Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Archips podanus
(great brown twist moth)

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Datasheet

Archips podanus (great brown twist moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Archips podanus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • great brown twist moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. podana adult (19-28 mm).
TitleAdult great brown twist moth
CaptionA. podana adult (19-28 mm).
CopyrightHorticulture Research International/East Malling
A. podana adult (19-28 mm).
Adult great brown twist mothA. podana adult (19-28 mm).Horticulture Research International/East Malling

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Archips podanus

Preferred Common Name

  • great brown twist moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Archippus podanus Scopoli
  • Archips oporana
  • Archips podana Scopoli
  • Cacoecia oporana
  • Cacoecia podana Scopoli
  • Phalaena podana Scopoli
  • Tortrix podana Scopoli

International Common Names

  • English: fruit tree tortrix moth

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Wickler, Braeunlicher Obstbaum-; Wickler, Eschenzwiesel-; Wickler, Johannisbeer-
  • Netherlands: appelbladroller, grote; bladroller, groene; grote appelbladroller

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Archips
  •                                 Species: Archips podanus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

GeorgiaPresentZvereva et al. (1991)
KazakhstanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Zlatanova, 1970
South KoreaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Lee & Kim, 1983

Europe

AlbaniaPresentKapidani and Duraj (1991)
AustriaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Boscheri et al. (1992)
BelgiumPresentVantieghem (1994); Paternotte (1997)
BulgariaPresentAngelova (1983); CABI (Undated)
CzechoslovakiaPresentHrdy et al. (1979); Kozlov and Motorkin (1990); CABI (Undated)
DenmarkPresentGrauslund et al. (1993)
FinlandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Heikinheimo, 1978
FrancePresent, WidespreadTouzeau (1981); CABI (Undated);
-CorsicaPresentBrun et al. (1991)
GermanyPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Naton, 1972
HungaryPresentMolnár et al. (1985); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
ItalyPresentAngeli et al. (1993); Pasqualini (1993)
LithuaniaPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Ivinskis & Pakal'nishkis, 1983
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadEvenhuis et al. (1973); CABI (Undated)
PolandPresentKoślińska et al. (1990); CABI (Undated);
RomaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Iacob, 1970
RussiaPresentSafonkin (1993); CABI (Undated)
SloveniaPresentEPPO (2020)
SwedenPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Stenmark, 1978
SwitzerlandPresentBuholzer et al. (1992)
UkrainePresentSafonkin (1990); Pralya et al. (1992)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadBaker (1991); Cross (1996)

North America

CanadaPresentFreeman (1967)
United StatesPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / webbing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Actia pilipennis Parasite Larvae
Apanteles ater Parasite Larvae
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae
Copidosoma Parasite Eggs
Elodia morio Parasite Larvae
Eumea linearicornis Parasite Larvae
Eumea morio Parasite Larvae
Macrocentrus linearis Parasite Larvae
Nemorilla floralis Parasite Larvae
Nemorilla maculosa Parasite Larvae
Platymya mitis Parasite Larvae
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata Parasite Larvae
Trichomma enecator Parasite Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Angeli G; Mattedi L; Maines R, 1993. Tortricid leaf miners in the fruit crops of Trento. Informatore Fitopatologico, 43(5):15-19; 13 ref.

Angelova R, 1983. Parasites of leaf-rollers (subfam. Tortricinp, Lep.) in apple orchards. Nauchni Trudove, Vissh Selskostopanski Institut 'Vasil Kolarov', 28(3):95-102

Angelova R; Lecheva I, 1978. Population density dynamics of leaf rollers (Tortricidae) and loopers (Geometridae) in apple plantations during the spring-summer period. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 15(7/8):43-48

Audemard H, 1986. Les tordeuses nuisibles aux vergers de l'Europe de l'Ouest. Bulletin SROP, 1986/IX/4:68-78.

Baker CRB, 1991. The validation and use of a life-cycle simulation model for risk assessment of insect pests. Bulletin OEPP, 21(3):615-622

Barrett CG, 1904-05. The Lepidoptera of the British Islands., UK 425-469.

Barrett CG, 1905-07. The Lepidoptera of the British Islands. London, UK 470-504.

Beeke H; De Jong DJ, 1991. Identification of larvae and pupae. In: Van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. Tortricid Pests, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 65-76.

Boscheri S; Paoli N; Rizzolli W; Bradlwarter M, 1992. Control studies with the mating confusion technique against the codling moth and fruit-peel tortricids. Obstbau Weinbau, 29(10):271-274

Boscheri S; Rizzolli W; Paoli N, 1992. Experience with mating disruption for control of the codling moth and leafrollers at the Laimburg Experiment Station (South Tirol - Bolzano). Bulletin OILB/SROP, 15(5):81-83

Bradley JD; Tremewan WG; Smith A, 1979. British tortricoid moths. Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. British tortricoid moths. Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. London, UK: The Ray Society, 336.

Brun P; Chambon JP; Frerot B, 1991. Sexual trapping of males of Lepidoptera Tortricidae on Corsica with synthetic attractants. Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie, 8(1):37-42

Buholzer F; Draber J; Bourgeois F; Guyer W, 1992. CGA 184'699 a new acylurea insecticide. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 57(3A):781-790.

Charles PJ, 1974. The complex of parasites and predators of tortricids other than the codling moth and the summer fruit tortrix. Brochure, Section Regionale Ouest Palearctique, Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique contre les Animaux et les Plantes Nuisibles, 3:39-47.

Chiswell JR, 1964. Control of the fruit tree tortrix, Archips podana (Scop.) on apple with summer sprays. 51 Report East Malling Research Station 1963. East Malling, UK: East Malling Research Station, 133-137.

Cross JV, 1996. A pheromone trap survey of tortricid moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards in England subject to different insecticide management. Entomologist, 115(3/4):168-180; 14 ref.

De Jong DG; Vlug HJ, 1976. Bestimmungsschlüssel der in den Niederlanden am Apfel vorkommenden Blattwicklerraupen. Nützlinge in Apfelanlagen. Einführung in den Integrierten Pflanzenschutz, Teil 3. Wageningen, Netherlands: IOBC/WPRS, 35-38.

De Reede RH, 1985. Integrated Pest Management in Apple Orchards in the Netherlands: A Solution for Selective Control of Tortricids. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc.

Deventer P van; Blommers L, 1992. Mating disruption of several leaf-feeding orchard leaf-roller species with a single sex pheromone component. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 27(1-4):615-620

Evenhuis HH; Jong DJ de; Vlug HJ, 1973. The pupae of the leaf-rollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple in the Netherlands. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 73(4):351-365

Ford LT, 1949. A Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera. London, UK.

Freeman TN, 1967. The Archipinae of North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Canadian Entomologist, 7(Suppl):1-89.

Frerot B; Boniface B; Chambon JP; Meritan Y, 1982. The use of trapping with synthetic sex attractants in the study of the distribution in the Paris area of three species of tortricids in orchards. Agronomie, 2(9):885-893

Gal T; Kiss S, 1982. Occurrence of Archips podana [podanus] Scop. in apple orchards of department Zala [Hungary]. Novenyvedelem, 18(6):285

Glen DM; Payne CC, 1983. Evaluation of codling moth granulosis virus in the United Kingdom. 10th International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Volume 2. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, England, 20-25 November, 1983. Plant protection for human welfare British Crop Protection Council Croydon UK, 785

Glen DM; Wiltshire CW; Milsom NF; Brain P, 1984. Codling moth granulosis virus: effects of its use on some other orchard arthropods. Annals of Applied Biology, 104(1):99-106

Grauslund J; Lindhard H; Christensen JV; Schenk AME; Webster AD; Wertheim SJ, 1993. An experiment to compare integrated and conventional spray programmes in eight apple cultivars. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Integrated Fruit Production, Veldhoven, Netherlands, 24-28 August, 1992. Acta Horticulturae, 347:57-63.

Gruys P, 1982. Hits and misses. The ecological approach to pest control in orchards. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 31(1):70-87

Heikinheimo O, 1978. Pheromone trapping as a method for faunistic research. Norwegian Journal of Entomology, 25:102

Hey GL; Massee AM, 1934. Tortrix investigations in 1933. Annual Report of East Malling Research Station, Kent 1933. East Malling, UK: East Malling Research Station, 228-909.

Hrdy I; Marek J; Krampl F, 1979. Sexual pheromone activity of 8-dodecenyl and 11-tetradecenyl acetates for males of several lepidopteran species in field trials. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 76(2):65-84

Iacob M, 1970. Contributions to the study of the ecology of the peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella Zell.). Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 8:153-168

Ivinskis PP; Pakal'nishkis SA, 1983. Microlepidoptera of orchard coenoses of the Lithuanian SSR. Acta Entomologica Lituanica, 6:55-75

Kapidani A; Duraj N, 1991. Investigations on the biology and control of the tortricid Archips rosana L. in Albania. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 52(2):79-88

Komarek S, 1987. Study on the species composition and the population dynamics of the family Tortricidae in some orchards in southern Bohemia using pheromone traps. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 48(1):2-23.

Koslinska M; Tworkowska U; Wojtas-Kozie B; Gromisz Z; Predki S; Bachnacki R, 1990. Course of flight of the summer fruit tortricid - Adoxophyes reticulana Hbn. and the great brown tortricid - Archips podana Scop. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Poland in the years 1984-1987. Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach. Seria A, Prace Doswiadczalne z Zakresu Sadownictwa, No. 29:75-85

Kozlov MV; Motorkin ME, 1990. Geographical variability in the polyphagous tortricid Archips podana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 69(7):55

Krakowiak A, 1974. Occurrence of leaf rollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in the orchards of the Poznan region. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 44(4):835-838

Lee JW; Kim CW, 1983. Studies on the Ichneumonidae from Korea II. Anomaloninp of the genus Trichomma, with the description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Korean Journal of Entomology, 13(2):61-67

Meyrick E, 1928. A Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera. London, UK.

Miczulski B; Koslinska M, 1976. Parasites of leafrollers (Tortricidae) occurring in apple orchards in some regions of Poland. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 46(1):165-178

Milaire HG, 1976. Trapping of Adoxophyes orana and Archips podanus by means of synthetic sex pheromones, and remarks on Pandemis heparana. Sex pheromones of the Lepidoptera.: Les pheromones sexuelles des Lepidopteres. Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques, Centre de Recherches de Bordeaux. Pont-de-la-Maye France, 15-23

Minks AK; Deventer Pvan, 1992. Mating disruption of codling moth and fruit tree leafrollers in Dutch apple orchards: testing of commercial products. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 15(5):72-75

Molnar J; Varjas L; Szazanov AP, 1985. Field testing of juvenoid against tortricids (Pandemis ribeana, P. heparana and Archips podana) causing damage in apple orchards. Novenyvedelem, 21(9):385-390

Naton E, 1972. The efficiency of light-traps for the capture of Tortricids frequent in orchards dependent on construction and light colour. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 71(3):270-277

Nicoli G; Corazza L; Cornale R, 1990. Biological control of lepidopterous tortricid leafrollers on pear with Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. ssp. kurstaki.. Informatore Fitopatologico, 40(6):55-62; 19 ref.

Papp J; Reichart G, 1973. Data on knowledge of some Braconid parasites on moth pests of fruit trees (Lepidoptera et Hymenoptera). Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 26(2):363-371

Pasqualini E, 1993. Evolution of pest populations in Emilia-Romagna and methods of their control. Informatore Agrario, 49(Supplement No. 14):11-14.

Pasqualini E; Antropoli A; Pari P; Faccioli G, 1992. Biological control in integrated pest management systems for apple and pear orchards. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 27(1-4):507-512; 9 ref.

Paternotte E, 1997. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera (moths), a possible expedient for the timely application of a control measure. Fruitteelt-nieuws, 10(4):27-28.

Pierce FN; Metcalfe JW, 1922. The Genitalia of the group Tortricidae of the lepidoptera of the British Islands. Oundle, UK.

Pontalti M; Dallgo G, 1992. Mating disruption of codling moth and leafroller species in apple orchards of Trentino - first year results. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 15(5):107-110

Pralya II; Sen'kova EA; Shapar' MV, 1992. Methods of counting orchard leafrollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 71(4):131-138

Reede RH de; Alkema P; Blommers LHM, 1985. The use of the insect growth regulators fenoxycarb and epofenonane against leafrollers in integrated pest management in apple orchards. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 39(3):265-272

Reichart G; Berezvai F; Jakab J; Molnar J; Szegeny A, 1976. Study of moth communities damaging fruit trees in the spring of 1975. Novenyvedelmi Kutato Intezet Evkonyve, 14:49-67

Ritter FJ; Persoons CJ, 1975. Recent development in insect pheromone research, in particular in the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 25(3):261-275

Roshchin NT; Shestopal AV; Dzhafarov ShM, 1986. Lepidocide against tortricids. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 5:33-34.

Safonkin AF, 1990. Polymorphism and ecological plasticity of the fruit-tree tortrix moth Archips podana. Zhurnal Obschei Biologii, 51(3):393-400

Safonkin AF, 1993. Ecological aspects of pheromone communication of leafrollers and spatial distribution of species. Journal of Applied Entomology, 115(5):441-453

Stenmark A, 1978. Experiments with pheromones against tortricids in Swedish fruit orchards. Vaxtskyddsrapporter Tradgard, No. 2:1-42

Touzeau J, 1981. The use of pheromones in fruit-tree culture. Phytoma, No. 329:23-24

Umpelby RA, 1984. Pest and disease control with medium and reduced volume spraying of apples, Luddington, 1981 to 1984. 1984 British Crop Protection Conference. Pests and diseases. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton Metropole, England, November 19-22, 1984. Volume 3 Croydon, United Kingdom; British Crop Protection Council, 1075-1082

Vantieghem H, 1994. Insect sex pheromones: general and possibilities in Belgian fruit culture (Part 2). Fruitteelt-nieuws, 7(11):9-11

Zlatanova AA, 1970. The biology of Microdus rufipes Nees (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) - a parasitoid of the codling moth in Kazakhstan. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 49(4):749-755

Zvereva EL; Kozlov MV; Vrkoch Ya, 1991. Methods of estimating parameters of search behaviour of males of the omnivorous leaf roller Archips podana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) under field conditions. Zoologicheskii^breve~ Zhurnal, 70(7):73-82; 14 ref.

Distribution References

Angeli G, Mattedi L, Maines R, 1993. Tortricid leaf miners in the fruit crops of Trento. (Tortricidi ricamatori nella frutticoltura del Trentino.). Informatore Fitopatologico. 43 (5), 15-19.

Angelova R, 1983. Parasites of leaf-rollers (subfam. Tortricinae, Lep.) in apple orchards. Nauchni Trudove, Vissh Selskostopanski Institut 'Vasil Kolarov'. 28 (3), 95-102.

Baker C R B, 1991. The validation and use of a life-cycle simulation model for risk assessment of insect pests. In: Bulletin OEPP, 21 (3) 615-622. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.1991.tb01295.x

Brun P, Chambon J P, Frerot B, 1991. Sexual trapping of males of Lepidoptera Tortricidae on Corsica with synthetic attractants. (Piégeage sexuel des mâles de Lépidoptères Tortricidae en Corse par des attractifs de synthèse.). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie. 8 (1), 37-42.

Buholzer F, Draber J, Bourgeois F, Guyer W, 1992. CGA 184'699 a new acylurea insecticide. In: Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent [International Symposium on Crop Protection.], 57 (3A) 781-790.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cross J V, 1996. A pheromone trap survey of tortricid moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards in England subject to different insecticide management. Entomologist. 115 (3/4), 168-180.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Evenhuis H H, Jong D J de, Vlug H J, 1973. The pupae of the leaf-rollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple in the Netherlands. (Die Puppen der in den Niederlanden am Apfel vorkommenden Blattwickler (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 73 (4), 351-365.

Freeman TN, 1967. The Archipinae of North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). In: Canadian Entomologist, 7 (Suppl.) 1-89.

Grauslund J, Lindhard H, Christensen JV, Schenk AME, Webster AD, Wertheim SJ, 1993. An experiment to compare integrated and conventional spray programmes in eight apple cultivars. In: Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Integrated Fruit Production, Veldhoven, Netherlands, 24-28 August, 1992], 347 57-63.

Hrdy I, Marek J, Krampl F, 1979. Sexual pheromone activity of 8-dodecenyl and 11-tetradecenyl acetates for males of several lepidopteran species in field trials. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca. 76 (2), 65-84.

Kapidani A, Duraj N, 1991. Investigations on the biology and control of the tortricid Archips rosana L. in Albania. (Untersuchungen zur Biologie und Bekämpfung des Heckenwicklers (Archips rosana L.) in Albanien.). Pflanzenschutzberichte. 52 (2), 79-88.

Koślińska M, Tworkowska U, Wojtas-Kozieł B, Gromisz Z, Prędki S, Bachnacki R, 1990. Course of flight of the summer fruit tortricid - Adoxophyes reticulana Hbn. and the great brown tortricid - Archips podana Scop. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Poland in the years 1984-1987. (Przebieg lotu zwójki siatkóweczki - Adoxophyes reticulana Hbn. i zwójki rdzaweczki - Archips podana Scop. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) w Polsce w latach 1984-1987.). Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach. Seria A, Prace Doświadczalne z Zakresu Sadownictwa. 75-85.

Kozlov M V, Motorkin M E, 1990. Geographical variability in the polyphagous tortricid Archips podana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Zoologicheskiĭ Zhurnal. 69 (7), 55.

Molnár J, Varjas L, Szazanov A P, 1985. Field testing of juvenoid against tortricids (Pandemis ribeana, P. heparana and Archips podana) causing damage in apple orchards. (Juvenoidok szabadföldi kipróbálása almásokban károsító sodrómolyok (Pandemis ribeana, P. heparana és Archips podana) ellen.). Növényvédelem. 21 (9), 385-390.

Pasqualini E, 1993. Evolution of pest populations in Emilia-Romagna and methods of their control. (Evoluzione delle popolazioni dei fitogagi in Emilia-Romagna e motodi di contenimento.). Informatore Agrario. 49 (Supplement No. 14), 11-14.

Paternotte E, 1997. Sex pheromones of Lepidoptera (moths), a possible expedient for the timely application of a control measure. (Seksferomonen van Lepidopteren (vlinders), een mogelijk hulpmiddel voor het tijdig toepassen van een bestrijdingsmiddel.). Fruitteelt-nieuws. 10 (4), 27-28.

Pralya I I, Sen'kova E A, Shapar' M V, 1992. Methods of counting orchard leafrollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Zoologicheskiihacek˜ Zhurnal. 71 (4), 131-138.

Safonkin A F, 1990. Polymorphism and ecological plasticity of the fruit-tree tortrix moth Archips podana. Zhurnal Obscheĭ Biologii. 51 (3), 393-400.

Safonkin A F, 1993. Ecological aspects of pheromone communication of leafrollers and spatial distribution of species. Journal of Applied Entomology. 115 (5), 441-453. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1993.tb00413.x

Touzeau J, 1981. The use of pheromones in fruit-tree culture. (L'utilisation des pheromones en arboriculture fruitiere.). Phytoma. 23-24.

Vantieghem H, 1994. Insect sex pheromones: general and possibilities in Belgian fruit culture (Part 2). (Insektensexferomonen: algemeen en mogelijkheden in de Belgische fruitteelt (Deel 2).). Fruitteelt-nieuws. 7 (11), 9-11.

Zvereva E L, Kozlov M V, Vrkoch Ya, 1991. Methods of estimating parameters of search behaviour of males of the omnivorous leaf roller Archips podana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) under field conditions. Zoologicheskiĭ Zhurnal. 70 (7), 73-82.

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