Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Cactodera cacti
(cactus cyst eelworm)



Cactodera cacti (cactus cyst eelworm)


  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cactodera cacti
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cactus cyst eelworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Secernentea
  •         Order: Tylenchida
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cactodera cacti Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941

Preferred Common Name

  • cactus cyst eelworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Heterodera cacti Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941

International Common Names

  • English: cactus cyst nematode; cactus root eelworm
  • Spanish: nematodo de los cactus (Mexico)
  • French: anguillule à kyste des cactus

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Älchen, Kakteenzysten-
  • Japan: saboten-sisuto-sentyu
  • Netherlands: cactuscystenaaltje

EPPO code

  • HETDCC (Cactodera cacti)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Secernentea
  •                 Order: Tylenchida
  •                     Family: Heteroderidae
  •                         Genus: Cactodera
  •                             Species: Cactodera cacti

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / cysts on root surface
Roots / proliferation roots in ball

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsCarrying cactus Yes
Mail Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants cysts
Roots adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; cysts Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Adam W, 1932. Note sur Heterodera schachtii Schm. parasite des cactus. Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 8:1-10.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Baldwin JG; Mundo-Ocampo M, 1991. Heteroderinae, cyst and non-cyst forming nematodes. In: Nickle WR, ed. Manual of Agricultural Nematology. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 275-362.

Cayrol JC, 1961. Les nématodes des coltures maraichéres, "Les Nematodes" Journées d'etude et information. Paris, France: A.C.T.A., FNGPC.

Cho MR; Kim YJ; Kwak YH; Choi YE, 1995. New record and damage of Cactodera cacti in Korea. RDA Journal of Agricultural Science, Crop Protection, 37(1):324-328; 11 ref.

Christie JR, 1959. Plant Nematodes. Their Bionomics and Control. Gainesville, Florida: Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Florida.

Cordero DA, 1989. Comparative morphology and development of the cone of Heterodera schachtii and Cactodera cacti. PhD Thesis. Riverside, USA: University of California.

Decker H, 1968. Neues über das Auftreten PflanzenparasitSrer Nematoden in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik und den angrenzenden Landen. Nachrichtenblatt für den Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienst, Berlin 22:137-140.

Duan YX; Wang D; Chen LJ, 2012. First report of the cactus cyst nematode, Cactodera cacti, on cactus in northern China. Plant Disease, 96(9):1385.

Filipjev IN; Schuurmans Stekhoven Jr JH, 1941. A Manual of Agricultural Helminthology. Leiden, Germany: E J Brill.

Franklin MT, 1951. Cyst-forming Species of Heterodera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Goffart H, 1936. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt an gemeiner Hanfnessel (Galeopsis tetrahit L.) und an Kakteen. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 8:542-545.

Goffart H, 1955. Fber -lchen an Kakteen und Dickblattgewachsen. Gartenwelt, 55:270-271.

Golden AM; Raski DJ, 1977. Heterodera thornei n.sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) and a review of related species. Journal of Nematology, 9(2):93-112.

Goodey JB; Franklin MT; Hooper; DJ, 1965. The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued under their Hosts. 3rd Edition. Farnham Royal, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Graney LSO; Bird GW, 1990. Descriptions and comparative morphology of Cactodera milleri n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) and Cactodera cacti with a review and key to the genus Cactodera. Journal of Nematology, 22(4):457-480.

Hesling JJ, 1978. Cyst nematodes: morphology and identification of Heterodera, Globodera and Punctodera. In: Southey JF, ed. Plant nematology. London UK: HM Stationery Office, 125-155.

Johnson AW, 1968. Cactus cyst nematode found in Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:114.

JONES FGW, 1950. Observations on the beet eelworm and other cyst-forming species of Heterodera. Annals of Applied Biology, 37(3):407-440.

Krall E; Krall H, 1978. Revision of the plant nematodes of the family Heteroderidae on the basis of the trophic specialisation of these parasites and their host plants. Fitogel' mintologicheskie-issledovaniya, 39-56. "Nauka", Moscow: USSR.

Kumar AC, 1964. A note on the occurrence of Heterodera cacti from Mysore. Current Science, 33:534.

Langdon KR; Esser RP, 1969. Cactus cyst nematode, Heterodera cacti, in Florida, with host list. Plant Disease Reporter, 53:123-125.

Maafi ZT; Sturhan D; Ahmad Kheiri; Geraert E; Subbotin SA; Moens M, 2004. Morphology of some cyst-forming nematodes from Iran. Russian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):59-77.

Maeseneer de J, 1963. New host-plant records for the cactus cyst eelworm Heterodera cacti Filipjev & Sch. Stekhoven. Nematologica, 9:646.

Manolache C; Romascu EM, 1973. Nematozii paraziti semnalati la plantele cultivat din Romania si stadiul actual si de perspectiva al cercetarilor. Anala Institute Cercetari Pentru Protectia Plantelor, 9:123-125.

Minz G, 1956. Cyst-forming nematodes in Israel. Plant Disease Reporter, 40:971-973.

Mulk MM, 1977. Heterodera cacti. CIH Descriptions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Set 7, No. 96. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Mulvey RH, 1972. Identification of Heterodera cysts by terminal and cone top structures. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 50:1277-1292.

Mulvey RH; Golden AM, 1983. An illustrated key to the cyst-forming genera and species of Heteroderidae in the Western Hemisphere with species morphometrics and distribution. Journal of Nematology, 15(1):1-59.

Narbaev ZN, 1973. Nematodes of cacti in Tashkent, USSR. Materialy Nauchnykh Konfersentii Vsesoyuznogo Obshchestva Gel'mintologov, 1971-1972, 25:164-167.

Narbaev ZN; Mirsalimova MS, 1989. Parasitic nematodes of greenhouse ornamental plants. U^breve~zbekiston Biologija Zu^cedilla~rnali, No. 5:46-49; 11 ref.

O'Bannon JH; Esser RP, 1970. Control of Heterodera cacti infecting Zygocactus truncatus. Plant Disease Reporter, 54:692-694.

Oostenbrink M, 1953. Actuele waarnemingen en meldingen op nematologisch gebied. Verslagen en Mededelingen van de Plantenziektenkundige Dienst te Wageningen, No. 120:165-175.

Oostenbrink M, 1958. Enige bijzondere aaltjesaantastingen in 1957. Tijdschr. PlZiekt., 64:122.

Paneque M; Sampedro J, 1986. Report of the cyst nematode Cactodera cacti in the Holguin Province, Cuba. Ciencia y Te^acute~cnica en la Agricultura, Proteccio^acute~n de Plantas, 9(4):123-129; 3 ref.

Schneider J, 1961. Les nematodes parasites des cactus. Phytoma. Revue de Phytomédecin Appliquée, France, 12:17-20.

Sewell R, 1969. Some records of plant parasitic nematodes encountered in Canada in 1968. Canadian Plant Discovery Survey, 49:20-21.

Shmal'ko VH, 1959. The cactus nematode, Heterodera cacti Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941. In: Trudy Gel'mintologicheskoi Laboratorii. Akademiya Nauk SSR.

Sosa-Moss C, 1987. Cyst nematodes in Mexico, Central and South America. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15(1):1-12.

Southey JF, 1954. Root eelworm on a cactus. Plant Pathology, 3:30.

Southey JF, 1957. Observations on Heterodera cacti Filipjev et Sch. Stekhoven and Meloidogyne spp. on imported cactus plants with a list of new host records. Nematologica, 2:1-6.

Southey JF, 1958. Heterodera cacti - new host records. In: New and uncommon plant diseases and pests. Plant Pathology, 7:152.

Southey JF, 1963. New host plant records for eelworms. Plant Pathology, 12:46.

Steiner G; Taylor AL; Cobb GS, 1951. Cyst-forming plant parasitic nematodes and their spread in commerce. Proceeding of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 18:13-18.

Stelter H, 1973. Die Arten der Gattung Heterodera (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) und ihre Verbreitung. Pedobiologia, 13:40-61.

Stelter H; Kuhn H, 1973. The cactus cyst nematode, Heterodera cacti. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutzdienst in der DDR, 27(11):239-240.

Wilski A, 1964. Fauna nicieni - pasozytow rosin gleb szkarni w Polsce. Poland: Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 5-59.

Winkelheide R; Sturhan D, 1996. Studies on host specificity of a Pasteuria isolate from Heterodera goettingiana. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fu^umlaut~r Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, No. 317:46-53; 19 ref.

Winslow R D, 1954. Provisional lists of host plants of some root eelworms (Heterodera species). Annals of Applied Biology, 41:591-605.

Yokoo T, 1966. On the occurrence of cactus cyst nematode: Heterodera cacti (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) in Kyushu (Japan). Agricultural Bulletin of Saga University, 22:105-109.

Distribution Maps

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