Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ipomoea nil
(white edge morning-glory)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2020. Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.107882.20203482799

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Datasheet

Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ipomoea nil
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white edge morning-glory
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ipomoea nil is a climber species that has been widely cultivated as a garden ornamental across tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. It is an aggressive and opportunistic colonizer producing stems that either twin...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. September 2007.
TitleFlower
CaptionIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. September 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. September 2007.
FlowerIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. September 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2007.
TitleFlower
CaptionIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2007.
FlowerIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2010.
TitleFlower
CaptionIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2010.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2010.
FlowerIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2010.©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2009.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2009.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2009.
Flowering habitIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); flowering habit. India. October 2009.©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); leaf and stems. India. October 2010.
TitleLeaf and stems
CaptionIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); leaf and stems. India. October 2010.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); leaf and stems. India. October 2010.
Leaf and stemsIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); leaf and stems. India. October 2010.©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); seeds. Note scale.
TitleSeeds
CaptionIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); seeds. Note scale.
CopyrightPublic Domain- Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Steve Hurst
Ipomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); seeds. Note scale.
SeedsIpomoea nil (white edge morning-glory); seeds. Note scale.Public Domain- Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Steve Hurst

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth

Preferred Common Name

  • white edge morning-glory

Other Scientific Names

  • Batatas setosa (Ker Gawl.) Lindl.
  • Calonyction campanulatum Hallier f.
  • Calonyction pavonii (Choisy) Hallier f.
  • Calonyction setosum (Ker Gawl.) Hallier f.
  • Convolvulus hederaceus L.
  • Convolvulus nil L.
  • Convolvulus setosus (Ker Gawl.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus tomentosus Vell.
  • Gomphipus setosus (Ker Gawl.) Raf.
  • Ipomoea cuspidata Ruiz & Pav.
  • Ipomoea desertorum House
  • Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq.
  • Ipomoea longicuspis Meisn.
  • Ipomoea melanotricha Brandegee
  • Ipomoea pavonii Choisy
  • Ipomoea scabra Forssk.
  • Ipomoea setosa Ker Gawl.
  • Ipomoea vaniotiana H.Lév.
  • Pharbitis cuspidata (Ruiz & Pav.) G. Don
  • Pharbitis githaginea Hochst.
  • Pharbitis hederacea (L.) Choisy
  • Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy

International Common Names

  • English: blue morning glory; ivy morning-glory; Japanese morning-glory
  • French: liseron bleu; liseron hallier
  • Chinese: qian niu
  • Portuguese: amarra-amarra; corda-de-viola; jetirana

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: campainha; corda-de-viola ; corriola
  • Cuba: aguinaldo azul claro
  • Germany: blaue Prunkwinde
  • Guatemala: campanilla; tumba vaqueros
  • Mexico: campanita
  • Nicaragua: campanita morada; campanito
  • Sweden: kejsarvinda

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ipomoea nil is a climber species that has been widely cultivated as a garden ornamental across tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. It is an aggressive and opportunistic colonizer producing stems that either twine into other plants for support or sprawl along the ground. It has escaped from cultivation and become widely naturalized and invasive, primarily in areas near cultivation, disturbed areas and forest edges. Currently, I. nil is listed as invasive in China, India, Philippines, Spain, Galapagos, Cuba, and on several islands in the Pacific Region.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Ipomoea
  •                                 Species: Ipomoea nil

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Ipomoea is a large and complex genus of vines and shrubs within the Convolvulaceae. This family comprises approximately 1880 species grouped in 55–60 genera (Stevens, 2017). The family is nearly cosmopolitan in distribution, but its members are primarily tropical plants (Stefanović et al., 2003). The genus Ipomoea includes about 600 species distributed worldwide with approximately 500 species occurring in tropical and warm temperate regions of the Americas (Miller et al., 1999).

The taxonomy and nomenclature of many Ipomoea species is still uncertain. For instance, the names I. hederacea, I. indica, I. nil and I. purpurea have caused identification and nomenclatural problems since Linnaeus revised his own treatment of the taxa in 1762. Since then, many botanists have mixed these species and the nomenclature still remains unclear. Authors have noted that the taxonomic confusion may be due to the morphological plasticity observed when plants grow in wet and dry habitats and the extensive cultivation as ornamentals (Austin, 1986; 1996).

About 55 species of Ipomoea were listed as weeds by Holm et al. (1979) and 173 species are included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2017). Species such as I. alba, I. batatas, I. cairica, I. carnea subsp. fistulosa, I. hederifolia, I. nil, I. ochracea, I. purpurea and I. quamoclit are often listed as aggressive invaders worldwide (GRIIS, 2017; PIER, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Description

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The follow description is from Flora of China (2017):

Herbs annual or perennial, twining, with retrorse axial parts. Stems 2-5 m. Petiole 2-15 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate or nearly circular, 4-15 × 4.5-14 cm, hirtellous, base cordate, margin entire or ± 3 (or 5)-lobed, apex acuminate. Inflorescences axillary, 1- to few flowered; peduncle 1.5-18.5 cm; bracts linear or filiform, 5-8 mm, spreading hirtellous. Pedicel 2-7 mm. Sepals lanceolate, ± equal, 1-2.5 cm, abaxially spreading hirsute, subglabrous apically, with a linear acumen, hairs swollen based. Corolla pale to bright blue with whitish tube, fading to pinkish in age, funnel-form, 5-6(-8) cm, glabrous. Stamens included, unequal. Pistil included; ovary glabrous, 3-loculed. Stigma 3-lobed. Capsule straw colored, ovoid to ± globose, 8-10 mm in diameter, glabrous. Seeds black, ovoid-trigonous, 5-6 mm, gray puberulent.

Plant Type

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Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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Ipomoea nil is native to tropical and subtropical America, but it has been extensively cultivated and now can be found naturalized elsewhere (Staples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresentIntroduced
CameroonPresentIntroduced
Central African RepublicPresentIntroduced
ChadPresentIntroduced
ComorosPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroduced
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroduced
EritreaPresentIntroduced
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced
GhanaPresentIntroduced
GuineaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasive
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
-RodriguesPresentIntroduced
MayottePresentIntroduced
NigeriaPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
SenegalPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced
CambodiaPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AnhuiPresentIntroduced
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
-HebeiPresentIntroduced
-HenanPresentIntroduced
-HubeiPresentIntroduced
-HunanPresentIntroduced
-Inner MongoliaPresentIntroduced
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced
-JiangxiPresentIntroduced
-NingxiaPresentIntroduced
-ShaanxiPresentIntroduced
-ShandongPresentIntroduced
-ShanxiPresentIntroduced
-SichuanPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroduced
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AssamPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MizoramPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NagalandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasive
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced
-JavaPresentIntroduced
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentIntroduced
-Maluku IslandsPresentIntroduced
-SulawesiPresentIntroduced
-SumatraPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
LaosPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
MyanmarPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasive
ThailandPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroduced
YemenPresentIntroduced

Europe

DenmarkPresent, Few occurrences
GreecePresent, LocalizedIntroduced
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive in Valencia
UkrainePresent, Localized

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
ArubaPresentNative
BahamasPresentNative
BarbadosPresentNativeUncertain status
BelizePresentNative
BermudaPresentReported as either native or introduced by different sources
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresentUncertain status
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentReported as native or as introduced and invasive by different sources
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentNative
Netherlands AntillesPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint MartinPresentUncertain status
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative
United StatesPresentNative and Introduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentReported as either native or introduced by different sources
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentReported as either native or introduced by different sources
-MarylandPresentNative
-MississippiPresentNative
-OklahomaPresentNative
-TexasPresentNative
-VirginiaPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BrazilPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-AcrePresentIntroducedNaturalized
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-CearaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-GoiasPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-ParaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-PiauiPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-SergipePresentIntroducedNaturalized
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedNaturalized
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
UruguayPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of I. nil is high. As many other Ipomoea species, it is widely cultivated as ornamental around the world. Seeds and seedlings can easily be obtained in plant nurseries and online on horticulture websites.  

Habitat

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Ipomoea nil can be found growing in grasslands, roadsides, thickets, mountain slopes, disturbed sites and hedges of moist forests at elevations from sea level to 1200 –1800 m. It also occurs in cultivated fields and coffee plantations (Flora of China, 2017; Flora of Nicaragua, 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; Vibrans, 2017). In the Galápagos Islands, this species inhabits the arid lowlands (McMullen, 1999). In Nepal, it grows in moist places at elevations from 700 m up to 2000 meters (Useful Tropical Plants, 2017).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Ipomoea nil is a weed that causes substantial losses in soybean, maize and cotton plantations. It is also listed as a weed of sorghum, nopal, beans and other pulse crops (Villaseñor and Espinosa, 1998; Sobrero et al., 2003).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
    Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
      Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear)CactaceaeMain
        Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
          Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeMain
            Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

              Growth Stages

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              Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

              Biology and Ecology

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              Genetics

              The chromosome number reported for I. nil is 2n = 30 (Flora of China, 2017).

              Reproductive Biology

              The flowers of I. nil are hermaphroditic. This species is facultatively autogamous and fruits can be set after spontaneous self-pollination. Flowers are visited and pollinated by insects, primarily bees (Maimoni-Rodella and Yanagizawa, 2007).

              Germination studies have shown that heat treatment (~30°C) and scarification can improve germinations rates, while salinity and alkaline conditions may inhibit germination (Vibrans, 2017). High germination percentages have been obtained with scarification via incision and exposure to acid for 60 minutes and the optimum germination temperature appears to be 32°C. In acid and neutral pH, the germination is positive and high germination percentages have been registered in the osmotic potential of –0.2 MPa, with the germination progressively decreasing until –0.8 MPa. It has been also suggested that I. nil has a high germination capacity in environments with high thermo amplitudes (Sobrero et al., 2003).

              Physiology and Phenology

              In Panama, I. nil has been recorded flowering from December to July (Flora of Panama, 2017), but in Nicaragua flowering and fruiting activity has been reported throughout the year (Flora of Nicaragua, 2017). In Costa Rica, flowers have been observed from January to April and from September to December (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). In Mexico it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from August to November (Vibrans, 2017).

              Longevity

              Ipomoea nil is described as both an annual and a perennial vine (Flora of China, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

              Environmental Requirements

              Ipomoea nil prefers to grow in moist areas in a sunny position. It is adapted to sandy, loamy, and heavy (clay) soils with pH in the range 6.1-7.8, but requires well-drained soils. This species is not frost hardy (PFAF, 2017; Useful Tropical Plants, 2017).

              Climate

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              ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
              Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
              Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
              As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
              Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
              Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
              Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
              Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

              Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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              Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
              35 30

              Air Temperature

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              Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
              Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 30

              Rainfall Regime

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              Bimodal
              Uniform

              Soil Tolerances

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              Soil drainage

              • free

              Soil reaction

              • alkaline
              • neutral

              Soil texture

              • heavy
              • light
              • medium

              Means of Movement and Dispersal

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              Ipomoea nil spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stem fragments. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, rain, waterways, gravity and human activity, while stem fragments are usually dispersed in dumped garden waste (Weber, 2003, PIER, 2017).

              Pathway Causes

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              CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
              Crop productionAgricultural weed Yes Yes Vibrans (2017)
              DisturbanceCommon in disturbed, open sites, roadsides and forest edges Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017)
              Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from gardens Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
              Garden waste disposalSeed/stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes
              HorticultureWidely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
              Internet salesSold on horticulture websites Yes Yes
              Medicinal useUsed as a medicinal herb Yes Yes PROTA (2017)
              Nursery tradeWidely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)
              Ornamental purposesWidely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2017)

              Pathway Vectors

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              VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
              Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes PFAF (2017)
              MailSold online Yes Yes
              WaterSeeds Yes PIER (2017)

              Impact Summary

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              CategoryImpact
              Cultural/amenity Positive
              Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
              Environment (generally) Positive and negative
              Human health Positive

              Economic Impact

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              Ipomoea nil is a weed that causes significant losses in soybean, maize and cotton plantations. It is also listed as a weed of sorghum, nopal, beans, and other pulse crops. In Santiago del Estero, Argentina, it is listed as one of the most important weeds in cotton plantations, causing yield losses, difficulties in harvesting and a reduction in the quality of the fibre due to the presence of its leaves and stems (Villaseñor and Espinosa, 1998; Sobrero et al., 2003, Vibrans, 2017).

              Environmental Impact

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              Ipomoea nil is a fast-growing vine with an annual growth rate of 5 m (PFAF, 2017). This species has the potential to rapidly invade new areas. It can form dense mats at ground level that inhibit the germination and establishment of native species in the understory. It also climbs using other plants for support, and can produce a copious canopy that shades out native vegetation (McMullen, 1999; Guillot, 2006; Chandra, 2012; Flora of China, 2017; PIER, 2017; Oviedo and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2017; Vibrans, 2017).

              Risk and Impact Factors

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              Invasiveness
              • Proved invasive outside its native range
              • Has a broad native range
              • Abundant in its native range
              • Highly adaptable to different environments
              • Is a habitat generalist
              • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
              • Pioneering in disturbed areas
              • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
              • Long lived
              • Fast growing
              • Gregarious
              • Reproduces asexually
              Impact outcomes
              • Altered trophic level
              • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
              • Host damage
              • Modification of nutrient regime
              • Modification of successional patterns
              • Monoculture formation
              • Negatively impacts agriculture
              • Reduced amenity values
              • Reduced native biodiversity
              • Threat to/ loss of native species
              Impact mechanisms
              • Competition - monopolizing resources
              • Competition - shading
              • Rapid growth
              Likelihood of entry/control
              • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
              • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

              Uses

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              Social Benefit

              Ipomoea nil is cultivated as ornamental and for medicinal uses. The seeds are used as a diuretic, anthelmintic and deobstruant, to treat dropsy and constipation, and to promote menstruation. A strong decoction is taken as an abortifacient drug (Flora of China, 2017; PROTA, 2017).

              Uses List

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              Environmental

              • Amenity

              Medicinal, pharmaceutical

              • Traditional/folklore

              Ornamental

              • garden plant
              • Seed trade

              Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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              Ipomoea nil is a highly variable species which is often confused with other Ipomoea species such as I. purpurea, I. acuminata, and I. hederacea. I. acuminata may be distinguished by its wide and less herbaceous sepals and I. purpurea by its acute to obtuse sepals. I. nil and I. hederacea are the most similar, but can be distinguished by the sepals: the sepals of I. nil are gradually narrowed with the long acute tips suberect, straight, and scarcely spreading, while the sepals in I. hederacea are more abruptly narrowed and spreading or curved. However, many botanists consider that these two names are in fact only variants of one single highly variable species (Austin, 1986; Frey, 1995; Flora of Panama, 2017).

              Prevention and Control

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              Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

              There is no information available about the control/management of this species.

              References

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              Austin DF, 1986. Nomenclature of the Ipomoea nil Complex (Convolvulaceae). Taxon, 35(2), 355-358.

              Austin, D. F., Huáman, Z., 1996. A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon, 45(1), 3-38. doi: 10.2307/1222581

              Chandra, S. K., 2012. Invasive alien plants of Indian Himalayan Region - diversity and implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3, 177-184.

              Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.unpaginated.

              Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

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              Staples, G, 2017. World Checklist of Convolvulaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://wcsp.science.kew.org

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              Distribution References

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              Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. unpaginated.

              Davidse G, Sousa-Peña M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2012. (Convolvulaceae). In: Flora Mesoamericana, [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F]. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

              EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

              Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

              GRIIS, 2017. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

              Guillot Ortiz D, 2006. Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth and I. hederacea (L.) Jacquin, two new invasive species for the Valencian flora. (Ipomea nil (L.) Roth e I. hederacea (L.) Jacquin, dos especies invasoras nuevas para la flora valenciana.). Acta Botanica Malacitana. 153-156.

              Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191.

              Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

              Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

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              USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

              USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

              Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

              Links to Websites

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              GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

              Contributors

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              22/01/18 Original text by:

              Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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