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Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea

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Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Chlorophyta
  •       Class: Bryopsidophyceae
  •         Order: Bryopsidales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. racemosa is a green alga widely distributed in tropical and warm-temperate regions. The C. racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agard complex is present in the Mediterranean with three taxa (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phylloids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea,
TitlePhylloids
CaptionPhylloids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea,
CopyrightLeonardo Tunesi
Phylloids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea,
PhylloidsPhylloids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea,Leonardo Tunesi
Short phylloids and rhizoids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea.
TitlePhylloids and rhizoids
CaptionShort phylloids and rhizoids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea.
CopyrightLeonardo Tunesi
Short phylloids and rhizoids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea.
Phylloids and rhizoidsShort phylloids and rhizoids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea.Leonardo Tunesi
Rhizoids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea.
TitleRhizoids
CaptionRhizoids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea.
CopyrightLeonardo Tunesi
Rhizoids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea.
RhizoidsRhizoids of C. racemosa var. cylindracea.Leonardo Tunesi
Lobiger serradifalci, a Mediterranean ascoglossan species naturally feeding on C. prolifera and also found on C. racemosa.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionLobiger serradifalci, a Mediterranean ascoglossan species naturally feeding on C. prolifera and also found on C. racemosa.
CopyrightLeonardo Tunesi
Lobiger serradifalci, a Mediterranean ascoglossan species naturally feeding on C. prolifera and also found on C. racemosa.
Natural enemyLobiger serradifalci, a Mediterranean ascoglossan species naturally feeding on C. prolifera and also found on C. racemosa.Leonardo Tunesi

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman and Boudouresque, 2003

International Common Names

  • English: green caviar; invasive Caulerpa racemosa; sea grape

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. racemosa is a green alga widely distributed in tropical and warm-temperate regions. The C. racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agard complex is present in the Mediterranean with three taxa (Verlaque et al., 2000). C. racemosa var. cylindracea, the introduced Australian strain of this taxon (Verlaque et al., 2003), first observed in 1991 in Libya (Nizamuddin, 1991), appears to be one of the most invasive introduced species in the Mediterranean. It forms a dense green carpet with a conspicuous rhizoid development, from 1-70 m depth, on any kind of seaweed (rocky bottoms, concrete, sand and mud), the only exception being unstable sands, and survives winter temperatures down to 10.5°C.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Chlorophyta
  •             Class: Bryopsidophyceae
  •                 Order: Bryopsidales
  •                     Family: Caulerpaceae
  •                         Genus: Caulerpa
  •                             Species: Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Considering morphological and genetic studies on the Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh complex, which demonstrated that three taxa occur in the Mediterranean Sea (Verlaque et al., 2000), the new combination C. racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman and Boudouresque was proposed by Verlaque et al. (2003) for the Mediterranean invasive strain from tropical Western Australia, on the basis of morphological and molecular studies (rDNA ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 sequences).

Description

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C. racemosa sensu lato is highly variable in size and shape, with about a dozen varieties and forms. C. racemosa var. cylindracea has a slender thallus, fixed to the substratum by means of thin rootlike rhizoids 1-10 (to 20) mm long and 0.3-0.8 (to 1.0) mm in diameter, that are closely arranged along the stolon. The diameter of the stolon ranges from 0.7 to 2.0 mm; it bears simple or occasionally branched upright axes, 1-11 cm (up to 19 cm in the Mediterranean) high and 3-10 mm across. The basal part of the upright axes is slightly inflated immediately above the attachment to the stolon. The upright axes bear uncrowded vesiculate branchlets that are radially or distichously arranged (sometimes both on the same thallus) on a cylindrical rachis. The branchlets are clavate, (1.5-) 2-5 (-7) mm long, 1-2 mm (up to 3 mm in the Mediterranean) in greatest diameter shortly below the rounded apices, and upwardly directed (Verlaque et al., 2003).

C. racemosa var. cylindracea is readily distinguished from all other varieties by the thin rhizoids, the basal part of the upright axes being slightly inflated above the attachment to the stolon, and the uncrowded branchlets that are radially or distichously disposed and clavate to cylindrical but never trumpet-like or shield-like (Verlaque et al., 2003).

The comparison of liquid-preserved specimens of the invasive Mediterranean strain with specimens from the original strain from Carnac Island, Western Australia, showed no morphological differences (Verlaque et al., 2003).

Verlaque et al. (2000) also provide information on morphological differences between the three varieties of C. racemosa known to occur in the Mediterranean.

In the north-western Mediterranean the phenotype observed consists of poorly developed phylloids and very dense and interconnected rhizomes (Tunesi et al., 2007).

Distribution

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C. racemosa is a green alga widely distributed in strictly tropical and subtropical areas (Famà et al., 2002b; Zaleski and Murray, 2006). The original range of C. racemosa var. cylindracea, the invasive strain of C. racemosa, has been shown to be in South West Australia (Verlaque et al., 2003). The exotic distribution of this invasive strain is mainly in Mediterranean coastal waters (Zaleski and Murray, 2006).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, Eastern CentralPresentIntroduced Invasive Verlaque et al., 2004Canary Islands
Indian Ocean, EasternLocalisedNative Not invasive Verlaque et al., 2003
Mediterranean and Black SeaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Nizamuddin, 1991; Verlaque et al., 2003Invasive strain first recorded in Libya in 1991

Asia

TurkeyPresentIntroduced Invasive Tolay et al., 2001a; Tolay et al., 2001bBodrum-Gökova coast

Africa

LibyaPresentIntroduced Invasive Nizamuddin, 1991; Zaleski and Murray, 2006
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Verlaque et al., 2004
TunisiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Zaleski and Murray, 2006

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Martino and Giaccone, 1995
CroatiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Zuljevic et al., 2003
CyprusPresentIntroduced Invasive Argyrou et al., 1999Moni Bay.
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive Panayotidis and Montesanto, 1994; Verlaque et al., 2003
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Ruitton et al., 2005a
ItalyWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Alongi et al., 1993; Verlaque et al., 2003; Piazzi et al., 2005
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive Pena Martín et al., 2002; Gamundí-Boyeras et al., 2006; Zaleski and Murray, 2006
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Gamundí-Boyeras et al., 2006

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Western AustraliaPresentNative Not invasive Huisman and Walker, 1990; Huisman, 2000Perth, Hopetown, Albany.

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. racemosa var. cylindracea is a southern Indian Ocean species that has a relatively restricted distribution along the south-western shores of Australia (Verlaque et al., 2003); it has never been reported from the Red Sea or the north of the Indian Ocean. In the Mediterranean Sea it was first observed in 1991 in Libya (Nizamuddin, 1991). It has spread rapidly within and beyond the Mediterranean, reaching the Canary Islands by 1997-1998 (Verlaque et al., 2004). There are only hypotheses to explain its introduction from Australia to the Mediterranean Sea.
 
Within the Mediterranean, recently established populations occur close to harbours (providing undeniable evidence in favour of secondary dispersal via shipping -- Verlaque et al. (2003)). Considering the primary introduction into the Mediterranean Sea, the chances of survival of a putative innoculum during transit of several weeks from Western Australia to the Mediterranean seem low, and an intermediate scenario could be a step-by-step transit (from harbour to harbour), but there is no report of such a recent spread of C. racemosa var. cylindracea at any site in the Indian Ocean or Red Sea (Verlaque et al., 2003).
 
Verlaque et al. (2003) hypothesize that the aquarium trade could be another possible vector; see 'Means of Movement and Dispersal' section for further discussion of this possibility. Verlaque et al. (2003) also hypothesize the possibility of an intentional act of introduction based on the almost simultaneous and unexpected introduction of two different species of Caulerpa, both native to Australia, C. taxifolia from the south-east (Meusnier et al., 2001; Famà et al., 2002a) and C. racemosa var. cylindracea from the south-west region, into the Mediterranean Sea (including the relatively cold waters of the north-western basin).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Albania 1995 Yes Martino and Giaccone (1995) Possibly via shipping
Croatia 2003 Yes Zuljevic et al. (2003) Possibly via shipping
Cyprus 1999 Yes Argyrou et al. (1999) Possibly via shipping
France 1997 Yes Verlaque et al. (2000) Possibly via shipping
Greece 1994 Yes Panayotidis and Montesanto (1994) Possibly via shipping
Italy 1993 Yes Alongi et al. (1993) Possibly via shipping
Libya 1991 Yes Nizamuddin (1991)
Malta 1999 Yes Stevens (1999) Possibly via shipping
Spain 1999 Yes Ballesteros et al. (1999) Possibly via shipping
Tunisia 2000 Yes Djellouli (2000) Possibly via shipping
Turkey 2001 Yes Tolay et al. (2001a) Possibly via shipping

Risk of Introduction

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The prevention of future introduction is essential because control/eradication programmes are costly and unlikely to succeed (Zaleski and Murray, 2006). Further spread of C. racemosa var. cylindracea could affect new Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic coastal seafloors with spread via shipping (ballast water, anchors, fishing nets etc.) (Verlaque et al., 2003) and the rapid expansion of the affected areas due to the fast growth rate, sexual reproduction and vegetative propagation (Zaleski and Murray, 2006).

Habitat

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In the Mediterranean Sea, C. racemosa var. cylindracea lives in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones (from 1 -70 m depth). The dead ‘mattes’ in the Posidonia oceanicameadows seem to be its preferred habitat, but it can spread on any kind of seabed (rocky bottoms, concrete, sand and mud), with the one exception of unstable sand. It can survive winter temperatures down to 10.5°C (Verlaque et al., 2000).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Marine
 
Benthic zone Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Benthic zone Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The complete description of the genetic analysis applied to define the identity and the origins of the Mediterranean invasive strain of C. racemosa are provided by Verlaque et al. (2003).

Reproductive Biology

C. racemosa var. cylindracea can spread by fragmentation (Smith and Walters, 1999; Ceccherelli and Piazzi, 2001) and sexual reproduction (Panayotidis and Žuljevic, 2001), and its spherical branchlets (ramuli) can act as propagules (Renoncourt and Meinesz, 2002). Long-range dispersal of the alga seems to be a result of human activities (e.g. disturbance by anchors, fishing).

Physiology and Phenology

The seasonal cycle of C. racemosa in the north-western Mediterranean is characterised by a maximum of development from summer to autumn, a drastic regression in winter and a renewal of growth in spring (Ruitton et al., 2005b).

This species produces some specific chemical compounds to avoid/reduce spatial competition and consumption by marine herbivores.

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Depth (m b.s.l.) 1.5 35 Optimum 1-70 tolerated
Salinity (part per thousand) 1.02 1.03 Optimum
Water pH (pH) 8.4 Optimum
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 24 Optimum 10.5-25 tolerated

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Elysia subornata Herbivore Whole plant to genus Coquillard et al., 2000
Lobiger serradifalci Herbivore to genus Thibaut and Meinesz, 2000
Oxynoe azuropunctata Herbivore to genus Meinesz et al., 1996
Oxynoe olivacea Herbivore to genus Thibaut and Meinesz, 2000

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Some studies on the efficacy of potential biological control agents of C. racemosa and C. taxifolia focused on four ascoglossans (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). These molluscs make incisions on all parts of Caulerpa, perforating the cell wall with their radula and sucking up a small portion of the algal contents, ‘drawing’ light coloured markings on the alga (Coquillard et al., 2000; Meinesz et al, 1996; Thibaut and Meinesz, 2000).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. racemosa var. cylindracea can spread by fragmentation (Smith and Walters, 1999; Ceccherelli and Piazzi 2001) and by sexual reproduction (Panayotidis and Žuljeviç, 2001), and its spherical branchlets (ramuli) can act as propagules (Renoncourt and Meinesz, 2002). Long-range dispersal of the alga seems to be a result of human activities (e.g. disturbance by anchors, fishing).

There are only hypotheses to explain the arrival of the Australian strain of C. racemosa var. cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea. Within the Mediterranean, the occurrence of recently established populations of this species close to harbours provides undeniable evidence in favour of its secondary dispersal via shipping (ballast water, anchors, fishing nets etc.) (Verlaque et al., 2003). Considering the primary introduction into the Mediterranean Sea, the chances of survival of a putative innoculum under such conditions (transit of several weeks from Western Australia to the Mediterranean) seem low. An intermediate scenario could be a step-by step transit (from harbour to harbour), but there is no report of such a recent spread of C. racemosa var. cylindracea at any site in the Indian Ocean or Red Sea (Verlaque et al., 2003).
 
Verlaque et al. (2003) hypothesize that the aquarium trade could be another possible vector, as it was for the introduced C. taxifolia, and indeed C. racemosasensu lato is one of the most widely used Caulerpa species in aquaria along with C. taxifolia and C. sertularioides (S. Gmelin) Howe. Unlike C. taxifolia, C. racemosa var. cylindracea is not commonly used as a decorative plant in marine aquaria, but in the Perth region of Western Australia it has been observed in display aquaria in several aquarium supply shops. Consequently Verlaque et al. (2003) do not exclude a possible accidental escape from a Mediterranean aquarium.
 
Verlaque et al. (2003) also hypothesize the possibility of an intentional act of introduction based on the almost simultaneous and unexpected introduction of two different species of Caulerpa, both native to Australia, C. taxifolia from the south-east (Meusnier et al., 2001; Famà et al., 2002a) and C. racemosa var. cylindracea from the south-west region, into the Mediterranean Sea (including the relatively cold waters of the north-western basin).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

The spread of C. racemosa var. cylindracea induces a homogenization of habitats at different levels, and a decrease in diversity and in abundance of invertebrates. This species produces some metabolites showing phytotoxic effects, and research suggests a possible allelopathic activity of caulerpenyne, which may play a role in the successful competition of the invasive C. racemosa var. cylindracea with native macrophytes, such as seagrasses (Raniello et al., 2007).

The comparison of the structure of Mediterranean macroalgal assemblages invaded by Caulerpa taxifolia and C. racemosa showed significant differences both between reference and invaded areas and between areas invaded by the different Caulerpa species. Macroalgal assemblages colonized by C. racemosa were more different from references than those colonized by C. taxifolia. Differences between assemblages colonized by C. racemosa and the others decreased during the period of vegetative rest of C. racemosa. Erect and turf species showed similar patterns in invaded areas, but cover of encrusting algae was lower in C. racemosa areas than in C. taxifolia areas (Balata et al., 2004).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult/costly to control

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Two other strains of C. racemosa exist in the Mediterranean: C. racemosa var. turbinata (J. Agardh) Eubank - var. uvifera (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, known since 1926 in Tunisia (Hamel, 1926) and since 1931 in the Levantine basin (Hamel, 1931b); and C. racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner) Weber-van Bosse f. requienii (Montagne) Weber-van Bosse, known since the 1950s in the Levantine basin (Huvé, 1957). C. racemosa var. cylindracea  can be distinguished from these strains morphologically (Verlaque et al., 2000; 2003) or genetically (Verlaque et al., 2003); for more information on the morphological differences, see the Description section.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

The eradication approach proposed for C. taxifolia, due to the conspicuous rhizoid development of C. racemosa in the sediment and in dead Posidonia mattes, appears to be problematic and unsuccessful.

References

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Alongi G; Cormaci M; Furnari G; Giaccone G, 1993. [English title not specified]. (Prima segnalazione di Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyceae, Caulerpales) per le coste italiane. ) Bollettino delle sedute dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, Catania, 26(342):49-53.

Argyrou M; Demetropoulos A; Hadjichristophorou M, 1999. Expansion of the macroalga Caulerpa racemosa and changes in softbottom macrofaunal assemblages in Moni Bay, Cyprus. Oceanol. Acta, 22:517-528.

Balata D; Piazzi L; Cinelli F, 2004. A comparison among assemblages in areas invaded by Caulerpa taxifolia and C. racemosa on a subtidal Mediterranean rocky bottom. Marine Ecology, 25(1):1-13.

Ballesteros E; Grau AM; Riera F, 1999. [English title not specified]. (Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) a Mallorca.) Bolletí de la Societat d'Història Natural de les Baleares, 42:63-68.

Ceccherelli G; Piazzi L, 2001. Dispersal of Caulerpa racemosa fragments in the Mediterranean: lack of detachment time effect on establishment. Bot. Mar, 44:209-213.

Coquillard P; Thibaut T; Hill DRC; Gueugnot J; Mazel C; Coquillard Y, 2000. Simulation of the mollusc Ascoglossa Elysia subornata population dynamics: application to the potential biocontrol of Caulerpa taxifolia growth in the Mediterranean Sea. Ecological Modelling, 135:1-16;.

Djellouli A, 2000. [Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh in Tunisia.] (Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh en Tunisie). In: Proceedings of the first Mediterranean Symposium on Marine Vegetation, Ajaccio, 3-4 October 2000 [ed. by PNUE] Tunis: RAC/SPA, 124-127.

Famà P; Jousson O; Zaninetti L; Meinesz A; Dini F; Giuseppe G di; Millar AJK; Pawlowski J, 2002. Genetic polymorphism in Caulerpa taxifolia (Ulvophyceae) chloroplast DNA revealed by a PCR-based assay of the invasive Mediterranean strain. J. Evol. Biol, 15:618 - 624.

Famà P; Wysor B; Kooistra WHCF; Zuccarello G, 2002. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Caulerpa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) inferred from chloroplast tufA gene. J. Phycol, 38:1040-1050.

Gamundí-Boyeras I; Terrados J; Pérez M, 2006. [English title not specified]. (Relació entre la presència de l'alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman et Boudouresque i la tipologia del substrat a la Badia de Palma (Mallorca).) Bolleti de la Societat d'Historia Natural de les Balears, 49:83-88.

Hamel G, 1926. [Some rare or new algae for the Mediterranean flora]. (Quelques algues rares ou nouvelles pour la flore méditerranéenne) Bull. Mus. Nation. Hist. Nat, 32:420.

Hamel G, 1931. [English title not specified]. (Chlorophycées des côtes françaises. Ordre des Siphonales.) Rev. Algol, 5:384-390.

Hamel G, 1931. [On Cladostephus dubius Bory.] (Sur le Cladostephus dubius Bory.) In: Travaux cryptogamiques dédiés à Louis Mangin. Paris, France: Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 309-312.

Huisman JM, 2000. Marine Plants of Australia. Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia: University of Western Australia Press.

Huisman JM; Walker DI, 1990. A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia, 1:349 - 459.

Huvé H, 1957. [English title not specified]. (Sur une variété nouvelle pour la Méditerranée du Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) Agardh.) Rec. Trav. Stat. Mar. Endoume, 21:67-73.

Martino V di; Giaccone G, 1995. [Spread in the Mediterranean of tropical algae of the genus Caulerpa] (La dispersione in Mediterraneo di alghe tropicali del genere Caulerpa.) Bollettino delle sedute dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, 28 (349): 693-705.

Meinesz A; Melnick J; Blachier J; Charrier S, 1996. [English title not specified]. (Etude préliminaire, en aquarium, de deux ascoglosses tropicaux conçommant Caulerpa taxifolia : une voie de recherche pour la lutte biologique.) In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Caulerpa taxifolia, Barcelona [ed. by Ribera] Spain: Universidad Barcelona Publications, 157-161.

Meusnier I; Olsen JL; Stam WT; Destombe C; Valero M, 2001. Phylogenetic analyses of Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) and of its associated bacterial microflora provide clues to the origin of the Mediterranean introduction. Molecular Ecology, 10(4):931-946.

Nizamuddin M, 1991. The Green Marine Algae of Libya. Bern, Switzerland: Elga.

Panayotidis P; Žuljevic A, 2001. Sexual reproduction of the invasive green algae Caulerpa racemosa var. occidentalis in the Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol. Acta, 24:199-203.

Panayotidis P; Montesanto B, 1994. Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta) on the Greek coasts. Cryptogamie, Algologie, 15:159-161.

Pena Martín C; Cristóbal Fernanz JC; Crespo MB, 2002. Caulerpa racemosa (Forssk. Agardh (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyceae), new for the flora of Alicante. (Caulerpa racemosa (Forssk. Agardh (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyceae), nueva para la flora de Alicante.) Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, 60(2):448-449.

Piazzi L; Meinesz A; Verlaque M; Akcali B; Antolic B; Argyrou M; Balata D; Ballesteros E; Calvo S; Cinelli F; Cirik S; Cossu A; D'Archino R; Djellouli SA; Javel F; Lanfranco E; Mifsud C; Pala D; Panayotidis P; Periano A; Pergent G; Petrocelli A; Ruitton S; Žuljevic A; Ceccherelli G, 2005. Invasion of Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean Sea: an assessment of the spread. Cryptogam. Algol, 26:189-202.

Raniello R; Mollo E; Lorenti M; Gavagnin M; Buia MC, 2007. Phytotoxic activity of caulerpenyne from the Mediterranean invasive variety of Caulerpa racemosa: a potential allelochemical. Biological Invasions, 9(4):361-368. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0756172541087445/?p=2f592a049de04d5fa32f8aeb5b4b61ba&pi=0

Renoncourt L; Meinesz A, 2002. Formation of propagules on an invasive strain of Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean Sea. Phycologia, 41:533-535.

Ruitton S; Javel F; Culioli JM; Meinesz A; Pergent G; Verlaque M, 2005. First assessment of the Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) invasion along the French Mediterranean coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50(10):1061-1068. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0025326X

Ruitton S; Verlaque M; Boudouresque CF, 2005. Seasonal changes of the introduced Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) at the northwest limit of its Mediterranean range. Aquatic Botany, 82(1):55-70. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03043770

Scullion Littler D; Littler MM; Bucher KE; Norris JN, 1989. Marine plants of the Caribbean. A field guide from Florida to Brazil. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Press, 166.

Smith CM; Walters LJ, 1999. Fragmentation as a strategy for Caulerpa species: fates of fragments and implications for management of an invasive weed. Mar. Ecol. PSZNI, 20:307-319.

Stevens DT, 1999. Country report - Malta. In: Proceeding of the workshop on invasive Caulerpa species in the Mediterranean, MAP Technical Reports Series No 125 Greece: UNEP, 279-281.

Thibaut T; Meinesz A, 2000. Are the Mediterranean ascoglossan molluscs Oxynoe olivacea and Lobiger serradifalci suitable agents for a biological control against the invading tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia? Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série III, Sciences de la Vie, 323(5):477-488.

Tolay M; Evirgen A; Cirik S, 2001. Observations of Caulerpa racemosa in the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea of Turkish region. In: 4th International Workshop on Caulerpa taxifolia, Lerici, 1 - 2 February 1999 [ed. by Gravez V, Ruitton S, Boudouresque CF, Direach L le, Meinesz A, Scabbia G, Verlaque M] Marseilles, France: GIS Posidonie, 328-333.

Tolay MA; Evirgen A; Piazzi L; Cirik S, 2001. Determination of variations in Caulerpa racemosa in the Bodrum-Gökova coast of Turkey. In: XVIIth International Seaweed Symposium Cape Town, South Africa, 28 January - 2 February 2001, abstract 93.

Tunesi L; Agnesi S; Di Nora T; Mo G; Molinari A, 2007. Colonization of the Gallinaria Island (NW Ligurian Sea) seafloors by Caulerpa taxifolia and C. racemosa: implications for a new marine protected area. In: Proceedings of the third Mediterranean symposium on marine vegetation (Marseilles, 27-29 March 2007) [ed. by Pergent-Martini , El Asmi S, Le Ravallec C] Tunis: UNEP-MAP-RAC/SPA, 197-202.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
AlgaeBasehttp://www.algaebase.org
DAISIE species factsheet: Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindraceahttp://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=53253

Contributors

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11/05/08 Original text by:

Leonardo Tunesi, ICRAM - Central Institute for Marine Applied Research, Via di Casalotti, 300 I-00166, Italy

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