Callidiellum rufipenne (Japanese cedar longhorn beetle)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Environmental Impact
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky, 1860)
Preferred Common Name
- Japanese cedar longhorn beetle
Other Scientific Names
- Callidium rufipenne
- Palaeocallidium rufipenne (Motschulsky)
International Common Names
- English: cedar longhorned beetle; small cedar longhorn beetle
Local Common Names
- Canada: lesser cedar longicorn beetle
- USA: small Japanese cedar longhorn beetle; smaller Japanese cedar longhorn beetle
- CALDRU (Callidium rufipenne)
- CLLLRU (Callidiellum rufipenne)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page This is an invasive pest, but the seriousness of the threat posed by C. rufipenne is still unclear (Lundgren, 2001). C. rufipenne infests solid wood packing material and dunnage, and is frequently intercepted at international ports. It was previously believed to only feed on dead trees; however, an infestation of C. rufipenne was found in apparently healthy nursery stock in the USA (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). This infestation was eradicated, but the potential for C. rufipenne to persist on healthy trees remains questionable.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Cerambycidae
- Genus: Callidiellum
- Species: Callidiellum rufipenne
DescriptionTop of page The eggs are laid singly or in small groups in the crevices of the bark (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The eggs are white and 1.4 mm long (Shibata, 1994). The larvae hatch and tunnel into the wood of the tree. The larva is mainly yellowish-white although portions of the head are a rusty red. At maturity, the larva can be more than 20 mm long (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). The thoracic segments are wider (up to 4.5 mm) than the abdominal segments and small legs are present on the former (Hoebeke, 1999; Humphreys and Allen, 2000). The younger larvae mine directly under the tree bark and the older larvae bore into the xylem to pupate. The pupae of C. rufipenne are milky-white to light brown and less than 16 mm long (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). The ninth abdominal segment on the pupa is very small and the antennae extend backwards to at least the second segment (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). The pupae can be found in a chamber that is connected to the external surface of the tree by a tunnel that is plugged with larval frass and wood particles.
The adults emerge in the spring and can be found mating and laying eggs on the external surface of the trees. The male beetles are blackish-blue with a reddish patch on the shoulders of the elytra (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The male antennae extend beyond the posterior of the abdomen (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The female elytra and abdomen are reddish-brown and the antennae are two-thirds to three-quarters the length of the body (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The beetles of both sexes are between 6 and 13 mm long, have pointed posteriors and brownish-black heads (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). The legs are black, and the femora are elongated and swollen, relative to other cerambycids of a similar description (Hoebeke, 1999; Humphreys and Allen, 2000). The antennae are also black and the second antennomere is elongated (Hoebeke, 1999).
DistributionTop of page C. rufipenne is native to eastern continental Asia and Japan, where it feeds primarily on dead or dying trees. This pest readily infests solid wood packing material and consequently has been intercepted hundreds of times at the USA ports in at least 21 states since the 1960s (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). Likewise, C. rufipenne has been intercepted in New Zealand and Europe (Maier and Lemmon, 2000; EPPO, 2003). Apparently, the invasive populations of C. rufipenne have only been reported in the USA and possibly in Italy and Spain. C. rufipenne completed its development on nursery stock in Connecticut, USA in 1997 and had spread to several other states by 2000. These infestations have been eradicated, and subsequent surveys have not revealed any new infestations of C. rufipenne in the USA (NAPIS, 2002).
In addition to the countries listed in the distribution table, C. rufipenne also occurs in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA (CT Maier, The New Hampshire Agriculture Experiment Station, personal communication, 2001).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Native||Not invasive||Gressitt, 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hebei||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|Japan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Makihara, 1984; Shibata, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hokkaido||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Honshu||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Kyushu||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Ryukyu Archipelago||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Shikoku||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|Korea, DPR||Present||Native||Not invasive||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|Taiwan||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Makihara et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|Canada||Absent, intercepted only||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-British Columbia||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||1927||Not invasive||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|USA||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive||Hoebeke, 1999; Humphreys and Allen, 2000; Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Connecticut||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Massachusetts||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||2000||Invasive||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; NAPIS, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-North Carolina||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Pennsylvania||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||Not invasive||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Rhode Island||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Washington||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||1954||Not invasive||Hoebeke, 1999; Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
Central America and Caribbean
|Puerto Rico||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||Not invasive||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|Argentina||Present||Introduced||Turienzo, 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|Belgium||Present, few occurrences||EPPO, 2014|
|Croatia||Present, few occurrences||EPPO, 2014|
|France||Present, few occurrences||EPPO, 2014|
|Italy||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Not invasive||Campadelli and Sama, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Italy (mainland)||Present, few occurrences||CABI/EPPO, 2009|
|Russian Federation||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Russian Far East||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|Spain||Absent, unreliable record||Introduced||Bahillo and Iturrondobeitia, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Spain (mainland)||Absent, unreliable record||CABI/EPPO, 2009|
|New Zealand||Absent, intercepted only||Introduced||Not invasive||Maier and Lemmon, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page There are apparently no current regulations to restrict the transport of C. rufipenne. When C. rufipenne was introduced to Connecticut, USA, in 1997, the state of Connecticut declared that arborvitae (Thuja), juniper (Juniperus), cedar (Chamaecyparis), pine (Pinus) and wood products containing C. rufipenne were under regulation, and infested items could not be transported into or out of the state. The populations of C. rufipenne have now been eradicated from northeastern USA and there appear to be no new regulations adopted for C. rufipenne.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page Members of the families, Cupressaceae and Pinaceae (and possibly Taxodiaceae) are considered to be hosts of C. rufipenne. Within its native range, C. rufipenne is commonly reported from Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa (Shibata, 1994). In North America, C. rufipenne has been reared from logs or trees of Thuja occidentalis, Juniperus virginiana and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). In Europe, infestations of C. rufipenne were reported on Cupressus macrocarpa and Juniperus communis (Lundgren, 2001).
Growth StagesTop of page Post-harvest
SymptomsTop of page The feeding by C. rufipenne larvae results in sinuous, frass-filled galleries that increase in width to 6 mm as the larvae age (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). Initially, the larvae feed on the cambium and phloem of the trees, and the damage can occasionally be observed externally as puckering or callusing of the bark (Hoebeke, 1999). As the larvae prepare to pupate, they tunnel into the xylem of the tree and form pupation chambers that are 6-13 mm in diameter (Hoebeke, 1999; Humphreys and Allen, 2000). The adults emerge from the trees in spring, creating elliptical exit holes that are 6-10 mm in diameter. Larval feeding can girdle trees, leading to brittle and dead branches.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Stems / discoloration of bark|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page C. rufipenne typically requires 1 year to complete its life cycle, although in the northern areas of its range, it may require 2 years to develop (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The eggs of C. rufipenne are laid singly or in small groups, in the cracks and crevices of bark on dead or dying trees. They hatch within 2 weeks (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). Fecundity is related to female longevity and the females lay a mean of 18.1 eggs in the laboratory (Shibata, 1994). Unlike other cerambycids, C. rufipenne does not require a pre-oviposition period to feed and mature the eggs (Shibata, 1994). Oviposition begins within 3 days of emergence and typically continues for up to 14 days (Shibata, 1994).
The larvae hatch and tunnel into the cambium and phloem of trees (Shibata, 1994; Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The sinuous, frass-filled galleries created by the larvae become wider as the larvae grow and reach a maximum width of 6 mm (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). In the late summer, the mature larva tunnels into the xylem of the tree and creates a pupal chamber (Humphreys and Allen, 2000; Maier and Lemmon, 2000). This ellipsoidal chamber is between 6 and 13 mm long, and is connected to the external surface of the tree by an exit tunnel that is plugged with frass and wood particles (Humphreys and Allen, 2000; Maier and Lemmon, 2000). This pupal chamber resides within 4 cm of the surface of the tree (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). As many as ten larvae may be found in a single arborvitae branch. Shibata (1994) estimated that preimaginal populations incurred 53% mortality in Japan due to the impacts of natural enemies, such as diseases and parasitoids. Pupation occurs in the autumn and the adults emerge from the pupae after 2-3 weeks. They overwinter in the pupal cell (Humphreys and Allen, 2000; Maier and Lemmon, 2000).
The adults emerge in the spring and fly to potential hosts. The sex ratio is male-biased throughout the flight period, but becomes closer to 50:50 as the period progresses (Shibata, 1994). C. rufipenne does not select host logs on the basis of size and the evidence suggests that it only infests dead or stressed trees. However, recent infestations of living nursery stock in the USA have questioned this behaviour (Shibata, 1994; Maier and Lemmon, 2000). Initially, the females tend to congregate on fallen logs but as the flight period progresses, their distribution pattern becomes more random (Shibata, 1994). The mean longevity of the adult males and females is 3.9 and 6.8 days, respectively (Shibata, 1994). Although the females live longer in the laboratory than in the field, Shibata (1994) believes that they still realize their potential fecundity under field conditions. A minimum of 45 days of cold-induced diapause is necessary for adult survivorship and for the females to properly mature the eggs (Matsuura and Fujita, 1997). The males can often be found sitting on potential host trees, waiting for the females to mate with (Hoebeke, 1999).
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Shibata (1994) determined that approximately 53% of pre-imaginal C. rufipenne succumb to disease or parasitism by a suite of natural enemies. The greatest larval and pupal mortality factors appear to be unidentified diseases that kill 23.2% of C. rufipenne populations during the larval stage and 5.9% during the pupal stage. Two parasitoids kill the larvae before they enter the pupal chamber. These parasitoids are Doryctes yogoi and Ischnoceros sapporensis, and they account for 12.2% and 3.4% of the preimaginal mortality, respectively. Finally, Shibata reared two species of parasitoids from pupal cells. These parasitoids were Baeacis semanoti and Rhimphoctona sp., and in combination they accounted for 5.9% of the preimaginal mortality. It is not clear whether these parasitoids sting the larvae or the pupae of C. rufipenne.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page C. rufipenne adults are strong fliers and readily move at least short distances to find host trees (Shibata, 1994). The long-range dispersal of this pest has not been well studied. All the life stages of C. rufipenne can be encountered and transported in solid wood packing material, dunnage and nursery stock (Hoebeke, 1999; Humphreys and Allen, 2000; Maier and Lemmon, 2000).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||eggs||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Wood||adults; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||Cuppressaceae; Pinaceae||Yes|
|Solid wood packing material without bark||Cuppressaceae; Pinaceae||Yes|
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
ImpactTop of page C. rufipenne attacks dead or stressed trees in its native range and it is not regarded as a pest (Shibata, 1994). Maier and Lemmon (2000) reported that C. rufipenne attacked apparently healthy nursery stock in the USA. The North American Forest Commission considers this as a 'high risk' pest because of the uncertainty regarding its ability to use healthy nursery stock as a host (Lundgren, 2001).
Environmental ImpactTop of page Currently it is difficult to determine the environmental impact of C. rufipenne. If C. rufipenne accepts healthy trees outside its native range, then this could be a serious threat to temperate forests. This species is highly polyphagous and feeds on a number of species in the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae and possibly Taxodiaceae families. C. rufipenne primarily attacks dead or dying trees and further information concerning its ability to feed on healthy trees is required.
Detection and InspectionTop of page The National Plant Board of the USA (NPB, 1999) has created a list of inspection procedures for C. rufipenne:
- The damage can occur on all branches and trunks that are larger than 2.5 cm in diameter.
- The adult beetles can often be found where two branches intersect.
- The branches and trunks should be inspected for puckering or incisions where the bark has healed over mining damage; this damage is most visible in late summer. The bark over the injuries should be scraped away with a knife to expose the tunnels. The tunnels and pupal chambers created by the larvae and the exit holes, are often filled with frass. This frass often has both light and dark particles.
- The branches should be carefully inspected from all angles as some damage is only visible from a single side of the branch.
- The infested branches are often brittle due to girdling and can break during an inspection.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page There are two species of Callidiellum that inhabit North America (Callidiellum cupressi and Callidiellum virescens) and two other species that are found in eastern China (Callidiellum villosulum and Callidiellum flavosignatus). Members of the genus Callidiellum can be distinguished from adults of the closely related genus, Semanotus, because the former have femora that swell distally and cylindrical antennae with an elongated second antennomere (Hoebeke, 1999). The larval damage of C. rufipenne may be confused with that of other wood-boring Coleoptera.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.The sanitation of infested materials is the best way to control populations of C. rufipenne. The proper disposal of infested wood material or nursery stock includes burying it to a minimum of 30 cm below the soil surface or burning it (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). Also, by growing vigorous trees and eliminating the dead material from potential host populations, the risk of infestation by C. rufipenne will be reduced. The fumigation of wood packing material with various insecticides will reduce the risk of introduction of this pest (e.g. Naito et al., 2003).
For infested nurseries or landscapes, chemical control that targets the adults is recommended. During the adult flight period a foliar insecticide, approved for coleopteran borers, with a spreader/sticker adjuvant, may be sprayed on the foliage of trees that are at risk.
ReferencesTop of page
Bahillo DPP; Iturrondobeitia BJC, 1995. First record of Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky, 1860) from the Iberian Peninsula (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Boletin de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia, 19:204.
Campadelli G; Sama G, 1989. First record in Italy of a Japanese cerambycid: Callidiellum rufipenne Motschulsky. Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia "Guido Grandi" della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 43:69-73
DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do
EPPO, 2003. Callidiellum rufipenne. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1 Rue Le Notre, Paris, France, http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/Insects/clllru.html.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Hoebeke ER, 1999. Japanese Cedar Longhorned Beetle in the Eastern United States. APHIS document 81-35-004.
Lundgren JG, 2001. Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky) fact sheet. Exotic Forest Pest Information System for North America and the North American Forest Commission, USDA Forest Service, 1992 Folwell Avenue, St Paul, Minnesota, 55108, USA, http://www.exoticforestpests.org/english/Detail.CFM?tblEntry__PestID=87.
Maier CT; Lemmon CR, 2000. Discovery of the small Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in live Arborvitae in Connecticut. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 102(3):747-754; 34 ref.
Makihara H, 1984. Cerambycid beetles in Japan (5). Forest Pests, 33:53-54.
Matsuura H; Fujita K, 1997. Termination of adult diapause by chilling in the small cedar longicorne beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 33:43-48; 11 ref.
Naito H; Goto M; Ogawa N; Soma Y; Kawakami F, 2003. Effects of methyl iodide on mortality of forest insect pests. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service Japan, 39:1-6.
NAPIS, 2002. Japanese cedar longhorn beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Cooperative Agriculture Pest Survey Programme at the Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, http://www.ceris.purdue.edu/napis/pests/celb/index.html.
NPB, 1999. Callidiellum rufipenne Inspection Procedures. National Plant Board, http://www.aphis.usda.gov/npb/callinsp.html.
Turienzo P, 2007. New records and emergence period of Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky, 1860) [Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Callidiini] in Argentina. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 33(3):341-349.
Ueda M; Shibata E, 2007. Host selection of small cedar longicorn beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae), on Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, in terms of bark water content of host trees. Journal of Forest Research, 12(4):320-324. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w415h401306n2p34/?p=a6ce84447a5b4172b8c5e694f2832532&pi=10
Distribution MapsTop of page
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