Invasive Species Compendium

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Daphnia lumholtzi

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Datasheet

Daphnia lumholtzi

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Daphnia lumholtzi
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Branchiopoda
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. lumholtzi is native to Africa, Asia, and Australia (Havel et al., 1995). It was first reported in North America i...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Daphnia lumholtzi (African spiny water-flea); habit. D. lumholtzi is a freshwater cladoceran. January 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionDaphnia lumholtzi (African spiny water-flea); habit. D. lumholtzi is a freshwater cladoceran. January 2010.
Copyright©Department of Animal Ecology, Evolution & Biodiversity/Ruhr University, Germany - CC BY-NC 2.0
Daphnia lumholtzi (African spiny water-flea); habit. D. lumholtzi is a freshwater cladoceran. January 2010.
HabitDaphnia lumholtzi (African spiny water-flea); habit. D. lumholtzi is a freshwater cladoceran. January 2010.©Department of Animal Ecology, Evolution & Biodiversity/Ruhr University, Germany - CC BY-NC 2.0
Daphnia lumholtzi; habit. A hitch hiker with stocked fish. (note scale) Lexington Reservoir, Santa Clara County, California, USA. September 2004.
TitleHabit
CaptionDaphnia lumholtzi; habit. A hitch hiker with stocked fish. (note scale) Lexington Reservoir, Santa Clara County, California, USA. September 2004.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Original photographer, James Kuwabara
Daphnia lumholtzi; habit. A hitch hiker with stocked fish. (note scale) Lexington Reservoir, Santa Clara County, California, USA. September 2004.
HabitDaphnia lumholtzi; habit. A hitch hiker with stocked fish. (note scale) Lexington Reservoir, Santa Clara County, California, USA. September 2004.Public Domain - Released by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Original photographer, James Kuwabara

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Daphnia lumholtzi

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. lumholtzi is native to Africa, Asia, and Australia (Havel et al., 1995). It was first reported in North America in 1990 (Sorenson and Sterner, 1992), and Brazil in 2000 (Zanata et al., 2003). The ability to thrive in riverine habitats (Soeken-Gittinger et al., in review) and produce large numbers of resting eggs (Acharya et al., 2006) may enhance the spread and invasiveness of this species. Spines afford D. lumholtzi some protection from predation (Swaffar and O’Brien, 1996), but many fish species actively feed on D. lumholtzi during the warm summer months when D. lumholtzi become abundant and native Daphnia are normally scarce. Thus, D. lumholtzi may provide a supplemental food resource for zooplanktivorous fish (Lemke et al., 2003; Linesch and Gophen, 2005; Havel and Graham, 2006) rather than reducing the food base via competitive exclusion of native DaphniaD. lumholtzi is listed in the ISSG Global Invasive Species Database, but not included in the ISSG “Worst 100” list.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Branchiopoda
  •                     Order: Cladocera
  •                         Family: Daphniidae
  •                             Genus: Daphnia
  •                                 Species: Daphnia lumholtzi

Description

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Daphnia has a kidney-shaped almost transparent body covered with a carapace. The body is not distinctly segmented (Miller, 2000). The head of the organism contains both a darkly coloured compound eye and numerous antennae used for feeling and swimming. Many Daphnia, including D. pulex and D. magna, have a specialized light-sensing organ similiar to a tiny eye called an ocellus (Miller, 2000). The central portion of the body is the thorax which has four to six pairs of thoracic legs covered with setae, two branched antennae and leaf-like limbs inside the carapace that produce a current of water which carries food and oxygen to the mouth and gills (Clare, 2002). The post-abdomen is the most posterior part of the body and terminates itself in two hook-like cuticular claws used by the organism to clear debris out of the carapace. The fine teeth located on these claws are often used for species identification (Miller, 2000), and contains four to six pairs of flattened legs covered in setae. In a live specimen, food particles can be seen passing through the intestine which terminates at the anus located on the post-abdomen. The abdomen and post-abdomen are generally bent forward under the thorax. Heart function can be seen through the transparent body.

Males are distinguished from females by their smaller size, larger antennules, modified post-abdomen, and first legs, which are armed with a hook used in clasping (Clare, 2002).

Distribution

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Because of the clonal structure of many Daphnia populations, and the fact that some clonal lines are obligate parthenogens (asexual only), invasions can occur at both the species and clonal level. The invasion of North America by D. lumholtzi is an example of invasion at the species level whereas the invasion of Africa by a single genotype of D. pulex is an invasion at the clonal level. D. lumholtzi is native to three continents: Africa, Asia, and Australia (Havel et al., 1995) and tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions. It was first reported from North America in 1990 and spread rapidly throughout the continent during the next ten years (Havel and Shurin, 2004). Compared to native North American Daphnia species, D.lumholtzi is more tolerant of riverine conditions (Stoeckel et al., 1996, Soeken-Gittinger et al., in review), warm temperatures (Yurista, 2004), and tends to invest heavily in resting eggs (Acharya et al., 2006).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentNative Not invasive Kanaujia, 1979Collected from a fishpond in Cuttack, India
IraqPresentNative Not invasive Mangalo and Akbar, 1988Diyala River
IsraelAbsent, formerly presentNative Not invasive Gophen, 1979Extirpated from Lake Kinneret in late 1950s-early 1960s
NepalPresentNative Not invasive Swar and Fernando, 1979Collected from Lake Phewa, Nepal

Africa

Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Green, 1967Two forms of D. lumholtzi found in Lake Albert
KenyaLocalisedNative Not invasive Mergeay et al., 2005Distribution of Daphnia in tropical Africa is poorly known. In this study, D. lumholtzi was only found in one (Lake Naivasha) of 41 standing water bodies sampled in Kenya
SudanPresentNative Not invasive Hanna and Schiemer, 1993; Elhigzi et al., 1995
UgandaPresentNative Not invasive Green, 1967Two forms of D. lumholtzi found in Lake Albert
ZimbabwePresentNative Not invasive Magadza, 1994Lake Chivero was only lake surveyed in this study

North America

USAWidespreadIntroduced1990 Invasive Havel and Shurin, 2004Spread rapidly through Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Tenessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Arizona, California from 1991-2002
-AlabamaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive DeVries et al., 2006Found in Lower Mobile-Tensaw River Delta at sites with salinity up to 1.5 g/L
-OhioLocalisedIntroduced1999 Invasive Muzinic, 2000Lake Erie (East Harbor State Park, Lakeside, Ohio). It may also be in Canadian portion of Lake Erie
-TexasWidespreadIntroduced1991 Invasive Sorensen and Sterner, 1992Earliest published collection of the species in N. America (Fairfield Reservoir, East Texas)

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Sao PauloLocalisedIntroduced2000Zanata et al., 2003Found in Tres Irmaos Reservoir

Europe

UKAbsent, invalid recordISSG, 2008Mistakenly cited (J Havel, Missouri State Uni., pers comm, 2008)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentHebert, 1977; Benzie, 1988
-QueenslandPresentNative Not invasive Timms and Midgely, 1969; King and Greenwood, 1992

Risk of Introduction

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In stark contrast to the relatively benign (thus far) invasion of North America by D. lumholtzi, an invasion of Africa by a North American clone of D. pulex has resulted in the complete displacement of all native D. pulex clones. The invading clone is hypothesized to have been accidentally introduced with a largemouth bass stocking program in the late 1920s and now appears to be the only D. pulex genotype occurring in Africa (Mergeay et al., 2006). This is an alarming example of a cryptic invasion that was only detectable using modern genetic techniques, but has had a devastating impact on the native genetic diversity of the native population.

Habitat

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Daphnia spp. can be found in almost any permanent body of water. They are mainly freshwater and densely populate most lakes and ponds. They live as plankton in the open water of lakes, or live either attached to vegetation or near the bottom of the body of water (Miller, 2000).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
 
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

D. lumholtzi has been DNA sequenced, please see Elias-Gutierrez et al. (2008).

Environmental Requirements

There is a lack of papers providing complete environmental tolerance ranges of D. lumholtzi. Most published studies on this subject tend to state that D. lumholtzi is associated with “high” or “low” values of a given parameter, depending on the range of values encountered in the study. I have therefore provided ranges of water quality parameters for lakes/reservoirs where D. lumholtzi were present. The ranges given here for each parameter fall within the tolerated range, but do not represent the entire tolerated range.

Also see datasheet on Daphnia spp.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Tolerated Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) Optimum 87.1-382.6 tolerated in 152 lakes and reservoirs in Missouri, USA: absence associated with higher values within and above this range (Havel et al., 2002)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) Optimum >2.0 tolerated in Lower Atchafalaya River Basin, USA (Davidson and Kelso, 1997)
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) Optimum 19-62.6 mg/l Ca ions tolerated from 112 Missouri Reservoirs, USA (Havel et al., 1995)
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum <1.5 g/L preferred; 1.5 g/L tolerated in Mobile River Delta, USA (Devries et al., 2006)
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) Optimum 1.4-27.4 NTU in 152 lakes and reservoirs in Missouri, USA (Havel et al., 2002)
Velocity (cm/h) Optimum Lower Atchafalaya River Basin, USA: D. lumholtzi abundance negatively related to current velocity, no velocity range provided (Davidson and Kelso, 1997; Davidson et al., 1998)
Water pH (pH) Optimum 8.057-8.693 tolerated in 34 reservoirs in Kansas, USA (Dzialowski et al., 2000)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20 30 Optimum 10-30 tolerated; resting eggs can tolerate subzero temperatures, juveniles and adults are tolerant of cool temperatures (Work and Gophen, 1999b; Muzinic, 2000; Lennon et al., 2001)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Many fish species actively feed on D. lumholtzi, and the invader does not appear to be replacing native daphnia species. Rather, D. lumholtzi becomes most abundant during periods of warm water temperatures when native Daphnia are normally rare. Thus, D. lumholtzi may be providing a supplementary food resource for zooplanktivorous fish during the warm summer months (Lemke et al., 2003; Linesch and Gophen, 2005; Havel and Graham, 2006).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Digestion and excretionEphippial transport, possibly in digestive tract of Nile Perch hypothesized as mode of introduction Yes Havel and Hebert, 1993
FisheriesHypothesized to have travelled to North America via shipment(s) of Nile Perch from Lake Victoria Yes Havel and Hebert, 1993
HitchhikerResting eggs enclosed in a protective ephippium which possess hooks that allow attachment Yes Yes Benzie, 1988; Dzialowski et al., 2000; Fryer, 1996; Havel and Hebert, 1993; Havel and Shurin, 2004
Hunting, angling, sport or racingResting eggs enclosed in a protective ephippium can survive in the live-wells of recreational boats Yes Yes Havel and Shurin, 2004
Pet tradeHypothesized to have travelled to North America via shipment(s) of cichlids from Lake Victoria Yes Havel and Hebert, 1993

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stockEggs can survive passage through the digestive tract of fish Yes Yes Havel and Shurin, 2004; Mellors, 1975; Sorensen and Sterner, 1992
BaitD. lumholtzi can survive in boat live wells during summer months Yes Yes Havel and Stelzeinni-Schwent, 2000
Bulk freight or cargo Yes Yes
Clothing, footwear and possessionsEphippia have structures that act as hooks allowing for easy attachment to clothing and other items Yes Yes Benzie, 1988; Dzialowski et al., 2000; Fryer, 1996; Havel and Hebert, 1993
Machinery and equipmentImportation of industrial and earth-moving equipment has been implicated in overseas invasions Yes Duffy et al., 2000; Havel and Shurin, 2004
Pets and aquarium speciesIntroduction via the aquarium trade is one hypothesis regarding the invasion of North America Yes Havel and Hebert, 1993
Ship ballast water and sedimentD. lumholtzi adults and resting eggs could easily be transported in ship ballast water and sediments Yes Yes Havel and Shurin, 2004
Ship structures above the water lineAdult D. lumholtzi survived for up to 3 days in boat live-wells Yes Yes Havel and Stelzeinni-Schwent, 2000
WaterDaphnia can easily drft between lakes and reservoirs via connecting streams Yes Havel and Shurin, 2004; Shurin and Havel, 2003; Soeken-Gittinger et al., 2007; Stoeckel et al., 1996; Thorp et al., 1994
WindWind and atmospheric transport is likely to be a frequent mode of local and long distance dispersal Yes Yes Cáceres and Soluk, 2002; Cohen and Shurin, 2003; Havel and Shurin, 2004

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Filtration
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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General

  • Research model

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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D. lumholtzi is easily distinguished from native North American species by the presence of large head and tail spines (Havel and Hebert, 1993). Initial fears that these spines would afford D. lumholtzi a competitive advantage over native species via protection from predation appear to be largely unfounded.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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1. Lethal values for many water quality parameters such as DO, nitrate, ammonia, etc. are currently lacking.

2. Thorough surveys of distribution in native habitat are needed, particularly on the African continent.

3. Impacts on native communities (positive and negative) are still poorly understood.

References

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Acharya K; Jack JD; Smith AS, 2006. Stoichiometry of Daphnia lumholtzi and their invasion success: Are they linked? Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie, 165(4):433-453.

Benzie JAH, 1988. The systematics of Australian Daphnia (Cladocera, Daphniidae) - Species descriptions and keys. Hydrobiologia, 166(2):95-161.

Cáceres CE; Soluk DA, 2002. Blowing in the wind: a field test of overland dispersal and colonization by aquatic invertebrates. Oecologia, 131(3):402-408.

Clare J, 2002. Daphnia: An aquarist’s guide. Caudata Online at www.caudata.org/daphnia/. Accessed 30 January 2005.

Cohen GM; Shurin JB, 2003. Scale-dependence and mechanisms of dispersal in freshwater zooplankton. Oikos, 103(3):603-617.

Davidson NL; Kelso WE, 1997. The exotic daphnid, Daphnia lumholtzi, in a Louisiana river swamp. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 12(3):431-435.

Davidson NL; Kelso WE; Rutherford DA, 1998. Relationships between environmental variables and the abundance of cladocerans and copepods in the Atchafalaya River Basin. Hydrobiologia, 379:175-181.

DeVries DR; Wright RA; DeVries TS, 2006. Daphnia lumholtzi in the Mobile River drainage, USA: Invasion of a habitat that experiences salinity. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 21(3):527-530.

Duffy MA; Perry LJ; Kearns CM; Weider LJ; Hairston NG, 2000. Paleogenetic evidence for a past invasion of Onondaga Lake, New York, by exotic Daphnia curvirostris using mtDNA from dormant eggs. Limnology and Oceanography, 45(6):1409-1414.

Dzialowski AR; O'Brien WJ; Swaffar SM, 2000. Range expansion and potential dispersal mechanisms of the exotic cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi. Journal of Plankton Research, 22(12):2205-2223.

Elhigzi FAR; Haider SA; Larsson P, 1995. Interactions between Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and cladocerans in ponds (Khartoum, Sudan). Hydrobiologia, 307(1-3):263-272.

Elias-Gutierrez M; Martinez Jeronimo F; Ivanova NV; Valdez-Moreno M; Hebert PDN, 2008. DNA barcodes for Cladocera and Copepoda from Mexico and Guatemala,highlights and new discoveries. Zootaxa, 1839:1-42.

Fryer G, 1996. Diapause, a potent force in the evolution of freshwater crustaceans. Hydrobiologia, 320(1-3):1-14.

Gophen M, 1979. Extinction of Daphnia lumholtzi (SARS) in Lake Kinneret (Israel). Aquaculture, 16(1):67-71.

Green J, 1967. Distribution and variation of Daphnia lumholtzi (Crustacea - Cladocera) in relation to fish predation in Lake Albert East Africa. Journal of Zoology, 151:181-187.

Hanna NS; Schiemer F, 1993. The seasonality of zooplanktivorous fish in an African Reservoir (Gebel-Aulia Reservoir, White Nile, Sudan). Limnological cycle and the fish community dynamics. Hydrobiologia, 250(3):173-185.

Havel JE; Graham JL, 2006. Complementary population dynamics of exotic and native Daphnia in North American reservoir communities. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie, 167(1-4):245-264.

Havel JE; Hebert PDN, 1993. Daphnia lumholtzi in North-America - Another Exotic Zooplankter. Limnology and Oceanography, 38(8):1823-1827.

Havel JE; Mabee WR; Jones JR, 1995. Invasion of the exotic cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi into North- American reservoirs. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52(1):151-160.

Havel JE; Shurin JB, 2004. Mechanisms, effects, and scales of dispersal in freshwater zooplankton. Limnology and Oceanography, 49(4):1229-1238.

Havel JE; Shurin JB; Jones JR, 2002. Estimating dispersal from patterns of spread: Spatial and local control of lake invasions. Ecology, 83(12):3306-3318.

Havel JE; Stelzeinni-Schwent J, 2000. Zooplantkon community structure: The role of dispersal. Int. Ver. Theor. Angew. Limnol, 27:3264-3268.

Hebert PDN, 1977. Revision of taxonomy of genus Daphnia (Crustacea-Daphnidae) in Southeastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology, 25(2):371-398.

ISSG, 2005. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Kanaujia DR, 1979. Life history, ephippia development, cyclomorphosis and temperature effect on life cycle in Daphnia lumholtzi SARS (Cladocera: Daphnidae). Journal, Bombay Natural History Society, 80:442-447.

King CR; Greenwood JG, 1992. The productivity and carbon budget of a natural population of Daphnia lumholtzi (Sars). Hydrobiologia, 231(3):197-207.

Korovchinsky NM, 2000. Species richness of pelagic Cladocera of large lakes in the eastern hemisphere. Hydrobiologia, 434(1-3):41-54.

Lemke AM; Stoeckel JA; Pegg MA, 2003. Utilization of the exotic cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi by juvenile fishes in an Illinois River floodplain lake. Journal of Fish Biology, 62(4):938-954.

Lennon JT; Smith VH; Williams K, 2001. Influence of temperature on exotic Daphnia lumholtzi and implications for invasion success. Journal of Plankton Research, 23(4):425-434.

Lienesch PW; Gophen M, 2005. Size-selective predation by inland silversides on an exotic cladoceran, Daphnia lumholtzi. Southwestern Naturalist, 50(2):158-165.

Magadza CHD, 1994. Evaluation of eutrophication control in Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe, by multivariate-analysis of zooplankton. Hydrobiologia, 272(1-3):277-292.

Mangalo HH; Akbar MM, 1988. Correlations between physico-chemical factors and population density of cladocerans in the Tigris and Diyala Rivers at Baghdad - Iraq. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, A23(7):627-643.

Mellors WK, 1975. Selective predation of ephippial Daphnia and resistance of ephippial eggs to digestion. Ecology, 56(4):974-980.

Mergeay J; Verschuren D; Meester LDe, 2005. Daphnia species diversity in Kenya, and a key to the identification of their ephippia. Hydrobiologia, 542:261-274.

Mergeay J; Verschuren D; Meester Lde, 2006. Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 273(1603):2839-2844. http://www.pubs.royalsoc.ac.uk/proc_bio_homepage.shtml

Miller C, 2000. Daphnia pulex. Animal Diversity Online. Online at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Daphnia_pulex.html . Accessed January 28 2005.

Muzinic CJ, 2000. First record of Daphnia lumholtzi Sars in the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 26(3):352-354.

Shurin JB; Havel JE, 2003. Hydrologic connections as dispersal routes for the spread of the exotic cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi. Biological Invasions, 4:431-439.

Soeken-Gittinger LA; Stoeckel JA; Havel JE, 2007. Differing effects of suspended sediments on performance of native and exotic Daphnia. Freshwater Biology.

Sorensen KH; Sterner RW, 1992. Extreme cyclomorphosis in Daphnia lumholtzi. Freshwater Biology, 28(2):257-262.

Stoeckel JA; Camlin L; Blodgett KD; Sparks RE, 1996. Establishment of Daphnia lumholtzi (an exotic zooplankter) in the Illinois river. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 11(3):377-379.

Swaffar SM; O'Brien WJ, 1996. Spines of Daphnia lumholtzi create feeding difficulties for juvenile bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Journal of Plankton Research, 18(6):1055-1061.

Swar DB; Fernando CH, 1979. Seasonality and fecundity of Daphnia lumholtzi SARS in Lake Phewa, Nepal. Hydrobiologia, 64(3):261-268.

Thorp JH; Black AR; Haag KH; Wehr JD, 1994. Zooplankton assemblages in the Ohio River: Seasonal, tributary and navigation dam effects. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51(7):1634-1643.

Timms BV; Midgely SH, 1969. The limnology of Borumba Dam, Queensland. Proceedings of the Royal Acadamy of Queensland, 81:27-42.

Work K; Gophen M, 1999. Environmental variability and the population dynamics of the exotic Daphnia lumholtzi and native zooplankton in Lake Texoma, U.S.A. Hydrobiologia, 405:11-23.

Work KA; Gophen M, 1999. Factors which affect the abundance of an invasive cladoceran, Daphnia lumholtzi, in U.S. reservoirs. Freshwater Biology, 42(1):1-10.

Yurista PM, 2004. The bioenergetics of a semi-tropical cladoceran, Daphnia lumholtzi. Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 19:681-694.

Zanata LH; Espindola ELG; Rocha O; Pereira RHG, 2003. First record of Daphnia lumholtzi (SARS, 1885), exotic cladoceran, in Sao Paulo State (Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Biology, 63(4):717-720.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Interactive distribution map for Daphnia lumholtzi in the United Stateshttp://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/speciesmap.asp
The Zooplankton Projecthttp://www.cnas.missouristate.edu/zooplankton/

Organizations

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Switzerland: IUCN (The World Conservation Union), Rue Mauverney 28, Gland 1196, Gland, Switzerland, http://www.iucn.org/

USA: United States Geological Survey: Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), Gainesville, FL 32653

Contributors

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06/03/08 Original text by:

James Stoeckel, Auburn University, Dept. of Fisheries & Allied Aquacultures, 203 Swingle Hall, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA

Distribution Maps

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