Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ipomoea indica
(ocean blue morning-glory)

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Datasheet

Ipomoea indica (ocean blue morning-glory)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ipomoea indica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ocean blue morning-glory
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ipomoea indica is a vine that has been widely cultivated as a garden ornamental across tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ipomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowers and leaves. Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
TitleFlowers
CaptionIpomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowers and leaves. Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowers and leaves. Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
FlowersIpomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowers and leaves. Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowers and leaves. Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionIpomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowers and leaves. Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowers and leaves. Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Flowers and leavesIpomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowers and leaves. Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowering habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionIpomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowering habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowering habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.
HabitIpomoea indica (blue morning glory); flowering habit, with Laysan albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea indica (blue morning glory); habit, climbing an old concrete structure. Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionIpomoea indica (blue morning glory); habit, climbing an old concrete structure. Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Ipomoea indica (blue morning glory); habit, climbing an old concrete structure. Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.
HabitIpomoea indica (blue morning glory); habit, climbing an old concrete structure. Radar Hill, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. April 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr.

Preferred Common Name

  • ocean blue morning-glory

Other Scientific Names

  • Convolvulus acuminatus Vahl
  • Convolvulus bogotensis Kunth
  • Convolvulus congestus (R. Br.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus indicus Burm.
  • Convolvulus mollis Meisn.
  • Convolvulus mutabilis (Ker Gawl.) Spreng.
  • Convolvulus portoricensis Spreng.
  • Ipomoea acuminata (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.
  • Ipomoea bogotensis (Kunth) G. Don
  • Ipomoea cataractae Endl.
  • Ipomoea cathartica Poir.
  • Ipomoea congesta R. Br.
  • Ipomoea dealbata (M. Martens & Galeotti) Hemsl.
  • Ipomoea insularis (Choisy) Steud.
  • Ipomoea kiuninsularis Masam.
  • Ipomoea learii Knight ex J. Paxton
  • Ipomoea mitchellae Standl.
  • Ipomoea mollis G. Don
  • Ipomoea mutabilis Ker Gawl.
  • Ipomoea portoricensis (Spreng.) G. Don
  • Parasitipomoea formosana Hayata
  • Pharbitis acuminata (Vahl) Choisy
  • Pharbitis bogotensis (Kunth) Choisy
  • Pharbitis cathartica (Poir.) Choisy
  • Pharbitis congesta R. Br.
  • Pharbitis dealbata M. Martens & Galeotti
  • Pharbitis heterosepala Benth.
  • Pharbitis indica (Burm.) R.C. Fang
  • Pharbitis insularis Choisy
  • Pharbitis learii (Knight ex J. Paxton) Lindl.
  • Pharbitis medians Choisy
  • Pharbitis mollis Choisy
  • Pharbitis rosea Choisy

International Common Names

  • English: blue dawnflower; blue morning-glory ; common morning-glory; morning-glory; perennial morning-glory; purple morning-glory; purple-flower bellvine; purple-flower morning-glory; tall morning-glory
  • Spanish: gloria de la mañana
  • French: Ipomée d'Inde
  • Chinese: bian se qian niu
  • Portuguese: corriola; Campainha; Corda-de-viola; jetirana

Local Common Names

  • Fiji: wa sasala; wa sasala vuti; wa sovivi; wa voji; wa vuli; wa vuti
  • Germany: indische Prunkwinde
  • Guatemala: quiché; quilamula; sayün
  • Italy: campanella perenne
  • Japan: no-asagao
  • Palau: oliemad
  • Spain: batatilla; maravillas; suspiro
  • Sweden: gryningsvinda

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ipomoea indica is a vine that has been widely cultivated as a garden ornamental across tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world (Randall, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). It is an aggressive and opportunistic colonizer of open and disturbed habitats that has escaped from cultivation to become widely naturalized in disturbed areas near gardens, coastal areas, forest edges, and along roadsides and waterways. This species spreads by seeds, stolons, and stem fragments and when growing under favourable environmental conditions (e.g., full sun, ample moisture and fertile soil) it can spread very rapidly, smothering all other vegetation growing nearby. Its rapidly growing stolons can form dense mats over the ground, while its climbing habit enables it to compete successfully with trees and shrubs on the edges of forests and along riparian zones. Its twining stems also choke adjacent seedlings and smother young trees and shrubs in the understory (Wagner et al., 1999; Csurches, 2016). Currently, I. indica is listed as invasive in Australia, New Zealand, China, southern Africa, Europe, the West Indies, and on many islands in the Pacific Region (Smith, 2010BioNET-EAFRINET, 2017; DAISIE, 2017; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; GRIIS, 2017; PIER, 2017; Queensland Government, 2017).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Convolvulaceae
  •                             Genus: Ipomoea
  •                                 Species: Ipomoea indica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Ipomoea is a large and complex genus of vines and shrubs within the Convolvulaceae. This family comprises approximately 1,880 species grouped in 55-60 genera (Stevens, 2012). The family is nearly cosmopolitan in distribution, but its members are primarily tropical plants (Stefanovic et al., 2003). The genus Ipomoea includes about 600 species distributed worldwide with approximately 500 species occurring in tropical and warm temperate regions of the Americas (Miller et al., 1999).

The taxonomy and nomenclature of many Ipomoea species is unclear. For instance, the names Ipomoea hederacea, I. indica, I. nil and I. purpurea have caused identification and nomenclatural problems since Linnaeus revised his own treatment of the taxa in 1762. Since then, many botanists have mixed these species under one name and the nomenclature still remains difficult. Authors have noted that the taxonomic confusion may be due to the morphological plasticity observed when plants grow in wet and dry habitats and the extensive cultivation as ornamentals (Verdcourt, 1963; Austin, 1977; Frey, 1995; Shaltout et al., 2006).

About 55 species of Ipomoea have been listed as weeds by Holm et al. (1979), and 173 species have been included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2017) including species also listed as aggressive invaders such as I. alba, I. batatas, I. cairica, I. carnea subsp. fistulosa, I. hederifolia, I. nil, I. ochracea, I. purpurea, and I. quamoclit (DAISIE, 2017; GRIIS, 2017; PIER, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Description

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Herbs twining or sometimes prostrate, with ± densely retrorse pilose axial parts. Stems 3-6 m, sometimes rooting at nodes. Petiole 2-18 cm; leaf blade ovate or circular, 5-15 X 3.5-14 cm, abaxially densely short, soft, pubescent, adaxially ± sparsely pubescent, base cordate, margin entire or ± 3-lobed, apex acuminate or abruptly acuminate. Inflorescences dense umbellate cymes, several flowered; peduncle 4-20 cm; bracts linear, sometimes lanceolate. Pedicel 2-5(-8) mm. Sepals subequal, 1.4-2.2 cm, gradually linear-acuminate apically, glabrous to appressed pilose; outer 3 lanceolate to broadly lanceolate; inner 2 narrowly lanceolate. Corolla bright blue or bluish purple, aging reddish purple or red, with a paler centre, funnelform, 5-8 cm, glabrous. Stamens included. Pistil included; ovary glabrous. Stigma 3-lobed. Capsule ± globose, 1-1.3 cm in diameter containing four to six dark brown or black coloured seeds, 5 mm (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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The native distribution range of I. indica is unclear, as it appears to be Pan-tropical. It has been listed as probably native to the tropics of Central and South America, and possibly also native to southeastern Asia and some islands in the Pacific region. It can be found growing in cultivation and also “naturalized” in Europe, Asia, southern Africa, United States, New Zealand, Australia, and on several Pacific islands (Wagner et al., 1999; PIER, 2017; Queensland Government, 2017; Randall, 2017; Staples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
IndiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
-AssamPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
-MoluccasPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
-Nusa TenggaraPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
-SumatraPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
IsraelPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2017
JapanPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
-HonshuPresentUSDA-ARS, 2017
-KyushuPresentUSDA-ARS, 2017
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentUSDA-ARS, 2017
-ShikokuPresentUSDA-ARS, 2017
LaosPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
MyanmarPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
NepalPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017
TaiwanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
VietnamPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
CameroonPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
EritreaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017; Witt and Luke, 2017
GabonPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
GhanaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
GuineaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017; Witt and Luke, 2017
MadagascarPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
MalawiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017; Witt and Luke, 2017Naturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
MoroccoPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
NigeriaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
RéunionPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
RwandaPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
SenegalPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
SeychellesPresentIntroducedGRIIS, 2017
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
SomaliaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2017
SwazilandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2017; Witt and Luke, 2017
UgandaPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017; Witt and Luke, 2017
ZambiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Vibrans, 2017
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 2010
BelizePresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeStaples, 2017
Costa RicaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
CubaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
Dominican RepublicPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
HaitiPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
HondurasPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
JamaicaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
MontserratPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
PanamaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeStaples, 2017

South America

ArgentinaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
BoliviaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
BrazilPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
-AlagoasPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-AmapaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-AmazonasPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-BahiaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-CearaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Distrito FederalPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-GoiasPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-ParaibaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-ParanaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-PernambucoPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-Sao PauloPresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
-SergipePresentNativeSimão-Bianchini and Ferreira, 2015
ChilePresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017Invasive in Juan Fernandez Archipelago
ColombiaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
EcuadorPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017Listed as both native and introduced
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
French GuianaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
GuyanaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
ParaguayPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
PeruPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2017
SurinamePresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
UruguayPresentNativeStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
VenezuelaPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017

Europe

CyprusPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2017
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2017
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2017
GreecePresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2017
ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2017
MaltaPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2017
PortugalPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
-AzoresPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2017
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2017

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
FijiPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
French PolynesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
GuamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
MicronesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
-PohnpeiPresentNativePIER, 2017
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive GRIIS, 2017
NiuePresentNativePIER, 2017
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017Probably aboriginal introduction
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentStaples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
PalauPresentNativePIER, 2017
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
SamoaPresentPIER, 2017; Staples, 2017
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017
TongaPresentStaples, 2017; Staples, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresentNativePIER, 2017
VanuatuPresentIntroducedStaples, 2017

History of Introduction and Spread

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Because the native distribution range of I. indica is unclear, it is very difficult to determine its history of introduction. However, it is known that this species has been intentionally introduced across tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions to the world to be cultivated as a garden ornamental. It was introduced to Britain in 1837 (Kew, 2017). In New Zealand, it was also introduced as ornamental and was first recorded in the wild in the 1950s (Weeds of New Zealand, 2017). In the United States, it has been actively sold in gardening catalogues since the 1930-1940s (USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of I. indica is high. This species is still widely cultivated as ornamental around the world. Seeds and seedlings can easily be obtained in plant nurseries and online on horticulture websites.

Habitat

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Ipomoea indica inhabits wetter tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. It is particularly common in disturbed forests, forest edges, secondary woodland, suburban gullies, and along roadsides and waterways. It can also be found naturalized in seasonal freshwater wetlands, coastal sites, arable land, abandoned farms, and moist and rain forests at elevations ranging from near sea level to about 1,250 m (Wagner et al., 1999; Weber, 2003; Vibrans, 2011; Csurches, 2016; BioNET-EAFRINET, 2017; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; Queensland Government, 2017).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for I. indica is 2n = 30 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Reproductive biology

I. indica produces hermaphroditic flowers and new flowers open each day fading to pink by late afternoon (Csurches, 2016). In Costa Rica, the flowers of I. indica are visited and pollinated by bees (Real, 1981). In areas where it has been introduced (e.g. Australia), this species rarely produces fruits and viable seed (Csurches, 2016).

Physiology and phenology

In Costa Rica and Nicaragua, it has been recorded flowering and fruiting all year long (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). In South Africa, it flowers with contrasting stripes from November to May (ISSA, 2017). In areas outside its native distribution range (i.e., Australia) fruits are rarely produced and viable seeds are not set (Queensland Government, 2017). In Asia, flowering occurs throughout the year but is most abundant during spring, summer and autumn (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Longevity

I. indica is described as a long-lived vine with specimens that may live for up to 25 years (Csurches, 2016). However, in North America it is described as both “annual” and perennial species (USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Associations

In Hawaii, there is a group of Nitidulid beetles that breed or feed in the flowers of I. indica and a group of ascomycetous yeasts that are associated exclusively with them (Lachance et al., 2003).

Environmental requirements

I. indica prefers to grow on moist, well-drained, light or sandy loam soils with pH in the range 6.1-7.5. It grows best in areas with full sunlight and mean annual rainfall in the range 1000-3500 mm and annual temperatures ranging from 18°C to 30°C. It does not tolerate temperatures below 7°C (Dave’s Garden, 2017; Kew, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 7

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1000 mm3500 mmmm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Albugo ipomoeae-panduratae Pathogen Aquatic/All Stages not specific N

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The Sweet potato leaf curl virus, the Sweet potato leaf curl deltasatellite 1, the sweet potato weevil Euscepes postfasciatus and the white rust Albugo ipomoeae-panduratae have been found infecting plants of I. indica (Sato et al., 2010; Pagani et al., 2012; Fiallo-Olivé et al., 2018).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Ipomoea indica spreads by seeds, and vegetatively via rooting stem fragments. Seeds are dispersed by wind, rain, waterways, gravity, and human activity while stem fragments are commonly dispersed by water, animals, and vehicles and in dumped garden waste (Weber, 2003; Smith, 2010; Queensland Government, 2017).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceCommon in disturbed, open sites, roadsides and forest edges Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2017
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from gardens Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2017
Garden waste disposalSeeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2017
HorticultureWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Intentional releaseWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Internet salesSeeds and plants are sold online Yes Yes Dave's Garden, 2017
Medicinal useUsed as a medicinal herb Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
Nursery tradeExtensively commercialized as an ornamental vine Yes Yes Dave's Garden, 2017
Ornamental purposesOften cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2017
Land vehiclesSeeds and stem fragments can be dispersed by slashers, movers and other vehicles Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2017
WaterSeeds and stem fragments can be dispersed by waterways and currents Yes Yes Csurches, 2016

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Under favourable conditions, I. indica can produce large amounts of seeds that easily germinate establishing new colonies, which rapidly invade new areas and climb on mature trees, shrubs and other plant species producing a profuse canopy and consequently outcompeting the supporting species for nutrients, water and sunlight. This species has allelopathic activity and releases a chemical that is poisonous to native plants (Smith, 2010; Csurches, 2016; BioNET-EAFRINET, 2017; DAISIE, 2017; GRIIS, 2017; ISSA, 2017; PIER, 2017; Queensland Government, 2017; Weeds of New Zealand, 2017).

Impact on habitats

I. indica has been listed as a noxious weed and invasive species in South Africa (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2017; ISSA, 2017). In New Zealand, it is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord and it is therefore illegal to sell, propagate and distribute this plant species across the country (Weeds of New Zealand, 2017). In Australia, it is a significant environmental weed in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, and an environmental weed in South Australia and Western Australia. It was also recently listed as a priority environmental weed in at least one Natural Resource Management region (Csurches, 2016; Queensland Government, 2017).

Impact on biodiversity

I. indica outcompetes native plant species by substrate, nutrients, water and sunlight. It often invades riparian habitats, edges of moist and rain forests, coastal thickets, and wetlands where it grows forming dense mats at ground level that inhibit the germination and establishment of native species in the understory and also climbs using other plants for support, and grows producing a copious canopy that shading-out native vegetation (Smith, 2010; Csurches, 2016; BioNET-EAFRINET, 2017; DAISIE, 2017; GRIIS, 2017; ISSA, 2017; PIER, 2017; Queensland Government, 2017; Weeds of New Zealand, 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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I. indica is widely cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers. Flowers are bright blue or bluish-purple in colour with a paler pink or whitish-pink central tube (Queensland Government, 2017). It is also used as a medicinal herb: the flower, seeds, roots and stems are used as laxative, hallucinogen, purgative, and for treating various diseases (Smith, 2010; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Ipomoea indica is very similar to Ipomoea cairica, Ipomoea purpurea and Ipomoea hederacea. These species can be distinguished by the following differences (Austin, 1986; Queensland Government, 2017):

  • I. indica has hairy (i.e. pubescent) younger stems and heart-shaped or three-lobed leaves. Its flowers are relatively large (7-10 cm across), its sepals are long and thin (14-22 mm long), soft-pilose or pubescent on back with slender trichomes or glabrous.
  • I. cairica has hairless (i.e. glabrous) stems and five to seven lobed leaves that resemble the fingers of a hand (i.e. they are palmately lobed). Its flowers are relatively large (5-8 cm across), its sepals are relatively short (4-7 mm long).
  • I. purpurea has hairy (i.e. pubescent) younger stems and heart-shaped or three-lobed leaves. Its flowers are relatively large (3-7 cm across), its sepals are moderately long (10-15 mm long), with slightly narrowed green tips, hispid-pilose on backs, the trichomes mostly with swollen bases.
  • I. hederacea has hairy (i.e. pubescent) younger stems and heart-shaped or three-lobed leaves. Its flowers are relatively small (3-5 cm across), its strongly curved sepals are long and thin (about 20 mm long), abruptly narrowed the long subacute tips strongly spreading or curved.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/mechanical control

Small infestations can be manually removed. Plants should be hand pulled and the roots dug out. All roots and all stems touching the ground must be removed. Follow-up treatments are necessary to ensure the control of this species (BioNET-EAFRINET, 2017; Queensland Government, 2017).

Movement control

In New Zealand and Australia, I. indica is listed as a problematic environmental weed and it is therefore illegal to sell, propagate, and distribute (Queensland Government, 2017; Weeds of New Zealand, 2017).

Chemical control

Chemical control should be done by cutting vines at breast height, laying the lower portions on the ground and spraying them with herbicides such as MCPA 500, dicamba, 2,4-D amine and glyphosate (Weber, 2003; Queensland Government, 2017; Weeds of New Zealand, 2017).

References

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Austin, D. F., 1977. Ipomoea carnea Jacq. vs. Ipomoea fistulosa Mart. ex Choisy. Taxon, 26(1), 235-238. doi: 10.2307/1220558

Austin, D. F., 1986. Nomenclature of the Ipomoea nil Complex (Convolvulaceae). Taxon, 35(2), 355-358.

Austin, D. F., Huáman, Z., 1996. A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon, 45(1), 3-38. doi: 10.2307/1222581

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2017. East African Network for Taxonomy. Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Csurches, S., 2016. Invasive plant risk assessment: Blue morning glory Ipomoea indica. Australia: Queensland Government, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries.https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/69174/IPA-Ipomoea-Indica-Risk-Assessment.pdf

DAISIE, 2017. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Dave’s Garden, 2017. Ipomoea Species, Morning Glory, Blue Dawnflower, Oceanblue, Island Morning Glory . https://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/51653/

Fiallo-Olivé, E., Lapeira, D., Louro, D., Navas-Castillo, J., 2018. First report of Sweet potato leaf curl virus and Sweet potato leaf curl deltasatellite 1 infecting blue morning glory in Portugal. Plant Disease, 102(5), 1043-1044. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-10-17-1667-PDN

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence, J., Chevillotte, H., Ollier, C., Meyer, J. Y., 2013. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP)). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Frey, R., 1995. Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa (Martius ex Choisy) Austin: taxonomy, biology and ecology reviewed and inquired. Tropical Ecology, 36(1), 21-48.

GRIIS, 2017. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. Italy: ISPRA.http://www.griis.org

Holm, L., Pancho, J. V., Herberger, J. P., Plucknett, D. L., 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds, New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons.xlix + 391 pp.

ISSA, 2017. Invasive Species South Africa. Online resources. http://www.invasives.org.za/legislation/item/262-purple-morning-glory-ipomoea-indica

Kew, 2017. The Royal Botanical Garden. Data and Resource. https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources

Lachance, M. A., Bowles, J. M., Starmer, W. T., 2003. Geography and niche occupancy as determinants of yeast biodiversity: the yeast–insect–morning glory ecosystem of Kipuka Puaulu, Hawai’i. FEMS Yeast Research, 4(1), 105-111.

Miller, R. E., Rausher, M. D., Manos, P. S., 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) based on ITS and Waxy sequences. Systematic Botany, 24(2), 209-227. doi: 10.2307/2419549

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Pagani, A. P. S., Dianese, A. C., Inácio, C. A., CaféFilho, A. C., 2012. Occurrence of white rust (Albugo ipomoeae-panduratae) on Ipomoea acuminata in the Brazilian Mid-West. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 43(1), 306-308. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822012000100036&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en doi: 10.1590/S1517-83822012000100036

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland Government, 2017. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition , Australia: Queensland Government.http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

Real, L. A., 1981. Nectar availability and bee-foraging on Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae). Biotropica, 13(2, Supplement), 64-69. doi: 10.2307/2388072

Sato, Y., Miyai, S., Haraguchi, D., Ohno, S., Kohama, T., Kawamura, K., Yamagishi, M., 2010. Population dynamics of the West Indian sweetpotato weevil Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire): a simulation analysis. Journal of Applied Entomology, 134(4), 303-312. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/123193776/HTMLSTART doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2009.01477.x

Shaltout, K. H. , Al-Sodany, Y. M., Eid, E. M., 2006. The biology of Egyptian woody perennials: 2. Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental Researches, 9, 75-91.

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Smith, R. L., 2010. Invasive Alien Plant Species of the Bahamas and Biodiversity Management. Thesis. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, USA

Staples, G., 2017. World Checklist of Convolvulaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://wcsp.science.kew.org

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Stevens, P. F. , 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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Vibrans, H. , 2011. Malezas de México. Online resources-CONABIO. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/htm

Vibrans, H., 2017. Weeds of Mexico. (Malezas de México). In: Malezas de México . http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/home-malezas-mexico.htm

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Weber, E., 2003. Invasive plants of the world, Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.548 pp.

Weeds of New Zealand, 2017. Weed busters. https://www.marlborough.govt.nz/repository/libraries/id:1w1mps0ir17q9sgxanf9/hierarchy/Documents/Environment/Biosecurity/BlueMorningGlory.pdf

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Contributors

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04/01/18 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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