Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Caesalpinia pulcherrima
(peacock flower)

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Datasheet

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Caesalpinia pulcherrima
  • Preferred Common Name
  • peacock flower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. pulcherrima is a fast-growing shrub or small tree in the legume family. It is listed as ‘naturalised’, ‘cultivation escape’, and ‘weed’ in the Global Compendium of Weeds (...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw.

Preferred Common Name

  • peacock flower

Other Scientific Names

  • Poinciana pulcherrima L.

International Common Names

  • English: Barbados flowerfence; Barbados-pride; dwarf poinciana; flower-fence; paradise flower; paradise-flower; pride-of-Barbados
  • Spanish: caballero; clavellina colorada (Nicaragua); flor borbona (Spain); flor de bona; guacamaya (Spain); tabachin (Honduras)
  • French: flamboyant; orgueil de Chine; petit flamboyant
  • Chinese: jin feng hua
  • Portuguese: flor-de-paraiso

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: Barbados pride
  • Cook Islands: ‘ova‘i (Maori); ovai (Maori); pi tiare (Maori)
  • Dominican Republic: carzazo; clavellina; macat; macata
  • Germany: Zwerg- Poinciane
  • Guam: kabayeros
  • Haiti: francillade; francillade à fleurs jaunes; francillade à fleurs rouges; francillane; pincillade; poincillade
  • Jamaica: pride of Barbados
  • Lesser Antilles: baraguette; dwarf poinciana; fleur de paon; flower fence; flower pride; macata; oeillet d'Espagne; Spanish carnation
  • Maldives: fa’thangu
  • Marshall Islands: emenawa; jeimata; jeimota; jemata
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: niikaéeé; rapotin; repawtin; seh muatah; sehmwida; sem tah; semutha; shimatada; simmata; simota; warapig; warepik; waripik
  • Nicaragua: malinche
  • Niue: fisihetau; fitihetau
  • Northern Mariana Islands: kabayeros (Chamorro)
  • Puerto Rico: clavellina; doddledo; dul-dul
  • Saint Lucia: fle makata
  • Samoa: lau pa; lau pa
  • Somalia: mallinni
  • Suriname: boontje krere krere; sabinabloem
  • Tonga: 'ohai; piu

EPPO code

  • CAEPU (Caesalpinia pulcherrima)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. pulcherrima is a fast-growing shrub or small tree in the legume family. It is listed as ‘naturalised’, ‘cultivation escape’, and ‘weed’ in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). The species is considered native to Asia and introduced to the West Indies and tropical regions around the world, as it has been cultivated for its striking and colorful flowers (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012). It reproduces by seeds, which are produced profusely and are self-propelled by its dehiscent pods upon maturity (Pulle et al., 1976; Puy et al., 2002). Although the species currently has a low risk of invasiveness score of 5 [score of 6 and above = reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific and Florida (U.S.)] (PIER, 2014), it is known to be invasive in parts of Australia, Ecuador, the Philippines and Cuba (Merrill, 1923; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2014).

C. pulcherrima is considered a weed in central Africa and southern Florida (Randall, 2012) and known to be a cultivation escape in Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000), Madagascar (Puy et al., 2002), and parts of the Caribbean (Howard, 1988; Graveson et al., 2012). In the Netherlands Antilles, C. pulcherrima is listed as a species known to be invasive elsewhere but without sufficient information available to determine its potential threat to the Dutch Caribbean (Burg et al., 2012). It is widely cultivated and has naturalized in many parts of the tropics including Micronesia, Mexico, Galapagos, and parts of Ecuador (Randall, 2012). In South America, it is possibly naturalized in parts of the Guiana Shield (Guyana, Suriname, and French Guianas) (Boggan et al., 1997; Funk et al., 2007).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
  •                                 Genus: Caesalpinia
  •                                     Species: Caesalpinia pulcherrima

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Caesalpinia is a pantropical genus of over 100 species, primarily American (Wagner and Lorence, 2014). The genus was formally named by Linnaeus in 1753 in honor of Andrea Caesalpinio (1524-1603), Italian botanist, philosopher, and physician to Pope Clement VIII, and is based on four species, three of which are now no longer considered to be Caesalpinia sensu strict (Lewis, 1998). The species C. pulcherrima was originally named Poinciana pulcherrima by Linnaeus in 1753, and was moved into its current genus by Swartz. The species name pulcherrima comes from the Latin word ‘pulcher’, meaning beauty.

Description

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Shrub to 3-4 m tall, the branches with short scattered prickles. Leaves alternate bipinnate, pinnae 4-8 pairs, each with 7-11 pairs of elliptic, obtuse, obliquely inequilateral light green leaflets about 2-2.5 cm long; flowers red-and-yellow, or (var. flava) all yellow, the petals crinkly-edged, in long terminal racemes; filaments longer than petals, red; pod coriaceous, oblong, smooth, brown to black, to 10 cm long, several-seeded; seeds compressed, brown, usually 6-8 per pod [Stone, 1970].

Shrub or small tree, unarmed or armed with spines or recurved prickles on branches, leaf rachises, and sometimes on nerves. Leaves are bipinnately compound, leaflets opposite or occasionally alternate, stipules various, large and leafy or minute. Flowers are caesalpinaceous, perfect or unisexual, in terminal and/or axillary racemes that are often aggregated into branched paniculate inflorescences, bracts caducous, bracteoles absent; calyx tube short, 5 lobed, lower lobe often covering the others, hood like; petals 5, imbricate, subequal or the upper one smaller and with a more developed claw; stamens 10, distinct, alternately longer and shorter; ovules usually 2-10. Fruit pods are flattened, rarely cylindrical, dehiscent or indehiscent, winged along the upper suture or unwinged. Seeds are 1-9, transversely arranged, ellipsoid or subglobose [Wagner and Lorence, 2014]. In its natural form in North America the species grows as a low branched, full, widespreading shrub about 10 feet tall and wide and requires plenty of room (Gillman and Watson, 2011).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vine / climber

Distribution

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C. pulcherrima is native to Asia and an early introduction to the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012), although it is considered native to tropical America by some sources (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; PIER, 2014). For Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, PIER (2014) lists the species as ‘uncertain if native’, but cites ILDIS 2011; ILDIS (2014) however treats the species as introduced.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
ComorosPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EgyptPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
GhanaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
KenyaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
LiberiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
MadagascarPresent, WidespreadIntroducedPuy et al. (2002); ILDIS (2014)
MalawiPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
MaliPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
NigerPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
RéunionPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)Fregate I
-Aldabra IslandsPresentILDIS (2014)Aldabra; Amirantes Group
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
SomaliaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
UgandaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
BhutanPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
BruneiPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
CambodiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); ILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
-FujianPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-GuangdongPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); ILDIS (2014)
-GuangxiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); ILDIS (2014)
-HainanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-YunnanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); ILDIS (2014)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
IndiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-AssamPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-LakshadweepPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-OdishaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-PunjabPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-RajasthanPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-TripuraPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-West BengalPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-Irian JayaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-JavaPresentNativeILDIS (2014)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNativeILDIS (2014)Lesser Sunda Is.
-Maluku IslandsPresentNativeILDIS (2014)
-SumatraPresentNativeILDIS (2014)
IraqPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
JapanPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativeILDIS (2014)
LaosPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-SabahPresentNativeILDIS (2014)
MaldivesPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)Male Atoll
MyanmarPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
NepalPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
PakistanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationFlora of Pakistan (2014); ILDIS (2014)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedMerrill (1923); ILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009); ILDIS (2014)'Cultivated only'
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
TaiwanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); ILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
ThailandPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
VietnamPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
YemenPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)South Yemen

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
ArubaPresentIntroducedBurg et al. (2012)
BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); ILDIS (2014)
BelizePresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentIntroducedBurg et al. (2012)
-SabaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
-Sint EustatiusPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
British Virgin IslandsPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Guana
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
CuraçaoPresentBurg et al. (2012);
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
HondurasPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
MexicoPresentNativeILDIS (2014)North, central, southeast
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
PanamaPresentIntroducedFlora of Panama (2014); ILDIS (2014); CABI (Undated)Taboga Island, Bocas del Toro, Canal Area, Los Santos, Panamá
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)
Sint MaartenPresentIntroducedBurg et al. (2012)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St. John, St. Thomas
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014); USDA-NRCS (2014)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); USDA-NRCS (2014)
-TexasPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)

Oceania

American SamoaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationPIER (2014)Ofu Island
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedPIER (2014); CABI (Undated)Chuuk is, Kosrae I, Pohnpei Is, Yap Is
FijiPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014); Wagner and Lorence (2014)Marquesas Is, Society Is
GuamPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedStone (1970); PIER (2014); CABI (Undated)
KiribatiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2014)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014); CABI (Undated)Ralik Chain (Ebon, Jaluit), Ratak Chain (Arno, Likiep, Mejit)
NauruPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wagner et al. (2014)
New CaledoniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2014)
NiuePresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014); CABI (Undated)Rota I, Saipan I, Tinian I
PalauPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2014)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); PIER (2014)Including Bismarck Archipelago
PitcairnPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)
SamoaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
Solomon IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2014)
TongaPresentPIER (2014)Tongatapu Group
Wallis and FutunaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2014)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
BoliviaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated); ILDIS (2014)Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Beni, Pando, Tarija; Original citation: Bolivia Checklist (2014)
BrazilPresentIntroducedForzza (2010); ILDIS (2014)Including Distrito Federal. Amazonia, Cerrado, Mata Atlantica.
-AcrePresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-AmapaPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-BahiaPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-CearaPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-GoiasPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-ParaPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-ParanaPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-PiauiPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-RoraimaPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-SergipePresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedForzza (2010)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); Vascular Plants of Antioquia (2014)Municipios Andes, Bello, Hispania, Medellín, Santa Fé de Antioquia, Támesis.
EcuadorPresentIntroducedInvasiveILDIS (2014); PIER (2014); Vascular Plants of Ecuador (2014)Floreana I, Isabela I, Volcan Sierra Negra, San Cristobal I, Santa Cruz I
French GuianaPresentIntroducedBoggan et al. (1997); Funk et al. (2007); ILDIS (2014)
GuyanaPresentIntroducedBoggan et al. (1997); Funk et al. (2007); ILDIS (2014)
ParaguayPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Paraguay Checklist (2014)
PeruPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); CABI (Undated)
SurinamePresentIntroducedBoggan et al. (1997); Funk et al. (2007); ILDIS (2014)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); ILDIS (2014)Caribbean: Margarita

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. pulcherrima is native to Asia and an early introduction to the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012), although it is considered native to tropical America by some sources (Smith, 1985; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014), and by others it is considered an introduction to Asia (Philippines) from tropical America (Merrill, 1923; Alvina and Madulid, 2009).

In the West Indies, the species was certainly in Jamaica by the late seventeenth century. Specimens were collected by Sir Hans Sloane during his voyage to Jamaica in 1687-1689 and brought to London (UK Natural History Museum, 2014). Sloane referred to the species as ‘flower fence of Barbados’, ‘wild Senna’ and ‘Spanish carnation’, and cited Ligon that the species had been carried from the Cape Verde Islands to Barbados before being introduced to Jamaica (Sloane, 1707-1725). Date of introduction to Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands is unknown, but it was reportedly ‘already common’ in Puerto Rico by 1881 as reported by Bello (as Poinciana pulcherrima) (Bello Espinosa, 1881).

In South America, the species was already present in Suriname in 1699, as female naturalist Maria Merian illustrated and described its use by the slaves as an emmenagogue and abortifacient (Schiebinger, 2004). It was present in Colombia by 1808; specimens were collected between 1783 and 1808 (JSTOR Global Plants, 2014). In Europe seeds of C. pulcherrima were reportedly being cultivated in France as early as 1822, although considered rare (Die Gesellschaft, 1823). In Africa, the species was observed in Mauritius in 1823 (Die Gesellschaft, 1823), was reported for Sierra Leone, Loanda, and Zanzibar by 1871 (Oliver, 1871), and was present in Ghana by 1935 (Kew collections). In the Pacific, C. pulchirrima was introduced to the Philippines sometime during the Spanish period, 1521-1898 (Alvina and Madulid, 2009) and, while reportedly native to Java, Sumatra, and the Lesser Sunda Islands, is considered to have been introduced to Myanmar, Laos, Singapore, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Marquesas, Marshall Islands, and French Polynesia (ILDIS, 2014).

Today C. pulcherrima is widespread across tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and the Americas, and cultivated worldwide for its large and striking flowers.

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. pulcherrima is currently low to moderate. It has been intentionally introduced in many tropical and subtropical regions to be used as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It has escaped from cultivation and behaves as a weed (Randall, 2012). Although currently given a risk score of 5 by the PIER Risk Assessment (scores greater than 6 are considered high risk of invasiveness) (PIER, 2014), considering that this species has a fast growth rate spreading 10-12 feet and is evergreen (Gillman and Watson, 2011), has the capability of self-dispersing its proliferate seeds, and is widespread outside of its native range, the probability of invasion may rise in areas near its cultivation (Pulle et al., 1976; Puy et al., 2002; PIER, 2014).

Habitat

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C. pulcherrima tolerates hot, dry areas, and forms an effective thorny barrier (Gillman and Watson, 2011). It has been cultivated primarily as a popular garden ornamental, and often naturalized in the Caribbean (Howard, 1988). Due to its thorny stems the species has also been used in agricultural settings as a living fence, resulting in one of its vernacular names, ‘flower fence’. In St. Lucia it is very common in the mouth of the L’Ivrogne River, very close to floodplains, and elsewhere it escapes from cultivation into adjacent dry wasteland and roadsides (Graveson et al., 2012). In Peru the species prefers disturbed areas and forests (Peru Checklist, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

C. pulcherrima has gametophytic count 12; sporophytic count 24, 28 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).

Environmental Requirements

In Colombia, C. pulcherrima is found in habitats of “Bosque Húmedo Premontano (bh-PM), Bosque Húmedo Tropical (bh-T), Bosque seco Tropical (bs-t)” and at altitudes of 0-2000 m (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). It is also found at altitudes of 0-2000 m in Bolivia, where it thrives in rain forest, savannas, and montane forest habitats (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). In Panama the species occurs at altitudes of 0-1000 m (Panama Checklist, 2014).

C. pulcherrima is easily grown in medium moisture, fertile, well-drained soils but can tolerate a variety including clay; sand, loam, alkaline to acidic, well-drained, and salty soil types, with a moderate aerosol salt tolerance (Selvam, 2007; Gillman and Watson, 2011; Floridata, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

Light requirements are full sun, partial sun or partial shade, but the species flowers best in full sun (Gillman and Watson, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

Temperature-wise, C. pulcherrima can withstand low temperatures to 30°F (-1°C) and is even known to survive as low as 18°F (-8°C) (Floridata, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014). However, in North America the species may die following frost or freezing temperatures but return in middle spring, and can be grown as an annual in colder climates. Even under frost free conditions, the species may lose its leaves when temperatures drop into the 40's (4-9°C) (Floridata, 2014). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. pulcherrima seeds are dispersed by both natural and intentional introduction. The species is capable of self-dispersal, as its dehiscent pods explode into 2 spiralling valves upon maturity, propelling the seeds away from the plant (Pulle et al., 1976; Puy et al., 2002). It has been intentionally dispersed by humans across tropical regions for both ornamental and agroforestry (living fence) purposes, but it is fast-growing and is known to have escaped cultivation and sometimes naturalized in non-native habitats (Gillman and Watson, 2011; Randall, 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Gillman and Watson, 2011; PIER, 2014
Hedges and windbreaksPlanted as a living fence Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
Interconnected waterwaysGrows along waterways and in floodplains Yes Yes Graveson, 2012
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Flora of Panama, 2014; PIER, 2014
Self-propelledPods are dehiscent, exploding into 2 spiralling valves with 8-10 seeds Yes Pulle et al., 1976; Puy et al., 2002

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Floating vegetation and debrisSpecies is known to grow along waterways and in floodplains Yes Yes Graveson, 2012
WaterGrows along waterways and in floodplains Yes Yes Graveson, 2012

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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C. pulcherrima has been valued as a showy ornamental and as a living barrier fence, resulting in its widespread cultivation pantropically. Although the species was not considered a high risk species of invasiveness (PIER, 2014), it is known to be invasive in parts of Australia, Ecuador, the Philippines and Cuba (Merrill, 1923; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2014). C. pulcherrima possesses several traits that could have negative impact on native flora, including a fast growth rate and spread of 10-12 feet per plant (Selvam 2007; Gillman and Watson, 2011), widespread distribution beyond its native range, and reports of pod and seed toxicity (University of Arizona, 2014), seeds that can remain viable for more than a year, and a tolerance for a wide range of soil types (Selvam, 2007; Gillman and Watson, 2011; Floridata, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014). More research is needed on the species’ invasiveness and its potential negative impact on the environment.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Poisoning
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. pulcherrima has been cultivated primarily as a popular garden ornamental, has often naturalized in the Caribbean (Howard, 1988), and is often seen in cultivation in the Canal Zone and other tropical regions (Flora of Panama, 2014).

The species has also been used in agroforestry, as it has sharp prickles along its stems, leading to the sometimes used common name of Barbados flower fence because of its use in the West Indies as a flowering barrier fence (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

C. pulcherrima has reportedly been used as food; in Mexico and Nicaragua, green seed pods are boiled or cooked and eaten (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

This species has been used in various cultures for medicinal purposes. Ailments treated include gastritis and intestinal inflammation, diarrhoea and dysentery (tea from leaves), flatulence, ulcers and hepatitis (leaves), and uterine dysfunction (bark and flowers), and from some of the earliest documentations of the species in the Amazon, as an emmenagogue and to induce abortions (Schiebinger, 2004). It is a common medicinal herb in Taiwan, and has been used in common remedies for treatment of a number of disorders including pyrexia, menoxenia, wheezing, bronchitis and malarial infection (Chiang et al., 2003). In Pakistan the roots are used for infantile convulsions, the flowers for intestinal worms, coughs and chronic catarrh and the leaves as a purgative and abortifacient  (Flora of Pakistan, 2014). A 2011 study found leaves of the species collected in Malaysia contained antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infections (Chew et al., 2011).

In Panama, the leaves have been reported as used for fish poison (Flora of Panama, 2014); similarly in Nicaragua, leaves are thrown into the water to stun fish (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014).

C. pulcherrima has also been used for dying cloth, as fruits and roots contain tannins (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Stimulants

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support

General

  • Ornamental
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits
  • Seeds

Materials

  • Dyestuffs
  • Poisonous to mammals

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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One of the common names of C. pulcherrima is dwarf poinciana, and in fact Linneaus originally named it Poinciana pulcherrima, in recognition of the similarity (although of smaller size) of the flowers of this shrub to the flowers of royal poinciana (Delonix regia) (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Alvina CS; Madulid DA, 2009. Flora Filipina: from Acapulco to Manila. Manila, Philippines: ArtPostAsia, National Museum of the Philippines, 102 pp.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Boggan J; Funk V; Kelloff C; Hoff M; Cremers G; Feuillet C; eds, 1997. Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas. Washington DC, USA: Department of Biological Diversity of the Guianas Program, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution.

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Burg WJ van der; Freitas J de; Debrot AO; Lotz LAP, 2012. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. Wageningen, Netherland: Plant Research International, 82 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf

Chew YL; Ling CEW; Tan PL; , 2011. Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11:12.

Chiang LC; Chiang W; Liu MC; Lin CC, 2003. In vitro antiviral activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and its related flavonoids. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 52(2):194-198. http://jac.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/52/2/194

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Die Gesellschaft, 1823. Flora, oder, Botanische Zeitung: welche Recensionen, Abhandlungen, Aufsätze, Neuigkeiten und Nachrichten, die Botanik betreffend, enthält, Volume 1-6 ([English title not available]). http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kQ4VAAAAYAAJ&dq

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Flora of Panama, 2014. Flora of Panama (WFO), Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Floridata, 2014. FLORIDATAbase website. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata.com. http://www.floridata.com/

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Gillman EF; Watson DG, 2011. Caesalpinia pulcherrima: Dwarf Poinciana. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida website. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/st107

Graveson RS, 2012. Survey of invasive alien plant species on Gros Piton, Saint Lucia. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03. Project No. GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03, GFL / 2328- 2713-4A86, GF-1030-09-03. Catsries, Saint Lucia: Department of Forestry.

Howard RA, 1988. Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Vol. 1-6. Arnold Arboretum. Jamaica Plains, Massachussetts, USA: Harvard University.

ILDIS, 2014. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

JSTOR Global Plants, 2014. JSTOR Global Plants Database. Ann Arbor, MI and New York, NY, USA: JSTOR. http://plants.jstor.org/

Lewis GP, 1998. Caesalpinia: a revision of the Poincianella Erythrostemon group. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 233 pp.; 126 ref.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Merrill ED, 1923. An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants. Vol. 2. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of printing. http://www.forgottenbooks.org/books/An_Enumeration_of_Philippine_Flowering_Plants_v2_1000888542

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Panama Checklist, 2014. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

Paraguay Checklist, 2014. Paraguay Checklist. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/Paraguay

Peru Checklist, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pulle AA; Lanjouw J; Stoffers AL, 1976. Flora of Suriname: Vol. II, pt. 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 709 pp.

Puy DJdu; Labat JN; Rabevohitra R; Villiers JF; Bosser J; Moat J, 2002. The Leguminosae of Madagascar. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, 737 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Schiebinger L, 2004. Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting in the Atlantic World. Cambridge MA, USA: Harvard University Press, 320 pp.

Selvam V, 2007. Trees and shrubs of the Maldives. RAP Publication, No.12:vi + 239 pp. http://www.fao.org/world/regional/rap/publication_catalogue.asp

Sloane H, 1707-1725. A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and Jamaica. In two volumes. London, UK: Printed by B.M. for the author. http://books.google.com/books?id=UYr4e1yuwCwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

Smith AC, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanic Gardens, 758 pp.

Stone BC, 1970. The Flora of Guam. Micronesica, 6:1-659.

UK Natural History Museum, 2014. Chapter 2: People and the Slave Trade. In: Slavery and the Natural World. London, UK: Natural History Museum. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources-rx/files/chapter-2-people-and-slavery-19105.pdf

University of Arizona, 2014. Arizona Poison Drug Information Center website. Tucson, AZ, USA: College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona. http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/centers/arizona-poison-drug-information-center/plantsbad

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Tornabene MW; Weitzman A; Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of Micronesia website. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Wagner WL; Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Young RP, 2008. A biodiversity assessment of the Centre Hills, Montserrat. Durrell Conservation Monograph No. 1. Jersey: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. http://www.durrell.org/library/Document/Durrell_Cons_Monograph_1_Full_Report.pdf

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Boggan J, Funk V, Kelloff C, Hoff M, Cremers G, Feuillet C, 1997. Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas., [ed. by Boggan J, Funk V, Kelloff C, Hoff M, Cremers G, Feuillet C]. Washington DC, USA: Department of Biological Diversity of the Guianas Program, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Burg WJ van der, Freitas J de, Debrot AO, Lotz LAP, 2012. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. In: Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project, Wageningen, Netherland, Plant Research International. 82 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD)., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Flora of Panama, 2014. Flora of Panama (WFO),, St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil. (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil)., http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

ILDIS, 2014. International Legume Database and Information Service., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Merrill ED, 1923. An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants., 2 Manila, Philippines: Bureau of printing. http://www.forgottenbooks.org/books/An_Enumeration_of_Philippine_Flowering_Plants_v2_1000888542

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Puy DJdu, Labat JN, Rabevohitra R, Villierhttp://s JF, Bohttp://shttp://ser J, Moat J, 2002. The Leguminohttp://sae of Madagahttp://scar., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardenhttp://s. 737 pp. http://s

Stone BC, 1970. The Flora of Guam. In: Micronesica, 6 1-659.

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia)., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Young RP, 2008. A biodiversity assessment of the Centre Hills, Montserrat. In: Durrell Conservation Monograph No. 1, Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. http://www.durrell.org/library/Document/Durrell_Cons_Monograph_1_Full_Report.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Flora of Micronesia websitehttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm
Flora of the Hawaiian Islands websitehttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm
Flora of the Marquesas websitehttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/query.cfm
USFS Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/pier/

Contributors

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12/5/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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