Hedychium flavescens (wild ginger)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hedychium flavescens N. Carey ex Roscoe 1824
Preferred Common Name
- wild ginger
Other Scientific Names
- Hedychium coronarium var. flavescens J. König (Roscoe) H. Perrier
- Hedychium emeiense Z. Y. Zhu
- Hedychium flavum auct. non Roxb
- Hedychium panzhuum Z. Y. Zhu
International Common Names
- English: cream garland lily; cream ginger; cream ginger lily; yellow ginger; yellow ginger lily
- French: gingembre jaune; gingembre-douleur; hédychie jaunâtre; longose; longose à fleurs jaunes; longose jaune vanille; longoze
Local Common Names
- Australia: white ginger
- China: e mei jiang hua
- Cook Islands: kaopui rengarenga; kopi rengarenga; re‘a; re‘a rengarenga
- French Polynesia: opuhi rea rea
- Niue: kamapui fiti tea; keuila
- Réunion: hédychie jaunâtre
- Samoa: teuila
- USA/Hawaii: ‘awapuhi melemele
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
A native of the Himalayas, H. flavescens has been introduced to many locations around the world as an ornamental and subsequently escaped cultivation to become a weed of significant economic importance in countries with favourable moist and warm climates. It threatens native forests in New Zealand, in La Réunion it outcompetes native plants and forms dense stands in wet areas such as ravine sides, roadsides, native forest margins and disturbed forests, and in Hawaii it tends to be confined to forest edges but also impacts negatively on the ecosystem. Its spread and dispersal is facilitated by vegetative regeneration of its dense rhizomes, which allows it to cover large areas of land and prevent the re-growth and establishment of native species, endangering rare and specialized plant communities. It is similar in its ecology and impacts to other invasive Hedychium spp., e.g. Hedychium coronarium and Hedychium gardnerianum.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Zingiberales
- Family: Zingiberaceae
- Genus: Hedychium
- Species: Hedychium flavescens
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The pantropical Zingiberaceae is the largest family in the order Zingiberales with 53 genera and over 1200 species. The taxonomy of the horticulturally important genus Hedychium has been controversial since the mid-1800s, and it is currently estimated that there are 65 valid species (Wood et al., 2000). A new classification of the Zingiberaceae by Kress et al. (2002) based on molecular characterisation places the genera Hedychium within the subfamily Zingiberoidea Haask., tribe Zingiberae.
The genus Hedychium are known as gingers, and there are several common names in English for H. flavescens, of which wild ginger and yellow ginger appear to be the most widespread.
DescriptionTop of page
H. flavescens is a coarse perennial herb with thick fleshy rhizomes and erect, leafy pseudostems of 1-3 m in height. The leaves are sessile and have slightly pubescent sheaths. The ligule is 3-5 cm long and membranous. Leaf blades are elliptic-lanceolate or lanceolate, 20-50 cm long and 4-10 cm wide and abaxially (beneath) pubescent with attenuate base, membranous margins and a caudate-acuminate apex. Inflorescences are oblong spikes, 15-20 cm long and 3-6 cm wide; bracts are imbricate, oblong to ovate, 3-4.5 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, concave, 4- or 5-flowered. The bracteoles are tubular and membranous. Flowers are creamy-white to pale yellow or yellow-white in a cone like inflorescence, fragrant with yellow stamens. The calyx is 3.5-4 cm long, pubescent, approximately half the length of the corolla tube and almost as long as the bract. It is split on 1 side, apical margin entire. Corolla tube is 7-8.5 cm, long and slender. The lobes are linear, 3-3.5 cm long. The lateral staminodes are wider than the corolla lobes. The labellum is erect, creamy yellow with an orange patch at base, obcordate, longer than wide, and apex is 2-lobed. Filament is white to cream, subequaling labellum. Top of anther protruding slightly beyond lip. Ovary hairy. Stigma funnelform, margin bearded. Fruits are globose capsules 1-2 cm in diameter with three valves, containing numerous seeds but not seen in much of its invasive range.
Plant TypeTop of page Broadleaved
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Sichuan||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||eFloras, 2008||500-800 m; forests and naturalized along ditches and water courses (Mount Omei)|
|India||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2008||1200-2000 m|
|-Assam||Present||Native||Not invasive||Natural History Museum Herbarium, UK||Naga Hills|
|-Kerala||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Central National Herbarium, Botanical Survey of India||Trichur District 1240 m|
|-Meghalaya||Present||Native||Not invasive||Natural History Museum Herbarium, UK||Khasi Hills|
|-Sikkim||Present||Native||Not invasive||Hooker, 1897|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present||Introduced||Central National Herbarium, Survey of India||Nilgiri District, Karianhola, 2067 m|
|Nepal||Present||Native||Not invasive||USDA-ARS, 2008||Dhankuta|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Introduced||Baby et al., 2007|
|Vietnam||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008|
|Réunion||Present||Introduced||1825||Invasive||Baret et al., 2006|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||Henderson, 2001; AGIS, 2007|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Anderson and Gardner, 1999; Wagner et al., 1999; PIER, 2008||Kamakou Preserve, wetter northern valleys of Kauai, Maui, Moloka’I, O’ahu, Big Island|
Central America and Caribbean
|Puerto Rico||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2008|
|Portugal||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|American Samoa||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2008||Tutuila Isl.|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Queensland||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2008||Mt Glorious and Lamington National Park, Mt Tamborine and near Mackay, coastal, subtropical and upland tropical forests|
|Cook Islands||Present||Introduced||Invasive||McCormack, 2007; PIER, 2008||Atiu Isl., Mangaia, Rarotonga|
|Fiji||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2008||Rotuma Island|
|French Polynesia||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2008||Tahiti, Raiatea islands|
|Guam||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2008||Guam Island|
|Micronesia, Federated states of||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2008||Pohnpei, Kosrae, Yap|
|New Caledonia||Present||Introduced||PIER, 2008||Ile Grande Terre|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||1898||Invasive||PIER, 2008||Coromandel Peninsula, Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Northland, Northern South Island|
|Niue||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2008||Niue Island|
|Samoa||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2008||Forest understory; Upolu Island|
|Tonga||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2008||Vava’u Island|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
It is unknown when it was introduced from its native range to neighbouring areas such as to Emei Shan (Mount Omei) in Sichuan, China (Armstrong et al., 2004), southern India and Sri Lanka.
Hedychium spp. were extensively cultivated in Europe in the early 1800s for their exotic forms and fragrant perfume, making the wild gingers prized ornamentals in tropical glasshouses. From the UK, the cultivation of gingers spread to parts of the British Empire, with many species transported to warmer areas of the tropics and subtropics (Orchard, 1978). Under these favourable conditions, H. flavescens (along with H. gardnerianum) escaped from cultivation to become economically important weeds.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Further spread is highly probable, owing to the risks of both accidental and deliberate dumping of rhizomes locally, and deliberate long-distant introduction as an ornamental, encouraged by availability from commercial nurseries by mail-order catalogues and websites.
H. flavescens is prohibited as a noxious weed in New Zealand and it is a proscribed species to be intercepted at entry points. It is subject to a Pest Plant Management Strategy in Taranaki, New Zealand and is listed on the National Pest Plant Accord. H. flavescens has been designated as a ‘Progressive control pest’ by the Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. The objective of the strategy is to reduce the distribution and density of H. flavescens in the Golden Bay/Kaiteriteri area during the term of the Strategy. In the Auckland region, H. gardnerianum and H. flavescens have both been designated as Surveillance, Community Initiative and Containment Pests.
The objectives of the management strategy are to prevent the spread of and, where practicable, reduce infestations of H. gardnerianum and H. flavescens over the next five years, from the Waitakere and Hunua Ranges Weed Control Zones, and Great Barrier Island; and to restrict their further spread by humans over the next 10 years. Wild gingers are a total control plant pest in the Bay of Plenty region. Occupiers of land are required to control all wild ginger plants growing on their land. It is also a classified ‘Containment pest plant’ in the Taranaki part of New Zealand, being a plant that is abundant in suitable habitats in a region or part of a region and for which the long-term goal is to prevent the spread of the plant to new areas or to neighbouring properties, with each pest plant having a management programme according to its designation. Greater Wellington has proposed moving wild ginger (H. flavescens and H. gardnerianum) to the Site Led pest category with a 10 m boundary clearance rule. Site Led pests are well established throughout the region and not cost effective to control on a region-wide scale. Therefore, management is focused on specific sites where the pests have the most serious impact, and the benefits of control are greatest.
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Coastal areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural forests||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural forests||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Riverbanks||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
H. flavescens is not a weed of crops. It is an invasive species that threatens the environment, native communities and biodiversity.
Biology and EcologyTop of page Genetics
The chromosome number is reported to be 2n=34. H. flavescens, like its close relative, H. flavum, possesses large yellow inflorescences but can be distinguished from the latter by its hairier leaves and generally paler yellow flowers. The Zingiberoideae have a forced dormancy period during which all the above ground parts are shed and the plant overwinters as a thick, fleshy rhizome. Either just before or at the earliest signs of the wet season, individuals break dormancy with vegetative or reproductive shoots. Spread in its invasive range is mainly by vegetative growth via rhizomes; however, in Hawaii some evidence exists that H. flavescens may be naturalizing by seed, though no fertile fruits have yet been found. H. flavescens is a plant of the humid tropics, though being native to high altitudes, it can also tolerate cooler temperatures if in fully humid climates. It prefers areas with a mean annual rainfall of 1000-5000 mm, a mean annual temperature of 11-20ºC, and it can also tolerate frosts, though they may kill above-ground plant parts. H. flavescens requires medium to high soil fertility, and prefers to grow in open, light-filled environments which are warm and moist but will readily colonise semi and full shade under forest canopies. Altitude range in its native India is 1200-2000 m (Hooker, 1897; Mitra, 1958), 500-800 m in Sichuan, south-western China, below 2000 m Sri Lanka, and below 400 m in Hawaii but up to 2300 m where annual rainfall exceeds 1500 mm.
Physiology and Phenology
H. flavescens, like its close relative, H. flavum, possesses large yellow inflorescences but can be distinguished from the latter by its hairier leaves and generally paler yellow flowers. The Zingiberoideae have a forced dormancy period during which all the above ground parts are shed and the plant overwinters as a thick, fleshy rhizome. Either just before or at the earliest signs of the wet season, individuals break dormancy with vegetative or reproductive shoots.Reproductive Biology
Spread in its invasive range is mainly by vegetative growth via rhizomes; however, in Hawaii some evidence exists that H. flavescens may be naturalizing by seed, though no fertile fruits have yet been found.Environmental Requirements
H. flavescens is a plant of the humid tropics, though being native to high altitudes, it can also tolerate cooler temperatures if in fully humid climates. It prefers areas with a mean annual rainfall of 1000-5000 mm, a mean annual temperature of 11-20ºC, and it can also tolerate frosts, though they may kill above-ground plant parts. H. flavescens requires medium to high soil fertility, and prefers to grow in open, light-filled environments which are warm and moist but will readily colonise semi and full shade under forest canopies. Altitude range in its native India is 1200-2000 m (Hooker, 1897; Mitra, 1958), 500-800 m in Sichuan, south-western China, below 2000 m Sri Lanka, and below 400 m in Hawaii but up to 2300 m where annual rainfall exceeds 1500 mm.
ClimateTop of page
|Af - Tropical rainforest climate||Preferred||> 60mm precipitation per month|
|Am - Tropical monsoon climate||Preferred||Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||0||-5|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||20||11|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||17||14|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||13||10|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||1||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||5000||1000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Summer
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Hypochniciellum ovoideum||Pathogen||not specific|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Due to its economic importance, the wide range of pests and diseases attacking cultivated ginger have been well researched. By contrast however, not much is known about the mycobiota and entomofauna of wild ginger species. Very few fungal pathogens had been reported on H. flavescens in its invasive range (Farr et al., 2008) although a strain of the soil-borne bacterium, Ralstonia solanacearum was isolated from Zingiber officinale (edible ginger) in Hawaii and caused no bacterial wilt in H. flavescens despite causing symptoms in H. gardnerianum and H. coronarium (Anderson and Gardner, 1999). The basidiomycete Leptosporomyces ovoideus was also recorded from H. flavescens in Hawaii (Farr et al., 2008).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
Locally, H. flavescens spreads outwards along the ground by way of rhizomes, with new stems sprouting annually. In New Zealand, the hermaphrodite flowers are sterile (Timmins and MacKenzie, 1995) as it is in much of its invasive range, and as it does not produce seeds its spread appears to be entirely vegetative. Flooding may also aid in the spread of rhizomes.Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Feral pigs may aid in local dispersal of rhizomes at least in Hawaii.Accidental Introduction
Dumping of material in inappropriate places by people is the main form of spread and its subsequent aggressive growth rate, makes it an overwhelming plant wherever the rhizomes fall, regenerating from even the smallest root fragments. New infestations also caused by soil movement, dumped vegetation or contaminated machinery.Intentional Introduction
H. flavescens, like so many gingers, is used for ornamental purposes; horticulturists sell rhizomes or plants and seeds are available for purchase on the internet. As such, further deliberate introductions of H. flavescens are highly likely.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Botanical gardens and zoos||Yes|
|Breeding and propagation||Yes|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Yes|
|Flooding and other natural disasters||Yes|
|Garden waste disposal||Yes|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
There are no records of direct impact on crops, but mechanical and chemical control of H. flavescens can be costly.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Loxioides bailleui (palila)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006|
|Psittirostra psittacea (Ou)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009|
Social ImpactTop of page
Dense populations can interfere with access to amenity areas, encroaching on path sides and generally reducing amenity values, even regarding its ornamental value.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Impact outcomes
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of hydrology
- Modification of nutrient regime
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts forestry
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Transportation disruption
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Competition - smothering
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
H. flavescens is best known as a spectacular flowering plant, introduced all over the world as an ornamental due to its beautiful and fragrant flowers. It is available via the internet from horticulturist websites. It is also used in ‘lei making’ (flower weaving) in Hawaii, and is popularly used in women’s hair in other areas.
The chemical composition of the essential oils from the rhizomes of several Hedychium spp. were investigated, including H. flavescens from southern India and the strongest activities were observed for the rhizome oil from H. flavescens, especially against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and the fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata (Baby et al., 2007).
Uses ListTop of page
- Botanical garden/zoo
- Ritual uses
- Sociocultural value
- Essential oils
- Cut flower
- Potted plant
- Propagation material
- Seed trade
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
ReferencesTop of page
Anderson RC, Gardner DE, 1999. An evaluation of the wilt-causing bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum as a potential biological control agent for the alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaiian forests. Biological Control, 15(2):89-96; 27 ref.
Baby S, Varughese G, Mathew D, Nediyaparambu Sukumaran P, 2007. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils from the Rhizomes of Four Hedychium Species from South India. Journal of Essential Oil Research.
Baret S, Rouget M, Richardson DM, Lavergne C, Egoh B, Dupont J, Straberg D, 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology, 31(6):747-758.
Hooker JD, 1897. Flora of British India. Kent, England: L. Reeve & Co. Ltd.
Lavergne C, Florens V, Strasberg D, 2004. Eradication of invasive alien plants has consequences on biodiversity: the case study of Hedychium gardnerianum in Reunion Island- INVABIO Programme. In: Workshop on Biodiversity Dynamics on Reunion Island, Saint Denis, Reunion [ed. by Baret S, Rouget M, Nanni I, Bourgeois Le T].
Lavergne C, Radjassegarane S, Boullet V, Strasberg D, Florens V, Triolo J, 2003. [English title not available] . (Apport de la recherche dans les programmes de restauration écologique: l'exemple du projet de recherche "Invasions Biologiques INVABIO" a La Réunion) In: Proceedings of the regional workshop on invasive alien species and terrestrial ecosystem rehabilitation in Western Indian Ocean islands states [ed. by Mauremootoo J] Seychelles: COI/UICN/ISSG.
Macdonald IAW, Thébaud C, Strahm W, Strasberg D, 1991. Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Réunion (Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation, 18:51-61.
Motooka P, Castro L, Nelson D, Nagai G, Ching L, 2003. Weeds of Hawaii's pastures and natural areas: an identification and management guide. Honolulu, HI, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 184 pp.
Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2008. Whitei ginger - an emerging threat. White ginger - an emerging threat. http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/dpi/hs.xsl/4790_10194_ENA_HTML.htm
Radjassegarane S, 1999. Les plantes envahissantes de l'île de La Réunion. Etude de deux exemples: Hedychium flavescens (Zingiberaceae) et Ligustrum robustum subsp. walkeri (Oleaceae). Recherches préliminaires pour une lutte biologique. Toulouse, France: Université Paul Sabatier.
Smith CW, 1985. Impact of alien plants on Hawaii's native biota. In: Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and management. Proceedings of a symposium held June 5-6, 1984, at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. [ed. by Stone CP, Scott JM] Honolulu, HI, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 180-250.
Smith RM, 1983. Zingiberaceae. (Zingiberaceés) In: Flore des Mascareignes. La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues 171. Zingiberaceae à 176. Broméliacées [ed. by Bosser J, Cadet TH, Guého J, Marais W] Mauritius: Sugar Industry Research Institute, 1-16.
Timmins SM, MacKenzie IW, 1995. Weeds in New Zealand Protected Natural Areas Database. Department of Conservation Technical Series, 8. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation, 291 pp. http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/science-and-technical/docts08.pdf
USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-ARS, 2008. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
Winks CJ, Waipara NW, Smith LA, Tsai S, Wilkie JP, Peterson P, 2007. Invertebrates and Pathogens Associated with Wild Ginger, Hedychium gardnerianum and Hedychium flavescens (Zingiberaceae), in New Zealand. Landcare Research Contract Report LC0708/062.
ContributorsTop of page
30/05/08 Original text by:
Djamila Djeddour, CABI Europe - UK, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey TW20 9TY
Distribution MapsTop of page
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