Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Spartina anglica
(common cordgrass)

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Datasheet

Spartina anglica (common cordgrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spartina anglica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common cordgrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Spartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit, in the mudflats of the North Sea island of Spiekeroog. Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park, Germany. October 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionSpartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit, in the mudflats of the North Sea island of Spiekeroog. Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park, Germany. October 2005.
Copyright©Jürgen Howaldt/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0 DE
Spartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit, in the mudflats of the North Sea island of Spiekeroog. Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park, Germany. October 2005.
HabitSpartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit, in the mudflats of the North Sea island of Spiekeroog. Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park, Germany. October 2005.©Jürgen Howaldt/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0 DE
Spartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit. Den Oever, North Holland, The Netherlands. August 2006.
TitleHabit
CaptionSpartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit. Den Oever, North Holland, The Netherlands. August 2006.
Copyright©A.S. Kers (Bas Kers NL)/via flickr - CC BY-NC 4.0
Spartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit. Den Oever, North Holland, The Netherlands. August 2006.
HabitSpartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit. Den Oever, North Holland, The Netherlands. August 2006.©A.S. Kers (Bas Kers NL)/via flickr - CC BY-NC 4.0
Spartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit, showing inflorescences. Groningen, The Netherlands. July 2006.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionSpartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit, showing inflorescences. Groningen, The Netherlands. July 2006.
Copyright©A.S. Kers (Bas Kers NL)/via flickr - CC BY-NC 4.0
Spartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit, showing inflorescences. Groningen, The Netherlands. July 2006.
InflorescenceSpartina anglica (common cordgrass); habit, showing inflorescences. Groningen, The Netherlands. July 2006.©A.S. Kers (Bas Kers NL)/via flickr - CC BY-NC 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spartina anglica C.E. Hubbard, 1968

Preferred Common Name

  • common cordgrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Spartina townsendii var. anglica (C.E. Hubb.) Lambinon and Maquel, 1983

International Common Names

  • English: English cordgrass

Local Common Names

  • Australia: rice grass
  • Finland: englanninmarskiheinä
  • Germany: Englisches Schlickgras
  • Netherlands: engels slijkgras

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Spartina
  •                                 Species: Spartina anglica

Plant Type

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Grass / sedge
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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S. anglica is distributed from 48°N to 57.5°N in Europe, from 21°N to 41°N in China and from 35°S to 46°S in Australia and New Zealand (Gray and Raybould, 1997). Climate change is likely to influence the future range of S. anglica. Climate changes should therefore be monitored in relation to the distribution of Spartina species.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasive

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedAs: Sporobolus anglicus. First reported: 1920 - 1929
DenmarkPresentIntroducedInvasiveSkallingan
FrancePresentIntroducedInvasiveUsed as a land reclamation tool; Original citation: Ranwell (1967)
GermanyPresentIntroducedInvasive
IrelandPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced
SwedenPresentIntroduced2007
United KingdomPresentInvasive

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUsed as a land reclamation tool in coastal regions; Original citation: Ranwell (1967)
-South AustraliaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
-TasmaniaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasive

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Germany England and Wales 1927-1937 Habitat restoration and improvement (pathway cause) Yes Kolumbe (1931); König (1948) Originally planted at several sites in the East and North Frisian Wadden Sea. Now seen along the entire coastline
Germany England and Wales 1930-1931 Habitat restoration and improvement (pathway cause) Yes Jørgensen (1934) Wadden Seas area
Norway <1983 Habitat restoration and improvement (pathway cause) No Christiansen and Møller (1983) Transplanted stands but died off after three years
Washington England and Wales 1961 Yes Dethier and Hacker (2004)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Multiple
BrackishInland saline areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
BrackishInland saline areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralMud flats Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralMud flats Present, no further details Natural
LittoralIntertidal zone Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralIntertidal zone Present, no further details Natural
LittoralSalt marshes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralSalt marshes Present, no further details Natural
Brackish
BrackishEstuaries Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
BrackishEstuaries Present, no further details Natural
BrackishLagoons Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
BrackishLagoons Present, no further details Natural
MarineInshore marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
MarineInshore marine Present, no further details Natural

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Prokelisia marginata Herbivore Plants|Leaves to genus Grevstad et al. (2003) Potential is being tested in the lab and field.

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The planthoppers, Prokelisia spp., are the most widespread and abundant herbivorous insects of cordgrass. Both nymphs and adults feed upon phloem fluids using their stylets inserted through the top of the cordgrass leaf into the vascular bundle (Cook and Denno, 1994). Wu et al. (1999) are investigating the potential for the use of Prokelisia spp. as a classic biocontrol agent against S. anglica plants taken from Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Habitat restoration and improvementUK to Germany Yes Yes Kolumbe (1931); König (1948)
ResearchUk to Norway Yes Christiansen and Møller (1983)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Floating vegetation and debris Yes Yes Gray et al. (1991)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation

References

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Aberle B, 1990. The biology control and eradication of introduced Spartina (cordgrass) worldwide and recommendations for its control in Washington. Draft report to Washington Department of Natural Resources, Olympia.

Adam P, 1981. The vegetation of Britsh salt marshes. New Phytologist, 88:143-196.

Adsersen H, 1974. [English title not available]. (Spartina (Vadegraes) I Horsens Fjord) Flora og Fauna, 80:37-42.

Ainouche ML, Baumel A, Salmon A, 2004. Spartina anglica C. E. Hubbard: a natural model system for analysing early evolutionary changes that affect allopolyploid genomes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 82(4):475-484.

Allan HH, 1930. Spartina townsendii. A valuable grass for reclamation of tidal mud-flats. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 40:189-196.

Burge MN, Perkins EJ, 1977. Studies in the distribution and biological impact of the effluent released by Albright and Wilson, LTD. Whitehaven. An investegation of the fungi assocaited with decay of Spartina (cord grass) culms at seaside, Auchencairn Bay, Solway Firth, and the influence of Marchon Effluent. Report by Cumbria Sea Fisheries Committee, Carlisle.

Buth GJC, deWolf L, 1985. Decomposition of Spartina anglica, Elytrigia pungens & Halimione portulacoides in a Dutch saltmarsh in association with faunal and habitat influences. Vegtatio, 62:337-355.

Chapman VJ, 1959. Studies in saltmarsh ecology. Changes in saltmarsh vegetation at Scolt Head Island. Journal of Ecology, 47:619-639.

Charter EH, Jones H, 1957. Some observations on Spartina townsendii H. and J. Groves in the Dovey Estuary. Journal of Ecology, 45(1):157-67.

Christiansen C, Møller JT, 1983. Rate of establishment and seasonal immersion of Spartina in Mariager Fjord, Denmark. Holarctic Ecology, 6:315-319.

Chung CH, 1982. Low marshes, China. Creation and Restoration of Coastal Plant Communities [ed. by Lewis RR]. Florida, USA: CRC Press.

Chung CH, 1990. Twenty-five years of introduced Spartina anglica in China. Spartina anglica - a Research Review [ed. by Gray AJ, Benham PEM]. London, : HMSO, 72-76.

Chung CH, 1993. Thirty years of ecological engineering with Spartina plantations in China. Ecological Engineering, 2:261-289.

Cook AG, Denno RF, 1994. Planthopper-plant interactions: feeding behaviour, plant nutrition, plant defense, and host plant specialization. In: Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management [ed. by Denno RF, Perfect TJ] New York, USA: Chapman & Hall, 114-139.

Corkhill P, 1984. Spartina at Lindisfarne NNR and details of recent attempts to control its spread. Spartina anglica in Great Britain. Focus on nature conservation [ed. by Doody P]. Attingham, : Nature Conservancy Council, 60-63.

Davidson NC, Laffoley d' A, Doody JP, Way LS, Gordon J, Key R, Pienkowski MW, Mitchell R, Duff KL, 1991. Nature Conservation & Estuaries in Great Britain. Peterborough, UK: Nature Conservancy Council.

Dethier MN, Hacker SD, 2004. Improving management practices for invasive cordgrass in the Pacific Northwest: A case study of Spartina anglica. Washington Sea Grant Program Publication. Seattle, WA, .

Doody JP, 1984. Spartina anglica in Great Britain. A report of a meeting held at Liverpool University on 10th November 1982. Huntingdon, Nature Conservancy Council. (Focus on nature conservation). Huntingdon, : Nature Conservancy Council.

Doody JP, 1990. Spartina - friend or foe? A conservation viewpoint. Spartina anglica - A Research Review. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE), Research Publication [ed. by Gray AJ, Benham PEM]. London, UK: NERC, 77-79.

Dyke C, 1998. Strategy for the Management of Rice Grass (Spartina anglica) in Tasmania, Australia. Rice Grass Advisory Group. Tasmania: Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment.

Eerdt MMvan, 1985. The influence of vegetation on erosion and accretion in salt marshes of the Oosterschelde, the Netherlands. Vegetatio, 62:367-373.

Eno NC, Clark RA, Sanderson WG, 1997. Non-native marine species in Britain waters: A review and directory. Peterborough, : Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 152 pp.

Frid CLJ, Chandrasekara WU, Davey, P, 1999. The restoration of mud flats invaded by common cord-grass (Spartina anglica, C. Hubbard) using mechanical disturbance and its effects on the macrobenthic fauna. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecology, 9:47-61.

Garnett RP, Hirons G, Evans C, O'Connor D, 1992. The control of Spartina (cord-grass) using Glyphosate. Aspects of Applied Biology, 29:359-364.

Gleason DF, Zimmerman RJ, 1984. Herbivory potential of postlarval brown shrimp associated with salt marshes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 84:235-246.

Gleason ML, Elmer DA, Pien NC, Fisher JS, 1979. Effects of stem density upon sediment retention by salt marsh cord grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Estuaries, 2:271-273.

Gray AJ, Clarke RT, Warman EA, Johnson PJ, 1989. Prediction of marginal vegetation in a post-barrage environment. Wareham, : Institute of Terrestrial Ecology.

Gray AJ, Marshall DF, Raybould AF, 1991. A century of evolution in Spartina anglica. Advances in Ecological Research, 21:1-62.

Gray AJ, Raybould AF, 1997. The history and evolution of Spartina anglica in the British Isles. In: Second International Spartina Conference Proceedings, Washington State University, Olympia [ed. by Patten K], 13-16.

Gray AJ, Raybould AF, Brown SL, 1997. The environmental impact of Spartina anglica: past, present and future. In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA, 20-21 March 1997.

Gray AJ, Warman EA, Clarke RT, Johnson PJ, 1995. The niche of Spartina anglica on a changing coastline. Coastal Zone Topics: Process Ecology and Management, 1:29-34.

Grevstad FS, Strong DR, Garcia-Rossi D, Switzer RW, Wecker MS, 2003. Biological control of Spartina alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington using the planthopper Prokelisia marginata: agent specificity and early results. Biological Control, 27(1):32-42.

Groenendijk AM, 1986. Establishment of a Spartina anglica population on a tidal mudflat: a field experiment. Journal of Environmental Management, 22(1):1-12.

Hacker SD, Heimer D, Hellquist CE, Reeder TG, Reeves B, Riodan TJ, Deither MN, 2001. A marine plant (Spartina anglica) invades widely varying habitats: potential mechanics of invasion and control. Biological Invasions, 3:211-217.

Hammond MER, 2001. The experimental control of Spartina anglica and Spartina x townsendii in estuarine salt marsh. Ulster, .

Hammond MER, Cooper A, 2001. Spartina anglica eradication and inter-tidal recovery in Northern Ireland estuaries. Turning the Tide: the Eradication of Invasive Species [ed. by Veitch CR, Clout MN]. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group IUCN, 123-131.

Hammond MER, Cooper A, 2003. Spartina anglica eradication and inter-tidal recovery in Northern Ireland estuaries. In: Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: Proceedings of the International Conference on eradication of island invasives [ed. by Veitch CR, Clout MN] Gland, Switzerland: IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 124-131.

Hannaford J, Pinn EH, Diaz A, 2006. The impact of sika deer grazing on the vegetation and infauna of Arne saltmarsh. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 53(1/4):56-62. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0025326X

HARBORD WL, 1949. Spartina townsendii: a valuable grass on tidal mud flats. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 78:507-8.

Hedge P, Kriwoken L, 1997. Managing Spartina in Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. In: The Proceedings of the Second International Spartina Conference, Olympia WA.

Hedge P, Kriwoken LK, 2000. Evidence for effects of Spartina anglica invasion on benthic macrofauna in Little Swanport estuary, Tasmania. Austral Ecology, 25(2):150-159.

Hedge P, Kriwoken LK, Patten K, 2003. A review of Spartina management in Washington State, US. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 41:82-90.

Hubbard CE, 1957. Report of the British Ecological Society Symposium on Spartina. Journal of Ecology, 45:612-616.

HUBBARD JCE, 1970. Effects of cutting and seed production in Spartina anglica. Journal of Ecology, 58(2):329-34.

Hubbard JCE, Partridge TR, 1981. Tidal immersion and the growth of Spartina anglica marshes in Waihopair River Estuary, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 19:115-121.

Huckle JM, Potter JA, Marrs RH, 2000. Influence of environmental factors on the growth and interactions between salt marsh plants: effects of salinity, sediment and waterlogging. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 88(3):492-505.

Jørgensen CA, 1934. [English title not available]. (Plantningforsøg med Spartina townsendii I den Danske Vesterhavsmarsk) Botanisk Tidsskrift, 42:421-440.

Knutson PL, Brochu RA, Seelig WN, Inskeep M, 1982. Wave damping in Spartina alterniflora marshes. Wetlands, 2:87-104.

Kolumbe E, 1931. Spartina townsendii - Anpflanzungen im Schleswig-holsteinischen Wattenmeer - Wissenschaftliche Meersuntersuchungen, Abt. Kiel, N. F., 66-73.

Kriwoken LK, Hedge P, 2000. Exotic species and estuaries: managing Spartina anglica in Tasmania, Australia. Ocean and Coastal Management, 43:573-584.

König D, 1948. [English title not available]. (Spartina townsendii an der Westküste von Schlesig-Holstein) Planta, 36:34-70.

Lacambra C, Cutts N, Allen J, Burd F, Elliot M, 2004. Spartina anglica: a review of its status, dynamics and management. English Nature Research Report. Peterborough, UK.

Madden B, Jennings E, Jeffrey DW, 1993. Distribution and ecology of Zostera in Co Dublin. The Irish Naturalist's Journal, 24:303-310.

Marchant CJ, 1967. Evolution of Spartina (Graminaeae). The history and morphology of the genus in Britain. Journal of the Linnean Society (Botany), 60:1-24.

Matsuba K, Imaizumi N, Kaneko S, Samejima M, Ohsugi R, 1997. Photosynthetic responses to temperature of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase type C4 species differing in cold sensitivity. Plant, Cell and Environment, 20(2):268-274.

McCorry MJ, Otte ML, 2000. Ecological effects of Spartina anglica on the macro-invertebrates infauna of the mud flats at Bulls Island, Dublin Bay, Ireland. Web Ecoology, 2:71-73.

Messenburg H, 1972. [English title not available]. (Spartinas Kolonisation og Udbredelse Langs Ho Bugt) Geografisk Tidsskrift, 71:37-46.

Morley JV, 1973. Tidal immersion of Spartina marsh at Bridgwater Bay, Somerset. Journal of Ecology, 61:383-386.

Morris JT, Jensen A, 1998. The carbon balance of grazed and non-grazed Spartina anglica saltmarshes at Skallingen, Denmark. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 86(2):229-242.

Mullins PH, Marks TC, 1987. Flowering phenology and seed production of Spartina anglica. Journal of Ecology, UK, 75(4):1037-1048.

Nairn RGW, 1986. Spartina anglica in Ireland and its potential impact on wildfowl and waders - a review. Irish Birds, 3:215-228.

Nehring S, Adsersen H, 2006. NOBANIS - invasive alien species fact sheet - Spartina anglica. Online Database of North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species - NOBANIS. http:\\www.nobanis.org

Nehring S, Hesse K-J, 2006. The common cordgrass Spartina anglica: an invasive alien species in the Wadden Sea National Park. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fur Okologie, 36:333.

Nienhuis PH, 1987. Ecology of salt-marsh algae in the Netherlands, A review. Vegetation between land and sea [ed. by Huiskes AHL, Blom CWPM, Rozema J]. Dordrecht, : Dr. W. Junk Publishers.

NWCB, 2005. Common cordgrass (Spartina anglica C. Hubbard) The State Noxious Weed Control Board. The State Noxious Weed Control Board, USA.

Oliver FW, 1925. Spartina townsendii: its mode of establishment, economic uses and taxonomic status. Journal of Ecology, 13:74-91.

Partridge TR, 1987. Spartina in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 25(4):567-575.

Partridge TR, Wilson JB, 1987. Salt tolerance of salt marsh plants of Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 25(4):559-566.

Patten K, 2004. Comparison of chemical and mechanical control efforts for invasive Spartina in Willapa Bay, WA. Unpublished Report available via author contact.

Pedersen A, 1974. [English title not available]. (Gramineernes ubdredelse I Danmark) Botanisk Tidsskrift, 68:178-343.

Randløv MB, 2006. Spartina anglica I Stavns Fjord pa Samso. Institute of Biology, University of Copenhagen.

RANWELL DS, 1964. Spartina salt marshes in southern England. II. Rate and seasonal pattern of sediment accretion. III. Rates of establishment, succession and nutrient supply at Bridgwater Bay, Somerset. Journal of Ecology, 52:79-94; 95-105.

RANWELL DS, 1967. World resources of Spartina townsendii (sensu lato) and economic use of Spartina marshland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 4(1):239-56.

RANWELL DS, DOWNING BM, 1959. Brent goose (Branta bernicla (L.)) winter feeding pattern and Zostera resources at Scolt Head Island, Norfolk. Animal Behaviour, 7:42-56.

Roberts PD, Pullin AS, 2006. The effectiveness of management options used for the control of Spartina species. Systematic Review No. 22. Birmingham, UK: Centre for Evidence- Based Conservation.

Roberts PD, Pullin AS, 2007. The effectiveness of management interventions for the control of Spartina species: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 18(5):592-618.

Scholten M, Blaauw PA, Stroetenga M, Rozema J, 1987. The impact of competitive interactions on the growth and distribution of plant species in salt marshes. Junk Publishers, Lancaster. Vegetation between land and sea. Structure and processes [ed. by Huiskes AHL, Blom CWPM, Rozema J]. Lancaster, : Dr. W. Junk Publishers, 270-281.

Scholten M, Rozema J, 1990. The competitive ability of Spartina anglica on Dutch salt marsh. Spartina anglica a research review. ITE research publication [ed. by Gray A, Benham , PEM]. London, : Natural Environment Research Council and HMSO, 39-47.

Spartina Task Force, 1994. Spartina Management Program: Intergrated Weed Management for Private Lands in Willapa Bay, prepared for the Noxious Weed Board and County Commissioners, Pacific County, Washington.

Stace C, 1991. New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Thompson JD, 1991. The biology of an invasive plant: what makes Spartina anglica so successful? BioScience, 41:393-401.

Thompson JD, McNeilly T, Gray AJ, 1991. Population variation in Spartina anglica C. Hubbard. III. Response to substrate variation in a greenhouse experiment. New Phytologist, 117:141-152.

Williams GL, 2004. Discovery of a new salt marsh invasion to British Colombia, English cordgrass (Spartina anglica, C. Hubbard) and management initiatives in 2003. Botanical Electronic News.

Wu MeiYin, Hacker S, Ayres D, Strong DR, 1999. Potential of Prokelisia spp. as biological control agents of English cordgrass, Spartina anglica. Biological Control, 16(3):267-273.

Distribution References

Baumel A, Ainouche M L, Levasseur J E, 2001. Molecular investigations in populations of Spartina anglica C.E. Hubbard (Poaceae) invading coastal Brittany (France). Molecular Ecology. 10 (7), 1689-1701. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-294X.2001.01299.x

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Christiansen C, Møller J T, 1983. Rate of establishment and seasonal immersion of Spartina in Mariager Fjord, Denmark. Holarctic Ecology. 315-319.

Davidson N C, Laffoley d'A, Doody J P, Way L S, Gordon J, Key R, Pienkowski M W, Mitchell R, Duff K L, 1991. Nature Conservation & Estuaries in Great Britain. In: Nature Conservation & Estuaries in Great Britain, Peterborough, UK: Nature Conservancy Council.

Dethier M N, Hacker S D, 2004. Improving management practices for invasive cordgrass in the Pacific Northwest: A case study of Spartina anglica. In: Washington Sea Grant Program Publication, Seattle, WA, USA: Washington Sea Grant Program.

Doody J P, 1990. Spartina - friend or foe? A conservation viewpoint. In: Spartina anglica - A Research Review, [ed. by Gray A J, Benham P E M]. London, UK: NERC, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology. 77-79.

Frid C L J, Chandrasekara W U, Davey P, 1999. The restoration of mud flats invaded by common cord-grass (Spartina anglica, C. Hubbard) using mechanical disturbance and its effects on the macrobenthic fauna. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecology. 47-61.

Garnett R P, Hirons G, Evans C, O'Connor D, 1992. The control of Spartina (cord-grass) using Glyphosate. Aspects of Applied Biology. 359-364.

Gray A J, Marshall D F, Raybould A F, 1991. A century of evolution in Spartina anglica. Advances in Ecological Research. 1-62.

Groenendijk A M, 1986. Establishment of a Spartina anglica population on a tidal mudflat: a field experiment. Journal of Environmental Management. 22 (1), 1-12.

Hacker S D, Heimer D, Hellquist C E, Reeder T G, Reeves B, Riodan T J, Deither M N, 2001. A marine plant (Spartina anglica) invades widely varying habitats: potential mechanics of invasion and control. Biological Invasions. 211-217.

Hacker S D, Heimer D, Hellquist C E, Reeder T G, Reeves B, Riordan T J, Dethier M N, 2001a. A marine plant (Spartina anglica) invades widely varying habitats: potential mechanisms of invasion and control. Biological Invasions. 211-217. DOI:10.1023/A:1014555516373

Hammond M E R, Cooper A, 2001. Spartina anglica eradication and inter-tidal recovery in Northern Ireland estuaries. In: Turning the Tide: the Eradication of Invasive Species, [ed. by Veitch C R, Clout M N]. Gland & Cambridge, Switzerland & UK: Invasive Species Specialist Group, IUCN. 123-131.

Hannaford J, Pinn E H, Diaz A, 2006. The impact of sika deer grazing on the vegetation and infauna of Arne saltmarsh. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 53 (1/4), 56-62. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.09.017

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