Corbula amurensis (Amur River clam)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Water Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Corbula amurensis (Schrenck, 1861)
Preferred Common Name
- Amur River clam
Other Scientific Names
- Potamocorbula amurensis Coan (2002)
International Common Names
- English: Amur River corbula; Asian bivalve; Asian clam; brackish-water corbula; Chinese clam
Local Common Names
- Germany: Nordpazifik-Venusmuschel
- Japan: numakodaki
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
C. amurensis is considered an invasive species due to its rapid spread in the San Francisco Estuary (SFE) and its reduction of phytoplankton biomass to critical levels (Alpine and Cloern, 1992; Kimmerer, 2002). The first SFE specimen of C. amurensis was reported in late 1986 and within 2 years it was the dominant bivalve in the estuary. Carlton et al. (1990) hypothesize ballast water as the mode of introduction. Its success in the estuary is due to its ability to occupy most habitats (sediment and water depths) in the system (Carlton et al., 1990), its pelagic larvae, and its broad physiological tolerance of salinity as adults (Werner et al., 2003) and as larvae (Nicolini and Penry, 2000). It is on the alert list for ISSG (Invasive Species Specialist Group) where it is listed as among the 100 World’s Worst Invaders and is listed as a Pest by NIMBUS (National Introduced Marine Pest Information System) (Hewitt et al., 2002).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Mollusca
- Class: Bivalvia
- Subclass: Heterodonta
- Order: Myoida
- Unknown: Myoidea
- Family: Corbulidae
- Genus: Corbula
- Species: Corbula amurensis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Corbula amurensis (Schrenck, 1861) was first identified as Potamocorbula amurensis by Carlton et al. (1990) with the aid of A. Matsukuma (National Science Museum, Tokyo). The species name was provisionally selected at that time as Dr. Matsukuma was starting a revision of the genus. Coan (2002) in his analysis of Eastern Pacific Corbulidae revised the identification to Corbula amurensis but warned that it may be changed again, once the Asian Corbula group is revised. Morphologically similar species include C. laevis (Hinds 1843 as reported in Carlton et al., 1990), C. ustulata (Reeve, 1894 as reported in Carlton et al., 1990), and Potamocorbula rubromuscula (Zhuang and Cai, 1983 as reported in Carlton et al., 1990). Common names have included the Amur River clam, Asian clam or bivalve, Chinese clam, and the overbite clam; the latter name is a common name given to C. amurensis in California by media and resource managers due to confusion with Corbicula fluminea which is also called the Asian clam.
DescriptionTop of page
As described by Coan (2002): “Ovate, thin; right valve decidedly larger than left valve; beaks anterior to midline (approximately 41% from anterior end); anterior end sharply rounded; posterior end sharply rounded…Shell white exteriorly and interiorly…right valve with a narrow tooth, attached to shell wall below hinge-line; left valve with a long, projecting chondrophore that is conspicuously divided and with a very small tooth on its posterior end…Pallial line with a small sinus.” Specimens in SFE have included shells that could be described as subtrigonal and ovate-elongate. An exterior posterior keel is apparent on left valve. The periostracum can be thick, range in color from tan to dark brown, or it can be very thin on individuals living in high velocity sandy habitats. The maximum length is 19.7mm. The type locality shell (CAS 121534, Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) is available at California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA. C. amurensis was originally described by Schrenck (1861, as reported in Coan, 2002) as Potamocorbula amurensis. Photos of veliger larvae are available in Nicolini and Penry (2000).
DistributionTop of page
The confusion in the taxonomy of this group makes a definitive geographic distribution difficult. Sato and Azuma (2002) have examined the C. amurensis from the SFE and believe it to be more similar to a newly invasive Potamocorbula species observed in the Ariake Sea than to the native P. amurensis seen in northeast Japan. The species described by Sato and Azuma (2002) as Potamocorbula sp. was not seen in Japan before 1990 and probably arrived from China or Korea with shipments of Corbicula. If it is the same species as found in SFE, it would be the second invasion location for the species.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Russia||Present||Native||Northern extent is mouth of Amur river|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Pacific - Eastern Central||Present, Localized||Introduced||1986||Invasive|
|Pacific - Northwest||Present||Native||Latitudinal range 22-53 degrees N|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Carlton et al. (1990) hypothesize that C. amurensis was introduced into the SFE by ballast water, most likely originating from an Asian port. The first specimen was reported in late 1986, when juveniles were reported in the northern estuary. Within a year it had spread throughout the northern estuary, and within 18 months had become the dominant bivalve in the northern estuary (Nichols et al., 1990). It spread to the southern estuary within two years where it is a common and frequently dominant bivalve (Thompson, 2005).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Embryos can survive a 2 to 30 salinity range at an age of 24 hours (Nicolini and Penry, 2000), the larvae have a long pelagic phase (2-3 weeks), and it can survive anoxic conditions (McEnnulty et al., 2001) which increases the risk of a successful ballast water introduction of C. amurensi. This is particularly true when ballast water less than 14 days old is released in estuaries. Intra-coastal introductions by ballast water in the Eastern Pacific or by recreational boating through incidental introduction of adults on anchors and in bait boxes seems most likely. However, so far C. amurensis has not been reported in other Eastern Pacific estuaries. Australia considers C. amurensis to be a sufficient threat to trigger an emergency response and New Zealand has classified it as one of “six exotic high impact species” included in an early detection surveillance system (Global Invasive Species Database, 2005).
HabitatTop of page
C. amurensis have been observed in all habitats except epifaunal (ie. attached to hard substrate) habitats in the SFE. They prefer mid-intertidal to subtidal ranges but large populations can be found in the high intertidal. Individuals have been collected in silt, clay, hard-pack clay, sand, gravel, peaty mud, and shell hash. When found in hard-pack clay or high velocity areas, a single byssal thread passes through the anterior end of the shell and attaches to a piece of debris in the sediment. Animals live with one-half to two-thirds of their shell exposed which is verified by the presence of live barnacles on the posterior end of many shells. Large populations have been found near the freshwater endpoint in the estuary and in the southern estuary where salinities are similar to ocean salinities.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Littoral||Mud flats||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Intertidal zone||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Freshwater||Rivers / streams||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Brackish||Estuaries||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Brackish||Lagoons||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Physiology and Phenology
C. amurensis is sufficiently tolerant of a variety of trace metals that Brown and Luoma (1995) have used it as a biosentinel species (a species used to evaluate the fate and distribution of biologically available contaminants). However, the accumulation of trace metals is not without effect, as C. amurensis has limited reproductive capability with high body burdens of silver (up to 5.5 µg/ g dry wt; Brown et al., 2003) and shows stress and histopathic lesions in the reproductive tissue with high levels of cadmium (10 µg/ g dry wt; Werner et al., 2003).
Seasonal cycles in C. amurensis in the northern SFE, which is the geographic portal for freshwater to the estuary, are related to seasonal changes in hydrology which controls both the salinity and food availability in the system. SFE is a greatly altered ecosystem (Nichols et al., 1986) and the amount and seasonality of flow of freshwater into the system is largely controlled by man except during extreme wet years. Thus the seasonal cycles of growth and reproduction in C. amurensis tend to be similar except during periods of extreme drought and flood years (Thompson, 1999; 2005). C. amurensis individuals in the southern SFE, which is a lagoonal system with limited natural freshwater inflow except during high freshwater outflow events, grow rapidly during the annual phytoplankton bloom in spring and grow steadily but more slowly during summer and autumn (Thompson, 2005; Thompson et al., 2008).
C. amurensis is a euryhaline species (able to adapt to rapidly changing salinity) that is also able to maintain a dominant position in relatively salinity-stable portions of estuaries. Its abundance can exceed 10,000/m2 (Carlton et al., 1990) and biomass can exceed 200 g dry tissue wt/m2 (Thompson, 1999). It is not surprising therefore to find it living with a variety of euryhaline species in some locations and with species with much narrower salinity tolerances in other locations. C. amurensis occurs among many non-indigenous species in the benthic community of the SFE (Cohen and Carlton, 1998). All species listed in this discussion as co-dominants with C. amurensis in SFE are cryptogenic (likely to be non-indigenous) or have been established as non-indigenous. Based on the wide geographic range of vectors for non-indigenous species in SFE, it is not surprising that the benthic species associations of C. amurensis in SFE are quite different than those in its native habitat. Unless otherwise stated the information for SFE is from Thompson et al. (2007).
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Preferred||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Depth (m b.s.l.)||Optimum||30 tolerated, observation in San Francisco Estuary, USA|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||Optimum||0.2-42 tolerated, lower limit based on Werner et al. (2003); upper limit on Koh and Shin (1988)|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||Optimum||6-23 tolerated, observation in San Francisco Estuary, USA|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Known aquatic consumers of C. amurensis in the SFE include the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister; Carlton et al., 1990; Stewart et al., 2004), the Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus; Deng et al., 2007), and the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; Urquhart and Regalada, 1991; Kogut, in press). It is likely that any bottom feeding fish with a sufficiently large mouth, that feeds in areas where C. amurensis is found consumes some quantity of the bivalves due to their large population numbers. Birds that are known to consume C. amurensis include the Greater and Lesser Scaup (Aythya marila and A. affinis; ) (Poulton et al., 2002) and the Surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata; Hunt et al., 2003). Conchiolin layers, laminae in the shells that are of an organic nature, which occurs in bivalves in the Corbulidae family, act both to increase the strength of the shell against predation from mechanical crushing and to deter gastropods from drilling through the bivalves shell (Kardon, 1998).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
The SFE is the source of freshwater for over 25 million people and over 500,000 ha of farmland in the state of California, which supports a multi-billion dollar agriculture industry. Most of the water in the state is retained in the northern state, initially as snow, and then as snowmelt in reservoirs that are operated by the state and federal governments. A very elaborate canal and pumping system then transports the water throughout the state in addition to releasing some of the water into the estuary where it is used for agricultural irrigation in addition to its use in the ecosystem.
The precipitous decline of several fish species, including one federally-designated threatened, and recently petitioned to be endangered, species has caused resource managers to alter the flow of water to water users beginning in 2007. One of the conceptual models being tested as the cause of the fish decline is a possible shift in the food web due to overgrazing of phytoplankton by C. amurensis (Sommer et al., 2007). There has been a reduction in zooplankton and mysid shrimp concurrent with the invasion of C. amurensis, both of which are important prey for larval and adult fish.
Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is the most important sport fishery in the SFE and it has been steadily declining since the 1960s. A sharper decline in abundance of this species has been seen since 1999, concurrent with the decline of other fish species (Sommer et al., 2007). This fishery was estimated to bring US $47 million into the San Francisco Bay area in 1985 when the striped bass abundance was estimated at about a half million. In 2001, the striped bass abundance had fallen to less than 50,000; no revenue estimate has been made for present day conditions (California Department of Fish and Game, 2001).
Resource managers in California have invested hundreds of millions of dollars to restore habitat and purchase water for environmental use due to the decline in pelagic fish, mysid shrimp, and zooplankton. One ecosystem restoration effort in the SFE, funded through a combined state and federal program (CALFED) has spent US $335 million. Part of this funding has been directed towards restoration of primary producers to levels seen prior to C. amurensis introduction.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
The near-surface growth position of C. amurensis makes them more available to predators than the deep-burrowing bivalve that previously dominated the northern estuary (Macoma petalum, previously known as Macoma balthica). The caloric content of the two bivalves is similar (Richman and Lovvorn, 2004). Thus the invasion might be an advantage to bottom feeding predators if not for the propensity of C. amurensis to accumulate certain contaminants, selenium in particular, at near toxic levels for consumers (Stewart et al., 2004). Since its arrival in the system, predators on C. amurensis that now have liver selenium concentrations in excess of the toxicity threshold include a fish, the Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister), the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) (Stewart et al., 2004) and diving ducks (scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) and scaup (Aythya spp.)) (White et al., 1987; 1988; 1989; Urquhart and Rigelado, 1991; Linville et al., 2002).
Prior to the invasion of C. amurensis, there were no molluscs that could withstand the extreme changes in salinity in the northern SFE. The presence of a persistent population of bivalves has increased the net production of carbon dioxideto 50-100 g C m-2 / year which greatly exceeds the carbon consumption by primary producers (20 g inorganic C m-2 /year) (Chauvaud et al., 2003). Given the invasion rate of molluscs throughout the world, the effect of C. amurensis on the carbon dioxide balance in this estuary may illustrate what is occurring worldwide.
Impact on Biodiversity
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Highly mobile locally
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has high genetic variability
- Altered trophic level
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Modification of nutrient regime
- Modification of successional patterns
- Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Interaction with other invasive species
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
The only eastern Pacific corbulid that might be confused with C. amurensis is Corbula luteola, which occurs south of the present range of C. amurenis (the San Francisco Estuary; Coan, 2002). Young juveniles may be confused with juveniles of other inequivalve bivalves such as Mya arenaria and Cryptomya californica; the original specimen in SFE was initially misidentified as a member of the Myidae. As they age, the “smaller, flatter left valve is drawn into the larger and more swollen right valve” of C. amurensis (Carlton et al., 1990). M. arenaria has a deep pallial sinus compared to the shallow pallial sinus of C. amurensis and C. californica is less ovate and lacking the posterior keel (Carlton et al., 1990).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
The only management strategy that has been proposed for containing C. amurensis has been to stop it before it arrives by controlling ballast water releases. Given the wide salinity tolerance of adult and juveniles (Nicolini and Penry, 2000; Werner et al., 2003) and their apparent low oxygen tolerance (McEnnulty et al., 2001) this will be difficult unless ballast water is either totally exchanged or rendered non-biotic in some manner.
Monitoring and Surveillance
The appearance of C. amurensis in Australia, where it is on the National List of Invasive Marine Species and considered a medium-high priority, will trigger an emergency response (Hayes et al., 2005). It is unclear what the response will be as the Rapid Response Toolbox produced by CSIRO reports that if C. amurensis is discovered, trawling is unlikely to succeed as a mechanism for removal. They also state that oxygen deprivation in ballast tanks is unlikely to be successful due to C. amurensis’ “high tolerance to low oxygen” (McEnnulty et al., 2001).
Surveillance systems are in place in New Zealand for early detection of C. amurensis and there is a plan to limit release of ballast water from areas where it is known to occur (Ministry of Fisheries, 2001).
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
The largest research needs include resolution of the taxonomic questions in the family and examination of the physiological characteristics of the species. C. amurensis has apparently not spread to intra-coastal ports nor has it been introduced to other eastern pacific locations. It seems unlikely that adults and larvae have not been included in ballast water that has been released in other ports. The only explanations we have at present for the lack of spread is that (1) there is something in its physiology that limits its transport and or settlement in most situations, (2) the balance of trade today reduces the number of ships arriving fully in ballast from Asia and thus there has been less opportunity for release of ballast water, or (3) it has invaded elsewhere but in localities without monitoring programs.
ReferencesTop of page
Brown CL, Luoma SN, 1995. Use of the euryhaline bivalve Potamocorbula amurensis as a biosentinel species to assess trace metal contamination in San Francisco Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 124:129-142.
Brown CL, Parchaso P, Thompson JK, Luoma SN, 2003. Assessing toxicant effects in a complex estuary: A case study of effects of silver on reproduction in the bivalve, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 91(1):95-119.
Carlton JT, Thompson JK, Schemel LE, Nichols FH, 1990. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA) by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Introduction and Dispersal. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 66:81-94.
Decho AW, Luoma SN, 1991. Time-courses in the retention of food material in the bivalves Potamocorbula amurensis and Macoma balthica significance to the absorption of carbon and chromium. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 78:303-314.
Deng DF, Hung SSO, Teh SJ, 2007. Selenium depuration: Residual effects of dietary selenium on Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus). Science of the Total Environment, 377(2/3):224-232. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V78-4NC50DP-2&_user=6686535&_coverDate=05%2F15%2F2007&_rdoc=12&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235836%232007%23996229997%23651223%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5836&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=30&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=7aa984169cdd22111841265ddc9e1777
Feyrer F, Herbold B, Matern SA, Moyle PB, 2003. Dietary shifts in a stressed fish assemblage: consequences of a bivalve invasion in the San Francisco Estuary. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 67(3):277-288.
Hayes K, Sliwa C, Migus S, McEnnulty F, Dunstan P, 2005. National priority pests: Part II. Ranking of Australian marine pests. Report for Department of Environment and Heritage by CSIRO Marine Research. Australia: CSIRO Marine Research.
Hunt J, Ross J, Davis J, Lowe S, Lovvorn J, Crane D, Burkholder B, 2003. Selenium Concentrations in Surf Scoter and Greater Scaup from the San Francisco Estuary. http://www.sfei.org/reports/SOE_2003/SOE%20poster-SE_DUCKS_JH_FINAL.pdf
Kimmerer WJ, 2006. Response of anchovies dampens effects of the invasive bivalve Corbula amurensis on the San Francisco Estuary foodweb. Marine Ecology, Progress Series, 324:207-218. http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v324/p207-218/
Linville RG, Luoma SN, Cutter L, Cutter GA, 2002. Increased selenium threat as a result of invasion of the exotic bivalve Potamocorbula amurensis into the San Francisco Bay-Delta. AquaticToxicology, 57:51-64.
New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries, 2001. Ministry of Fisheries - Marine Biosecurity. Action plan for unwanted species - Asian Clam (Potamocorbula amurensis). http://www.biodiversity.govt.nz/pdfs/seas/asian_clam_action_plan.pdf.
Nichols FH, 1985. Increased benthic grazing: an alternative explanation for low phytoplankton biomass in northern San Francisco Bay during the 1976-1977 drought. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science, 21:379-388.
Nichols FH, Thompson JK, Schemel LE, 1990. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA) by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. 2. Displacement of a former community. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 66:95-101.
Parchaso F, Thompson JK, 2002. The influence of hydrologic processes on reproduction of the introduced bivalve Potamocorbula amurensis in northern San Francisco Bay, California. Pacific Science, 56(3):329-345.
Sato S, Azuma M, 2002. Ecological and paleoecological implications of the rapid increase and decrease of an introduced bivalve Potamocorbula sp., after the construction of a reclamation dike in Isahaya Bay, western Kyushu, Japan. Palaeogreography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 185:369-378.
Schrenck LI, 1861. [English title not available]. (Mollusken des Amur-Landes und des Nordjapanischen Meeres. Reisen and Forschungen im Amur-Lande in den Jahren 1854-1856.) Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2:259-974.
Schrenck LV, 1867. [English title not available]. (Mollusken des Amur-Landes und des Nordjapanischen Meeres. Reisen und Forschungen im Amur-Lande In den Jahren 1854-1856) Kaiserliche Akademie der Wlssenschaften, 2:259-297.
Sommer T, Armor C, Baxter R, Breuer R, Brown L, Chotkowski M, Culberson S, Feyrer F, Gingras M, Herbold B, Kimmerer W, Mueller-Solger A, Nobriga M, Souza K, 2007. The collapse of pelagic fishes in the upper San Francisco Estuary. Fisheries (Bethesda), 32(6):270-277. http://www.fisheries.org/afs/publications/fisheriesmag/3206.pdf
Stewart AR, Luoma SN, Schlekat CE, Doblin MA, Hieb KA, 2004. Food web pathway determines how selenium affects aquatic ecosystems: A San Francisco Bay case study. Environmental Science & Technology, 38(17):4519-4526.
Thompson JK, 2005. One estuary, one invasion, two responses: phytoplankton and benthic community dynamics determine the effect of an estuarine invasive suspension feeder. In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension Feeders in Ecosystems [ed. by Olenin S, Dame R] Amsterdam, Netherlands: Springer, 291-316.
Thompson JK, Hieb K, McGourty K, Cosentio-Manning N, Wainwright-De La Cruz S, Elliot M, Allen S, 2007. Habitat type and associated biological assemblages: soft bottom substrate. Report on the Subtidal Habitats and Associated Biological Taxa in San Francisco Bay [ed. by Schaeffer K, McGourty K, Cosentio-Manning N]. Santa Rosa, USA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 18-23, 37-46.
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Carlton J T, Thompson J K, Schemel L E, Nichols F H, 1990. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA) by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Introduction and Dispersal. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 81-94.
Schrenck L I, 1861. Molluscs of Amurland and the northern Sea of Japan. (Mollusken des Amur-Landes und des Nordjapanischen Meeres.). In: Reisen and Forschungen im Amur-Lande in den Jahren 1854-1856, Vol. 2. St Petersburg, USSR: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. 259-297.
Schrenck L V, 1861a. Molluscs of Amurland and the northern Sea of Japan. (Mollusken des Amur-Landes und des Nordjapanischen Meeres.). In: Reisen and Forschungen im Amur-Lande in den Jahren 1854-1856, Vol. 2. St Petersburg, USSR: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. 259-297.
ContributorsTop of page
16/02/08 Original text by:
Janet Thompson, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd. MS-496, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
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