysocki (2005); Kautsky (1996); Salemaa and Hietalahti (1993) Spread by passive downstream movement to the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea following intentional stocking of a Lithuanian reservoir.
Romania Mediterranean and Black Sea   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
Slovakia Mediterranean and Black Sea   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
Southern Russia 1950s-1960s Intentional release (pathway cause) ,
Stocking (pathway cause)
Yes Grigorovich et al. (2002) Introduced from the Ponto-Caspian region.
Sweden Lithuania 1960s - Intentional release (pathway cause) ,
Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)
Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Janas and Wysocki (2005); Kautsky (1996); Salemaa and Hietalahti (1993) Spread by passive downstream movement to the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea following intentional stocking of a Lithuanian reservoir.
Switzerland Mediterranean and Black Sea   Interconnected waterways (pathway cause) Yes Audzijonyte et al. (2008); Bij et al. (2002) Spread north-west across mainland Europe from the delta of the River Danube to the Rhine Main-Danube Canal and thence to the Rhine and the Black Sea. First records 1997.
UK Europe   Yes Holdich et al. (2005) Means of movement not certain, leisure craft also proposed as dispersal vector. First record 2004.
Ukraine 1960s Intentional release (pathway cause) ,
Stocking (pathway cause)
Yes Grigorovich et al. (2002) Introduced from the Ponto-Caspian region.

Risk of Introduction

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Deliberate introductions of H. anomala largely ceased in the 1980s, as awareness of the detrimental ecological impacts of such activity increased (Rieman and Falter, 1981; Wittmann, 2007). Furthermore, many fish species are unable to exploit H. anomala as prey (Ketelaars et al., 1999), and H. anomala may outcompete planktivorous fish for zooplankton food resources (Spencer et al., 1991); introductions are therefore potentially counterproductive. Despite the cessation of intentional releases, accidental introductions of H. anomala and other aquatic invasive species (AIS) continue to be reported. Current legislation enacted to prevent these accidental introductions does not appear to be effective, specifically that related to ballast water exchange (Ellis and MacIsaac, 2009). Therefore, further introductions of H. anomala and other AIS into international ports through ballast water exchange is anticipated (Pothoven et al., 2007). The species can only reproduce sexually (Mauchline, 1980), and therefore a female carrying fertilized eggs or a combination of male and female individuals must be introduced for population growth to occur. In addition, certain environmental criteria must be fulfilled for introduced individuals to thrive in a newly colonized habitat. However H. anomala can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, and in practice there appear to be few barriers preventing population establishment (Pienimäki and Leppäkoski, 2004). H. anomala has only a very limited ability to swim against a current (Stubbington, 2006; Wittmann and Ariani, 2009), and this may limit its upstream range extension following an initial introduction. However, its distribution in countries including England indicates that H. anomala has some capacity to migrate upstream through slow flowing habitat (Stubbington et al., 2008). Based on records of its spread to date, H. anomala is considered to have the capacity for more rapid range expansion than any other Ponto-Caspian AIS (Wittmann, 2006; Wittmann and Ariani, 2009). Pienimäki and Leppäkoski (2004), for example, predict that H. anomala will arrive in the Finnish Lake District in the near future.


The relatively recent invasion history of H. anomala means that it has yet to be designated at a pest species in any country.

Habitat

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In its native range, H. anomala is a deep water species that avoids exposure to daylight (Lindström, 2000). In the Black Sea, it is commonly found at depths of 6 - 10 m, although it has been observed at depths of 20 m in the Black Sea, 30 m in the Caspian Sea (Bacescu, 1954), and as deep as 50 m in the Dneiper River (Zhuravel, 1960). Many invasive populations are also found in deep water, in both sublittoral coastal areas and inland habitats. Salemaa and Hietalahti (1993), for example, observed swarms at depths of 2 - 12 m along the Baltic shoreline, and Verslycke et al. (2000) collected individuals from a depth of 13 m in a brackish water pond. In deep water, the species undergoes diurnal vertical migrations, entailing the extension of vertical distribution into shallower water after dark (Mauchline, 1980; Salemaa and Hietalahti, 1993; Ketelaars et al., 1999).


In deep water, H. anomala is associated with substrates that provide shelter, for example, crevices and spaces between boulders and stones (Salemaa and Hietalahti, 1993; Verslycke et al., 2000; Janas and Wysocki, 2005), in clusters of zebra mussels (Pothoven et al., 2007), under peat overhangs, and in clay hollows (Janas and Wysocki, 2005). Swarms aggregate in these sheltered areas during daylight hours before dispersing as vertical distribution increases after dark. Invasive populations have proved to be adaptable in terms of their habitat requirements and can inhabit shallow waters where shelter is available, this shelter often being provided by anthropogenic structures (Dumont, 2006; Wittmann, 2007; Stubbington et al., 2008). Wittmann (2007), for example, found H. anomala at 19 locations across five countries, the species occurring exclusively in strongly anthropogenic habitats, such as those featuring steel, concrete, boulder and stone structures for bank and shore stabilisation. Similarly, Stubbington et al. (2008) recorded H. anomala at 24 sites in the English Midlands, with all observations being from sites with anthropogenic structures such as jetties, slipways and crevices in canal walls. In anthropogenically modified shallow water habitats, H. anomala may remain close to the surface even during daylight, with individuals sheltering in and under structures during the day then dispersing into open water at night (Stubbington, 2006).

 

All records of H. anomala are from lentic or very slow-flowing waters, including lakes, reservoirs, ponds, canals, river backwaters and coastal waters; discernable flow apparently prevents prolonged inhabitation. Other factors known to limit the distribution of H. anomala are the overgrowth of aquatic plants and the accumulation of silt (Ioffe, 1973).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
 
Lakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Natural
Ponds Present, no further details
Brackish
 
Estuaries Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Estuaries Present, no further details Natural
Lagoons Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine
Inshore marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Inshore marine Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

To date, only one study has considered the genetics of H. anomala (i.e. Audzijonyte et al., 2008), and this study only sequenced a fragment of a single mitochrondrial gene. Audzijonyte et al. (2008) analysed 130 individuals from across H. anomala’s entire range (including native and invasive populations) and differentiated between nine haplotypes in three distinct clusters. Mean divergence among the three clusters was 0.9-1.5%, where 0.5% divergence is considered to be relative genetic uniformity and 5% divergence indicates deep genetic subdivisions (Audzijonyte et al., 2008).


Reproductive Biology

Ioffe (1973) studied the lifecycle of a H. anomala population introduced into the Ukrainian Zaporozhie reservoir and noted the start of the breeding season in April, with the first ovigerous females being observed as water temperature reached 8-9°C. At 11-12°C, neonates were observed in the marsupium, the first young were released in late May, and reproduction continued until October. Other studies have noted a similar breeding season, for example Salemaa and Hietalahti (1993), studying an invasive population in the coastal waters of the Baltic, observed females with fully developed ovocytes as early as April, with breeding females being present until the end of October. Pothoven et al. (2007) noted that females carrying young were still present in Lake Michigan in November, when water temperature was 8°C.

Ioffe (1973) observed reproduction in females of the first generation of the year 45 days after release, with the second and third generations developing even more rapidly and reaching maturity within one month. In total, four generations were produced in one year, the highest recorded in any study (Ioffe, 1973). Borcherding et al. (2006) observed only two generations (in April/May and September) in an invasive population in a gravel pit in Germany, but considered a third generation, released during the summer months, to be likely. Similarly, Mordukhai-Boltovskoi (1970) noted that most female H. anomala produce at least two broods per year. Ioffe (1973) recorded a clutch size of between 14 and 66 eggs per female in the Zaporozhie reservoir, depending on female size and season. Other studies have considered the number of young rather than eggs: Ketelaars et al. (1999) recorded a mean brood size of 13 young per female in a Dutch reservoir; Borcherding et al. (2006) noted a mean brood size of 29 young in April and 20 young in September in the German gravel-pit population; and Pothoven et al. (2007) found that clutch size varied between 2-17 young in the Lake Michigan basin.

Factors affecting fecundity include water temperature, trophic status (in lakes) and female length (Ketelaars et al., 1999), the latter being influenced by salinity, with larger individuals found in saltwater compared with freshwater (Bacescu, 1969). Invasive populations in relatively warm, brackish waters therefore have the potential for the most rapid population expansion.

 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
43-66 0 0

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 21.7 29.5
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -17 3

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) Optimum 279-29200 µS/cm tolerated (Wittmann, 2007 and references therein)
Depth (m b.s.l.) Optimum Preferred depth dependent on other habitat characteristics. 0-60 tolerated (Wittmann, 2007 and references therein)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum 3.99–10.8 tolerated (Wittmann, 2007; Wittmann and Ariani, 2009)
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) Optimum 6-12 carbonate hardness (ºd) tolerated (Wittmann, 2007 and references therein)
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum 0.1–18.0 tolerated (Mordukhai-Boltovski, 1970). Reproduction occurs throughout this range
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) Optimum 5 - 137 NTU tolerated (Wittmann, 2007 and references therein)
Velocity (cm/h) Optimum <0.11 m/s preferred, <0.35 m/s tolerated (Wittmann, 2007 and references therein)
Water pH (pH) Optimum 6.35–8.65 tolerated (Wittmann, 2007 and references therein)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 9 20 Optimum Preferred values (Loffe, 1973). 2-28 tolerated (Wittmann, 2007). Reproduction begins when temperatures reach 8

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Perca fluviatilis Predator Adults/Juveniles not specific Throughout Europe except the Iberian Peninsula, central Italy and Adriatic Basin

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Fish species vary in their ability to prey upon H. anomala, due to the latter remaining hidden during daylight hours. Certain species have been shown to consume considerable numbers of H. anomala, in particular adult perch (Perca fluviatilis), which is native throughout the mysid’s current European range including the UK. Ketelaars et al. (1999) analyzed the stomach contents of five perch and found three to be ‘completely stuffed’ with them, and Borcherding et al. (2006) also noted that perch preyed heavily on the mysid, leading to above average growth in young-of-the-year individuals. This predation pressure, however, appears insufficient to have a significant impact on H. anomala abundance, with both Ketelaars et al. (1999) and Borcherding et al. (2006) reporting high density mysid populations.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

The natural dispersal capacity of H. anomala is limited by its poor swimming ability and therefore its restricted capacity for upstream migration. As such, its native range is limited to the lowest reaches of rivers draining into the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. Following an accidental introduction, however, it can spread downstream rapidly and over great distances by being passively transported by the current. Wittmann and Ariani (2009), for example, attribute the sudden appearance of H. anomala at sites spanning > 250 km on the Rhône River in southeastern France to passive downstream drift. Dispersal has also been facilitated by man-made waterways that link previously unconnected river basins, most notably the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, which links the Black Sea and the vast Danube River basin with the German Rhine and thence the North Sea. The rate of dispersal through canal networks is presumably reduced compared with downstream drift since it is largely dependent on active swimming, however, actual rates cannot be determined from records of first occurrences due to inconsistent sampling efforts.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

H. anomala is not believed to be dispersed by biotic vectors such as water birds.

Accidental Introduction

The primary means by which H. anomala has expanded its range is international shipping and associated ballast water exchange. Genetic analysis has indicated that international shipping has facilitated dispersal west across mainland Europe from both the Danube delta and the Baltic Sea to the Rhine delta in the Netherlands, and thence to the United Kingdom, Canada and North America (Audzijonyte et al., 2008). The nature of this dispersal mechanism means that the rate of spread may be sporadic, but equally, vast distances can be traversed extremely rapidly; the first observations in North America, for example, occurred only two years after the initial reports from the UK (Holdich et al., 2005; Pothoven et al., 2007).

Intentional Introduction

In the 1950s and 1960s, H. anomala was one of several Ponto-Caspian endemics used to enhance fish production in impounded waters in Eastern Europe (Lithuania, Moldova and Ukraine) (Zhuravel, 1960; Gasiunas, 1964; Grigorovich et al., 2002), and these introductions unintentionally facilitated further spread. However, since the 1980s, awareness of the detrimental ecological impacts of such introductions has increased (Rieman and Falter, 1981; Wittmann, 2007) and there are no reports of intentional releases in recent decades.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

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Invasive H. anomala populations can reach high densities in suitable habitats (Ketelaars et al., 1999; Borcherding et al., 2006; Pothoven et al., 2007) and as such are likely to have a considerable impact on the receiving ecosystem. However, the mysid has proved able to establish populations in a range of habitats across a large geographical area, and variation in the climatic, hydrological and ecological conditions of the receiving ecosystems means that the effects of an invasive population can also be highly variable (Pienimäki and Leppäkoski, 2004).

Economic Impact

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The economic impacts of invasive H. anomala populations have to date proved relatively minor and localized, and may be either positive or negative.


H. anomala is known to consume the blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) responsible for toxic algal blooms (Ketelaars et al., 1999), and one anecdotal report has linked the arrival of the mysid with an unusual absence of cyanobacteria in a regatta lake in England (Stubbington et al., 2008). H. anomala has also established populations in drinking water reservoirs (Ketelaars et al., 1999), and if the mysid can indeed reduce the abundance of cyanobacteria, this could potentially reduce drinking water production costs.

 

Irvine et al. (1993) attributed an increase in submerged macrophyte growth in a shallow, brackish lake to consumption of periphyton by the mysid Neomysis integer and the resultant increase in photosynthetic activity. The arrival of H. anomala in an English regatta lake also coincided with an atypical proliferation of submerged macrophytes of the genus Elodea, the removal of which increased the cost of managing the lake for water sports (Stubbington et al., 2008).

Environmental Impact

Top of page Impact on Habitats

H. anomala has a high feeding rate, can achieve high population densities and consumes a wide variety of food types, including phytoplankton and detritus (Ketelaars et al., 1999; Borcherding et al., 2006). An invasive population can therefore alter the physical environment by increasing light penetration into the water column, thus promoting photosynthesis and increasing plant productivity. Irvine et al. (1993), for example, linked an increase in submerged macrophyte growth in a shallow brackish lake to an increased abundance of the mysid Neomysis integer. Similarly, Stubbington et al. (2008) noted a proliferation of Elodea sp. in a freshwater regatta lake following the establishment of an invasive H. anomala population.

Impact on Biodiversity

H. anomala acts as a top-down regulator of the plankton community and can therefore alter community structure at multiple trophic levels, potentially lowering the number of trophic levels and thus reducing ecosystem stability (Salemaa and Hietalahti, 1993; Ketelaars et al., 1999). H. anomala has been shown to have a detrimental impact on certain components of the zooplankton community through predation, for example Ketelaars et al. (1999) noted a decline in the Cladocera, Ostracoda and Rotifera following the establishment of an invasive H. anomala population, whilst Borcherding et al. (2006) found that the mysid preyed heavily on the Copepoda. H. anomala may outcompete species with similar dietary requirements for these prey, for example Verslycke et al. (2000) noted a decline in the abundance of the mysid Neomysis integer following the establishment of a H. anomala population in a brackish water pond. Planktivorous fish, in particular the juveniles of species such as perch and roach (Rutilus rutilus), may also face increased competition for food resources, leading to population declines with potential consequences at higher trophic levels (Spencer et al., 1991). Conversely, H. anomala is also a high quality prey species for fish able to exploit its diurnal migrations, in particular adult Perch (Ketelaars et al., 1999; Borcherding et al., 2006), and such species may therefore become more abundant.

The establishment of an invasive H. anomala population has not, to date, been proved responsible for declines in any particular species. This may, however, reflect that research in this area has only recently begun, rather than an actual absence of such declines.


Social Impact

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H. anomala has established populations in habitats in which recreational fishing occurs, however, an invasive mysid population can have unpredictable consequences for fish populations (Spencer et al., 1991; Borcherding et al., 2006). H. anomala can potentially outcompete planktivorous fish species (particularly juveniles) for zooplankton food resources, but to date, no reports of detrimental impacts on recreationally important fish populations have been published. In fact, fishermen have tentatively welcomed H. anomala to the North American Great Lakes as a potentially important prey species for the alewife(Alosa pseudoharengus) (USGS, 2008). It may be too early to assess the long-term impacts of recently established H. anomala populations on existing fish populations of recreational importance.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page Economic Value

Intentional introductions of H. anomala into reservoirs to enhance fish production had ceased by the 1980s, due to the recognition that such activity could have detrimental ecological consequences in the receiving ecosystems (Rieman and Falter, 1981). As such, H. anomala is no longer a species of economic value.

Social Benefit

As discussed in the ‘Social Impact’ section, H. anomala can, under certain circumstances, boost fish productivity and this can have a positive impact on recreational fishing (USGS, 2008). However, the mysid is not known to have been deliberately exploited to enhance recreational fishing.

Environmental Services

H. anomala is not used in the provision of any environmental services.

Detection and Inspection

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A variety of techniques have been used, intentionally and unintentionally, to observe and collect specimens from invasive H. anomala populations, including diving (Salemaa and Hietalahti, 1993; Dumont, 2006), vertical plankton hauls (Ketelaars et al., 1999), pond/dip nets (Verslycke et al., 2000; Pothoven et al., 2007), baited bottle traps (Borcherding et al., 2006; Wittmann, 2007), and searching by torchlight (Holdich et al., 2005; Stubbington et al., 2008). All techniques appear to be effective for initial surveys of the habitats in which they have been employed, with the mysid’s coloration, size and reflective eyes aiding preliminary identification in the field. Not all techniques are suitable in all habitats; however, for example searching by torchlight is only effective in shallow water. In all cases, collection and subsequent identification in the laboratory is necessary to confirm the specimens as H. anomala. Mysids can be identified to genus using Mauchline (1980); further information regarding identification to species level is provided in the ‘Similarities to Other Species/Conditions’ section.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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H. anomala may be the sole representative of the Mysidacea in an invaded region (e.g. Holdich et al., 2005), in which case confusion with other species is unlikely. If other mysids are also present, the red coloration of H. anomala can be a useful identification aid in field situations. A UK identification guide to invasive freshwater shrimps and isopods includes species present in the UK and others that are invasive across Europe (Dobson, 2012). 

In the laboratory, mysids can be identified to genus using Mauchline (1980). Identification of the genus Hemimysis is most easily confirmed by considering the morphology of the telson, which has a broad, straight, and uncleft posterior margin with 12-15 apical teeth, a long distal spine on each posterior corner and 13-17 short spines along the lateral margins; this morphology is common to both males and females (Ketelaars et al., 1999; Janas and Wysocki, 2005; Pothoven et al., 2007). Reznichenko (1959) recorded some H. anomala as having a telson with an apical cleft in the posterior margin; however, this contrasting description of a key identification feature has not been observed in any invasive population. In the genera Mysis and Taphromysis the telson has a bifurcated tip, and in the genera Neomysis and Deltamysis the distal margin of the telson is narrowly truncated and/or convex at the tip (Smith, 2001; Pothoven et al., 2007). Additional features distinguishing Hemimysis from other mysid genera relies on morphological differences in adult males. Separation from the genera Neomysis and Deltamysis can be achieved by considering the exopod on pleopod IV, which has > 3 segments in Hemimysis (Smith, 2001). Hemimysis can be distinguished from the genus Mysis using two features: 1) pleopods V each have two segmented rami in Hemimysis, and one unsegmented ramus in Mysis; 2) the outer ramus of the antennal scale is elongate with a distinct terminal segment in Hemimysis, and is narrowly lanceolate with an indistinct terminal segment in Mysis (Birshtein, 1968).

Features distinguishing H. anomala from other Hemimysis species are also found in the morphology of adult males: in H. anomala, the 3rd, 4th and 5th male pleopods are well developed, the 4th male pleopod is elongated and has a long exopodite and a reduced endopodite, and the antennal scale is an elongated oval shape, has long feathered setae on the proximal section of the outer margin and lacks spines (Ketelaars et al., 1999; Janas and Wysocki, 2005).

 

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

SPS Measures


In 2004, the International Maritime Organisation adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, which will enter into force 12 months after it has been ratified by 30 States, representing 35% of world merchant shipping tonnage. However, to date (April 2009), only 18 States had ratified the convention, representing 15.36% of world merchant shipping tonnage (International Maritime Organization, 2009). Until the convention is ratified, some countries are following voluntary guidelines intended to prevent the spread of invasive species (Johnson, 2008). Particularly strict regulations controlling ballast water exchange were implemented in 1993 to protect the North American Great Lakes from further invasions (United States Coast Guard, 1993), however, even these measures do not appear to have succeeded in slowing the invasion rate (Ellis and MacIsaac, 2009).


Public Awareness


Efforts to raise public awareness of H. anomala are regionally variable and are most notable in the North American Great Lakes, being coordinated by the National Centre for Research on Aquatic Invasive Species (NCRAIS) and affiliated organizations. NCRAIS provide information enabling the public to recognize H. anomala and provide a mechanism for reporting sightings through the ‘Hemimysis anomala Survey & Monitoring Network’ (NCRAIS, 2009). Elsewhere, little has been done to raise public awareness of H. anomala.


Eradication


No records of any attempts to eradicate H. anomala have been published to date.


Containment/zoning


No attempts to contain invasive populations of H. anomala have been reported.


Control

At present, no method has been developed to remove an invasive mysid populations that has become established.


Biological Control


In some habitats, high densities of planktivorous fish can potentially limit the population expansion of H. anomala through predation (Pothoven et al., 2007). However, to date, this predation has not been exploited to develop biological control strategies for H. anomala or any other mysids.


Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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No control measures currently exist for established populations of invasive zooplankters such as H. anomala; extensive research is therefore required in this area and should be prioritized. Further research is also required regarding the impact of an invasive H. anomala population on the receiving ecosystem, for example to substantiate claims that the mysid may reduce the abundance of toxic blue-green algae, and may encourage the growth of submerged macrophytes (Stubbington et al., 2008). Determining those populations likely to have particularly pronounced detrimental impacts on the receiving environment will allow prioritization of the implementation of any newly developed control measures.


Further surveys should be undertaken to determine the full extent of H. anomala’s current distribution. More important perhaps, is to determine the likely extent and pathways of future spread. This will require experimental work, for example to establish the mysid’s current velocity tolerance, and the application of such data to models.

References

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Audzijonyte A; Wittmann KJ; Väinölä R, 2008. Tracing recent invasions of the Ponto-Caspian mysid shrimp Hemimysis anomala across Europe and to North America with mitochondrial DNA. Diversity and Distributions, 14(2):179-186. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ddi

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Bales M; Moss B; Phillips G; Irvine K; Stansfield J, 1993. The changing ecosystem of a shallow, brackish lake, Hickling Broad, Norfolk, UK. II. Long-term trends in water chemistry and ecology and their implications for restoration of the lake. Freshwater Biology, 29(1):141-165.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
DAISIE species factsheet Hemimysis anomalahttp://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=53345
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Great Lakes New Invader: Bloody red shrimp (Hemimysis anomala)http://www.seagrant.wisc.edu/AIS/Portals/7/hemimysis.pdf
Invasive Alien Species in Northern Ireland: Hemimysis anomala, shrimphttp://www.habitas.org.uk/invasive/species.asp?item=50007
NCRAIS Hemimysis anomala factsheethttp://www.glerl.noaa.gov/hemimysis/hemi_sci_factsheet.html

Organizations

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Europe: DAISIE - Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe, Web-based service, http://www.europe-aliens.org

Northern Ireland: QUERCUS - Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Centre, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University,, Belfast, http://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/Quercus/

USA: NCRAIS - National Centre for Research on Aquatic Invasive Species, NOAA/GLERL 2205 Commonwealth Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48105, http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/

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29/04/09 Original text by:

Rachel Stubbington, Loughborough University, Department of Geography, UK

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