Callidiellum rufipenne (Japanese cedar longhorn beetle)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Environmental Impact
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky, 1860)
Preferred Common Name
- Japanese cedar longhorn beetle
Other Scientific Names
- Callidium rufipenne
- Palaeocallidium rufipenne (Motschulsky)
International Common Names
- English: cedar longhorned beetle; small cedar longhorn beetle
Local Common Names
- Canada: lesser cedar longicorn beetle
- USA: small Japanese cedar longhorn beetle; smaller Japanese cedar longhorn beetle
- CALDRU (Callidium rufipenne)
- CLLLRU (Callidiellum rufipenne)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Cerambycidae
- Genus: Callidiellum
- Species: Callidiellum rufipenne
DescriptionTop of page
The adults emerge in the spring and can be found mating and laying eggs on the external surface of the trees. The male beetles are blackish-blue with a reddish patch on the shoulders of the elytra (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The male antennae extend beyond the posterior of the abdomen (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The female elytra and abdomen are reddish-brown and the antennae are two-thirds to three-quarters the length of the body (Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The beetles of both sexes are between 6 and 13 mm long, have pointed posteriors and brownish-black heads (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). The legs are black, and the femora are elongated and swollen, relative to other cerambycids of a similar description (Hoebeke, 1999; Humphreys and Allen, 2000). The antennae are also black and the second antennomere is elongated (Hoebeke, 1999).
DistributionTop of page
In addition to the countries listed in the distribution table, C. rufipenne also occurs in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, USA (CT Maier, The New Hampshire Agriculture Experiment Station, personal communication, 2001).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Belgium||Present, Few occurrences|
|Croatia||Present, Few occurrences|
|France||Present, Few occurrences|
|Italy||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced|
|-Russian Far East||Present, Localized||Native|
|Spain||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|Sweden||Present, Few occurrences|
|Canada||Absent, Intercepted only|
|-British Columbia||Absent, Intercepted only||1927|
|Puerto Rico||Absent, Intercepted only|
|United States||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Connecticut||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Pennsylvania||Absent, Intercepted only|
|-Washington||Absent, Intercepted only||1954|
|New Zealand||Absent, Intercepted only|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki cypress)||Cupressaceae||Main|
|Chamaecyparis pisifera (sawara false cypress)||Cupressaceae||Unknown|
|Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar)||Cupressaceae||Unknown|
|Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar)||Taxodiaceae||Main|
|Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey cypress)||Cupressaceae||Other|
|Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey cypress)||Cupressaceae||Other|
|Juniperus communis (common juniper)||Cupressaceae||Other|
|Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper)||Cupressaceae||Unknown|
|Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar)||Cupressaceae||Other|
|Thuja occidentalis (Eastern white cedar)||Cupressaceae||Other|
|Xanthocyparis nootkatensis (Alaska cedar)||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Stems / discoloration of bark|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The larvae hatch and tunnel into the cambium and phloem of trees (Shibata, 1994; Maier and Lemmon, 2000). The sinuous, frass-filled galleries created by the larvae become wider as the larvae grow and reach a maximum width of 6 mm (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). In the late summer, the mature larva tunnels into the xylem of the tree and creates a pupal chamber (Humphreys and Allen, 2000; Maier and Lemmon, 2000). This ellipsoidal chamber is between 6 and 13 mm long, and is connected to the external surface of the tree by an exit tunnel that is plugged with frass and wood particles (Humphreys and Allen, 2000; Maier and Lemmon, 2000). This pupal chamber resides within 4 cm of the surface of the tree (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). As many as ten larvae may be found in a single arborvitae branch. Shibata (1994) estimated that preimaginal populations incurred 53% mortality in Japan due to the impacts of natural enemies, such as diseases and parasitoids. Pupation occurs in the autumn and the adults emerge from the pupae after 2-3 weeks. They overwinter in the pupal cell (Humphreys and Allen, 2000; Maier and Lemmon, 2000).
The adults emerge in the spring and fly to potential hosts. The sex ratio is male-biased throughout the flight period, but becomes closer to 50:50 as the period progresses (Shibata, 1994). C. rufipenne does not select host logs on the basis of size and the evidence suggests that it only infests dead or stressed trees. However, recent infestations of living nursery stock in the USA have questioned this behaviour (Shibata, 1994; Maier and Lemmon, 2000). Initially, the females tend to congregate on fallen logs but as the flight period progresses, their distribution pattern becomes more random (Shibata, 1994). The mean longevity of the adult males and females is 3.9 and 6.8 days, respectively (Shibata, 1994). Although the females live longer in the laboratory than in the field, Shibata (1994) believes that they still realize their potential fecundity under field conditions. A minimum of 45 days of cold-induced diapause is necessary for adult survivorship and for the females to properly mature the eggs (Matsuura and Fujita, 1997). The males can often be found sitting on potential host trees, waiting for the females to mate with (Hoebeke, 1999).
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||eggs||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Wood||adults; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||Cuppressaceae; Pinaceae||Yes|
|Solid wood packing material without bark||Cuppressaceae; Pinaceae||Yes|
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
ImpactTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
- The damage can occur on all branches and trunks that are larger than 2.5 cm in diameter.
- The adult beetles can often be found where two branches intersect.
- The branches and trunks should be inspected for puckering or incisions where the bark has healed over mining damage; this damage is most visible in late summer. The bark over the injuries should be scraped away with a knife to expose the tunnels. The tunnels and pupal chambers created by the larvae and the exit holes, are often filled with frass. This frass often has both light and dark particles.
- The branches should be carefully inspected from all angles as some damage is only visible from a single side of the branch.
- The infested branches are often brittle due to girdling and can break during an inspection.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.The sanitation of infested materials is the best way to control populations of C. rufipenne. The proper disposal of infested wood material or nursery stock includes burying it to a minimum of 30 cm below the soil surface or burning it (Humphreys and Allen, 2000). Also, by growing vigorous trees and eliminating the dead material from potential host populations, the risk of infestation by C. rufipenne will be reduced. The fumigation of wood packing material with various insecticides will reduce the risk of introduction of this pest (e.g. Naito et al., 2003).
For infested nurseries or landscapes, chemical control that targets the adults is recommended. During the adult flight period a foliar insecticide, approved for coleopteran borers, with a spreader/sticker adjuvant, may be sprayed on the foliage of trees that are at risk.
ReferencesTop of page
Bahillo DPP; Iturrondobeitia BJC, 1995. First record of Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky, 1860) from the Iberian Peninsula (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Boletin de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia, 19:204.
Campadelli G; Sama G, 1989. First record in Italy of a Japanese cerambycid: Callidiellum rufipenne Motschulsky. Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia "Guido Grandi" della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 43:69-73
DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do
EPPO, 2003. Callidiellum rufipenne. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1 Rue Le Notre, Paris, France, http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/Alert_List/Insects/clllru.html.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Hoebeke ER, 1999. Japanese Cedar Longhorned Beetle in the Eastern United States. APHIS document 81-35-004.
Lundgren JG, 2001. Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky) fact sheet. Exotic Forest Pest Information System for North America and the North American Forest Commission, USDA Forest Service, 1992 Folwell Avenue, St Paul, Minnesota, 55108, USA, http://www.exoticforestpests.org/english/Detail.CFM?tblEntry__PestID=87.
Maier CT; Lemmon CR, 2000. Discovery of the small Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in live Arborvitae in Connecticut. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 102(3):747-754; 34 ref.
Maier, C. T., 2007. Distribution and hosts of Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an Asian cedar borer established in the eastern United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100(4), 1291-1297. doi: 10.1603/0022-0493(2007)100[1291:DAHOCR]2.0.CO;2
Makihara H, 1984. Cerambycid beetles in Japan (5). Forest Pests, 33:53-54.
Matsuura H; Fujita K, 1997. Termination of adult diapause by chilling in the small cedar longicorne beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 33:43-48; 11 ref.
Naito H; Goto M; Ogawa N; Soma Y; Kawakami F, 2003. Effects of methyl iodide on mortality of forest insect pests. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service Japan, 39:1-6.
NAPIS, 2002. Japanese cedar longhorn beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Cooperative Agriculture Pest Survey Programme at the Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, http://www.ceris.purdue.edu/napis/pests/celb/index.html.
NPB, 1999. Callidiellum rufipenne Inspection Procedures. National Plant Board, http://www.aphis.usda.gov/npb/callinsp.html.
Turienzo P, 2007. New records and emergence period of Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky, 1860) [Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Callidiini] in Argentina. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 33(3):341-349.
Ueda M; Shibata E, 2007. Host selection of small cedar longicorn beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae), on Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, in terms of bark water content of host trees. Journal of Forest Research, 12(4):320-324. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w415h401306n2p34/?p=a6ce84447a5b4172b8c5e694f2832532&pi=10
Bahillo DPP, Iturrondobeitia BJC, 1995. First record of Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky, 1860) from the Iberian Peninsula (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In: Boletin de la Asociacion Espanola de Entomologia, 19 204.
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Campadelli G, Sama G, 1989. First record in Italy of a Japanese cerambycid: Callidiellum rufipenne Motschulsky. (Prima segnalazione per l'Italia di un cerambicide giapponese: Callidiellum rufipenne Motschulsky.). Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia "Guido Grandi" della Università degli Studi di Bologna. 69-73.
Hoebeke ER, 1999. Japanese Cedar Longhorned Beetle in the Eastern United States. In: APHIS document 81-35-004,
Maier C T, 2007. Distribution and hosts of Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an Asian cedar borer established in the eastern United States. Journal of Economic Entomology. 100 (4), 1291-1297. DOI:10.1603/0022-0493(2007)100[1291:DAHOCR]2.0.CO;2
Maier C T, Lemmon C R, 2000. Discovery of the small Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in live Arborvitae in Connecticut. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 102 (3), 747-754.
Makihara H, 1984. Cerambycid beetles in Japan (5). In: Forest Pests, 33 53-54.
NAPIS, 2002. Japanese cedar longhorn beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In: Cooperative Agriculture Pest Survey Programme at the Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Purdue University. http://www.ceris.purdue.edu/napis/pests/celb/index.html
Shibata E, 1994. Population studies of Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Japanese cedar logs. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 87 (6), 836-841. DOI:10.1093/aesa/87.6.836
Turienzo P, 2007. New records and emergence period of Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky, 1860) [Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Callidiini] in Argentina. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas. 33 (3), 341-349.
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