Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Amphiprion

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Datasheet

Amphiprion

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Amphiprion
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • There has been no report suggesting that any of the 28 species of the genus Amphiprion is invasive in any part of the world.

    Although there are concerns about some of the species...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Amphiprion sp. are amongst the most popular marine fish species traded in the ornamental market. Several species are cultured in Europe and the US but wild stock remains the main source.
TitleAmphiprion sp.
CaptionAmphiprion sp. are amongst the most popular marine fish species traded in the ornamental market. Several species are cultured in Europe and the US but wild stock remains the main source.
CopyrightDavid J. Fletcher
Amphiprion sp. are amongst the most popular marine fish species traded in the ornamental market. Several species are cultured in Europe and the US but wild stock remains the main source.
Amphiprion sp.Amphiprion sp. are amongst the most popular marine fish species traded in the ornamental market. Several species are cultured in Europe and the US but wild stock remains the main source.David J. Fletcher

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Amphiprion

International Common Names

  • English: clownfish

Local Common Names

  • : anemonefish

Summary of Invasiveness

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There has been no report suggesting that any of the 28 species of the genus Amphiprion is invasive in any part of the world.

Although there are concerns about some of the species being over exploited for the aquarium trade (Shuman et al., 2005), none are listed as a threatened species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Perciformes
  •                         Suborder: Labroidei
  •                             Family: Pomacentridae
  •                                 Genus: Amphiprion

Description

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Amphi= both; prion= saw (referring to the serrated opercula).

Their bodies tend to be high, oval and laterally compressed, with the lateral line incomplete and interrupted. The single, continuous dorsal fin has eight to 17 spines and 10 to 18 soft rays, the anal fin usually has two spines (occasionally three), and the caudal fin is typically forked. One nostril on each side of the head; has a small mouth. The palate is toothless, and the floor of the mouth contains a pharyngeal plate (a triangular fused tooth plate). Teeth may be arranged in one or two rows and may be incisor-like, especially in territorial forms that graze on algae, or conical, often seen in forms that live in the water column and catch small organisms.

Colourations vary with individuals, mood and with locality for the same species. Adults are mostly brilliantly coloured. Juveniles, especially in the territorial bottom-dwellers, often possess different, brighter colours than adults of the same species. The largest reach a length of 18 cm (7 in), whereas the smallest barely reach 10 cm (4 in) (Froese and Pauly, 2009).

Distribution

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Amphiprion naturally live in tropical waters, chiefly marine, rare in brackish waters. All tropical seas, mainly Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, Australia to the Solomon Islands. Indonesia has the highest number of species, while countries like Australia, which has 12 species, also has a number of unique variants. They are not known to the Caribbean, Mediterranean or the Atlantic Ocean (Discover life, 2009).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Indian Ocean, EasternPresentNative Not invasive Fautin and Allen, 1992
Indian Ocean, WesternPresentNative Not invasive Carpenter and Niem, 2001
Pacific, Western CentralPresentNative Not invasive Fautin and Allen, 1992

Asia

Chagos ArchipelagoPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Nusa TenggaraPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
MalaysiaPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
PhilippinesPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
SingaporePresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
ThailandPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
VietnamPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009

Africa

AldabraPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
MauritiusPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
SeychellesPresentNative Not invasive Fautin and Allen, 1992

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
-QueenslandPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
FijiPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
KiribatiPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
Marshall IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
New CaledoniaPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
Papua New GuineaPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
Solomon IslandsPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
TongaPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009
VanuatuPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2009

History of Introduction and Spread

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Many species of Amphiprion have been introduced to many countries around the world for their spectacular colours, their amusing habits and ease of keeping as ornamental fish. It is claimed that they are the best choice for novice hobbyists and also appeal to more advanced fish keepers because of their ability to breed in tanks (Tullock, 1998). However, no records have been found on history of their introductions into other countries.

Risk of Introduction

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Anemonefish were the first species of marine fish to be bred in commercial numbers in captivity in the 1980s and now several hatcheries supply a growing percentage for sale to the aquarium hobbyist in the USA (Tullock, 1998). Clownfish shot to fame after the animated movie “Finding Nemo” in 2003; many people started buying them and trying to raise them in aquariums. Hence they are sold in pet shops in more countries than officially documented. For example they are sold in aquariums in England and New Zealand (T Kurwie, UK, personal communication, 2009), yet not documented.

Their attractiveness and ease of breeding in captivity may cause intentional or unintentional spreading of members of this genus. However, the risk of spreading them to the wild will be only a problem in tropical and warm temperate water areas as their intolerance to low temperatures will make them unlikely to spread in cooler areas.

Habitat

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Amphiprion primarily inhabit shallow tropical reef-associated or sandy areas with a depth range of 1-18 m. However species like Amphiprionperideraion can be found in deeper water on shelves or drop-offs to about 38 m. They always dwell in association with sea anemones.

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Experiments proved that hybridization is possible in captivity (Tullock, 1998). However, it is believed that both Amphiprion leucocrarnos and Amphiprion thiellei are variants of species crosses between Amphiprion chrysopterus and Amphiprion sandaracinos (Fautin and Allen, 1997). Such hybrids can also be experimentally created in captivity (Dokkaew and Thomya, 2007; Ollerton et al., 2007).
 
Reproductive Biology
 
Amphiprion are protandrous hermaphrodites (Allsop and West, 2003). Each pair is monogamous. All anemonefish hatch as males, i.e. the testicular tissues mature therefore all females are sex reversed and the biggest individuals turn into females and the testicular tissues degenerate and change the gonads into an ovary to avoid self fertilization (Boyer, 2009; Leutheuser, 2009).
 
Each anemone has a large female, a smaller functional male and several stunned juveniles; with the removal of the female (if she dies) the male changes sex and the largest of the juveniles develops into the functional male. Sex reversal is completed between 26 and 143 days (Sadovy and Shapiro, 1987). Length at maturity may be as small as 4.4 cm (Froese and Pauly, 2009). They guard nests (Thresher et al., 1989). Some mouth brooding by male occurs as in Amphiprion melanopis (Ross, 1978).
 
The anemonefish pair will enter into courtship before spawning and the male will normally perform ‘showing off’ behaviour by erecting his fins. The male then starts to clean the site which is normally a rock, covered with debris and algae; closer to spawning the female normally joins in tending the nest. The female then lays her adhesive eggs which are fertilized by the male. Spawning occurs during full moon. The male normally guards the nest and is sometimes joined by the female (Leutheuser, 2009).
 
Anemonefish care for their spawn by fanning the eggs with their fins, removing litter or dead eggs using their mouths with great precision, and keeping other fish away.
 
The eggs take 6-10 days to hatch depending on temperature. After hatching the larvae drift into plankton–rich water. The pelagic phase is quiet short (8-12 days). They then go and find their own anemone to inhabit (Palaniappan et al., 2003). In a field study, Jones et al. (2005) found that although no individuals settled into the same anemone as their parents, many settled remarkably close to home. Even though the species they studied had a 9–12 day larval duration, one-third of settled juveniles had returned to a 2 hectare natal area, with many settling <100 m from their birth site. This represents the smallest scale of dispersal known for any marine fish species with a pelagic larval phase.
 
They lay elliptical (ovoid) eggs. The egg length is from 1.78 mm and up to 4 mm; ranging in colour from yellow to orange to amber. Some are adhesive and attach to the substrate by means of fine threads (Thresher, 1984). They lay between 1500-4000 eggs (YuanShing et al., 2007, 2009; Che-Ming et al., 2006; Varghese et al., 2009). They spawn all year round in the tropics but only several times a year in warmer months in temperate areas (Newcomb and Fink, 2004; Rattanayuvakorn et al., 2005).
 
Physiology and Phenology
 
The morphology of the fins of the anemonefish reflects whether they live with many or only a few species of host anemones (Allen, 1985; Elliott et al., 1998). Anemonefish that are host specialists exhibit rounded caudal fins that are not as effective for fast swimming as are fins that are truncated or emarginated, which are exhibited for example by Amphiprion clarkii, a host generalist (Elliott et al., 1998).
 
Nutrition
 
Anemonefish forage on algae, copepods, isopods, and zooplankton as well as obtaining food from the host anemone. The anemonefish will eat the dead tentacles of the anemone and any uneaten prey that is captured by the stinging tentacles of the anemone (Sano et al., 1984; Galleto and Bellwood, 1994; Boyer, 2009).
 
Associations
 
There is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between the sea anemone and the anemonefish. Members of the genus Amphiprion are dependent on the anemones for shelter and protection and are never found in nature without an anemone host (Fautin, 1991). This mechanism is a behavioural process known as “acclimation”, through which the anemonefish gain a mucous coating that protects them from the stinging tentacles of the anemone (Opala, 2004).
 
According to Fautin and Allen (1992), there are ten tropical species of anemones that host fish symbionts, and compared to the anemonefish that all belong to the same genus, the species of anemones are not all closely related.
 
Experiments comparing host recognition by visual cues versus chemical cues tested these theories (Murata et al., 1986; Arvedlung et al., 2000). These experiments showed that larval anemonefish use chemical cues to recognize specific host anemones. It has been suggested that embryos developing in egg cases beside the anemone in which the parents live may imprint to olfactory cues released from the host anemones, thus allowing the newly hatched larval fish to recognize the anemone species (Miyagawa, 1989).
 
Tanak et al. (1992) found that species of Amphiprion show morphological differences due to ontogenic, geographical and sexual factors, in addition to the host anemone.
 
Each anemonefish species has a preferred anemone host, although most occasionally occur in a number of anemone species. Some anemones such as Heterractis magnifica or Heterractis crispa host more than one species of anemonefish. If anemonefish were capable of crossing existing physical barriers, they would establish a mutualistic relationship with other species of anemone (Nadik, 2000).
 
The 10 host sea anemones are:
 
  • Cryptodendrum adhaesivum
  • Entacmaea quadricolor
  • Macrodactyla doreensis
  • Heteractis aurora
  • Heteractis crispa
  • Heteractis magnifica
  • Heteractis malu
  • Stichodactyla gigantea
  • Stichodactyla haddoni
  • Stichodactyla mertensii
 
In nature, anemonefish have to be close to an anemone as otherwise they fall victim to predators. However, the presence of sea anemone is not always necessary for captive Amphiprion.
 
Buston (2003) reported that anemonefish become aggressive during the breeding season and that anemonefish aggression, which was measured by forcible eviction of subordinates, only happens when the host anemone is occupied to its full capacity. Some species of anemonefish are more aggressive than others (TMC, 2009). They may be aggressive with other anemonefish in many tank set-ups and might bully smaller tank mates. They will defend their host anemone (if included in the tank) aggressively.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0 Optimum
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) 0 Optimum
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) 177.5 Optimum
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 3.5 Optimum
Salinity (part per thousand) 33 37 Optimum 26 tolerated; wild stock held in captivity
Water pH (pH) 8 8.2 Optimum 7.8 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 24 27 Optimum 19-32 tolerated; wild stock held in captivity

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Mitotrema anthostomatum Parasite Adult to species Cribb et al., 1996
Schickhobalotrema Parasite Adult to species Cribb et al., 1996
Spirocamallanus Parasite Adult to species Grabda, 1974

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Because of their habit of living in association with anemones they benefit from this symbiotic relationship by keeping safe from predation. Their eggs are susceptible to attack from other damselfishes (Pomacentridae), wrasses (Labridae), and brittle stars (Ophiotrichidae). Groupers of the family Serranidae are known predators of pink anemonefish in the waters around Marshall Islands. The orange-clown anemonefish are prey for a number of fish such as sharks, stingrays, and other larger bony fishes. Although the eggs are susceptible to predators, they are attached to a substrate that is protected by the anemone's stinging tentacles (Boyer, 2009). Butterfly fish may also prey on anemonefish (Wild Singapore, 2009).

In the wild there are no records of bacterial or fungal infections on the eggs or juveniles of Amphiprion but in captivity they are susceptible to Pseudoalteromonaspiscicida on the eggs and cladosporiosis on the juveniles (Nelson and Ghlorse, 1999; Silphaduang et al., 2000).

 

Economic Impact

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Many species of Amphiprion are considered to be popular tropical fish to the aquarium trade and certain rare colours are specially sought (Sadovy and Vincent, 2002). Because they are easily bred in captivity they are also used in research (Newcomb and Fink, 2004).

Environmental Impact

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Research on this species by the author found that there is a public outcry to save these fish from overfishing and that production in hatcheries is being advocated rather than relying on wild catch (T Kurwie, UK, personal communication, 2009). According to Wild Singapore (2009), anemonefish are among the most popular live aquarium fishes. Although captive bred specimens are commercially available, these are far more expensive than wild-caught specimens. Thus, anemonefish continue to be unsustainably harvested from the wild. The pressure on wild populations has risen tremendously due to the huge demand following the popular "Finding Nemo" cartoon. Harvest may involve the use of cyanide or explosives, which damage the habitat and kill many other creatures. Like other fish harvested from the wild, most die before they can reach the retailers. Without professional care, most die soon after they are sold, often of starvation, as owners are unable to provide the live food (plankton) that these fishes need to survive. In artificial conditions, many succumb to diseases and poor health. Those that do survive are unlikely to breed (Wild Singapore, 2009). Lev Fishelson (1997) reported that the Amphiprion population in the Gulf of Aqaba has dramatically declined, and during recent years an increasing number of sea anemones are being seen without their symbiotic fish. Moreover the demand for wild fish remains strong since the success of captive breeding has been challenged by high mortality at early life stages (Nelson and Ghlorse, 1999).

Social Impact

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Wild Singapore (2009) claims that all of their anemonefish are 'Vulnerable' in the Red List of threatened animals of Singapore. Like other creatures of the intertidal zone, they are affected by human activities such as reclamation and pollution. Poaching by hobbyists and overfishing can also have an impact on local populations. According to the Singapore Red Data Book, "habitat protection and strict policing against illegal collection are required" to conserve anemonefish.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The other genus of anemonefish is Premnas which contains one valid species. It is very similar to other clownfish but has pointed margin to the operculum as opposed to the serrated sides of the Amphiprion (Myers et al., 2008).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Public awareness

As previously mentioned, Singapore has listed several species of anemonefish on their national red list. The Ministry of Education in Taiwan has also tried to promote public awareness of the overexploitation of anemonefish (Ministry of Education, Taiwan, 2009).

References

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Allen GR, 1985. The anemone fishes. Their classification and biology. Neptune City, New Jersey: TFH Publications, Inc, 352 pp.

Allen GR, 1986. Pomacentridae. In: Smiths' sea fishes [ed. by Smith, M. M. \Heemstra, P. C.]. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 670-682.

Allsop DJ; West SA, 2003. Constant relative age and size at sex change for sequentially hermaphroditic fish. J. Evol. Biol, 6:921-929.

Arvedlung M; Larsen K; Winsor H, 2000. The embryonic development of the olfactory system in Amphiprion melanopus (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) related to the host imprinting hypothesis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80:1103-1110.

Boyer S, 2009. Pink anemonefish. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/PinkAnemonefish/PinkAnemonefish.html

Buston P, 2003. Forcible eviction and prevention of recruitment in the clown anemonefish. Behavioral Ecology, 14(4):576-582.

Carlson B, 1996. The Amphiprion leucokranos mystery. Aquarium Frontiers, 3:34-37.

Carpenter K; Niem VH, 2001. The living marine resources of the western central pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fish Menidae to Pomacentridae. FAO publications. 2791-3380. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/y0770e/y0770e00.pdf

Che-Ming C; Sheng-Chung S; Yuan-Shing H, 2006. Spawning behavior and larval rearing of the pink clownfish (Amphiprion perideraion). Journal of Taiwan Fisheries Research, 14(2):57-67.

Cribb TH; Bray RA; Baker SC, 1996. Bivesiculidae and Haplosplanchnidae (Digenea) from fishes of the southern Great barrier reef, Australia. Systematic Parasitology, 28(2):81-97.

Cribb TH; Bray RA; Barker SC; Adlard RD, 1996. Taxonomy and biology of Mitotrema anthostomatum Manter, 1963 (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae) from fishes of the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 63(1):110-115.

Discover life, 2009. Amphiprion. http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Amphiprion

Dokkaew S; Thomya P, 2007. Preliminary study on crossbreeding of False Clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris Cuvier, 1830 and Percula Clownfish Amphiprion percula (Lacepde, 1802). In: Proceedings of the 45th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Kasetsart, 30-January - 2 February, 2007. Subject: Fisheries. Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University, 110-117.

Elliott JK; Lougheed SC; Bateman B; McPhee LK; Boag PT, 1998. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the evolution of specialization in anemonefishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 266:677-685.

Fautin D; Allen GR, 1992. Field Guide to Anemonefishes and their Host Sea Anemones. Perth: Western Australian Museum. http://www.nhm.ku.edu/inverts/ebooks/intro.html#geographic

Fautin DG, 1991. The Anemonefish Symbiosis: What is Known and What is Not. Symbiosis, 10:23-46.

Fautin DG; Allen GR, 1997. Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones. Perth, Australia: Western Australian Museum.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2009. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Galetto MJ; Bellwood DR, 1994. Digestion of algae by Stegastes nigricans and Amphiprion akindynos (Pisces: Pomacentridae), with an evaluation of methods used in digestibility studies. Journal of Fish Biology, 44(3):415-428.

Grabda J, 1974. On some parasite of tropical fishes kept in aquaria. Przeglad zoologiczny, 18(3):419-423.

Jones G; Planes S; Thorrold S, 2005. Coral reef fish larvae settle close to home. Current Biology, 15(14):1314-1318.

Leutheuser K, 2009. Animal Diversity Web - Amphiprion frenatus. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Amphiprion_frenatus.html

Lev Fishelson AM, 1997. Juvenile production of Amphiprion bicinctus (Pomacentridae, Teleostei) and rehabilitation of impoverished habitat. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser, 151:295-297.

Ministry of Education Taiwan, 2009. Promote aquarium industry of clown anemonefish. http://english.moe.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=7956&ctNode=517&mp=1

Miyagawa K, 1989. Experimental analysis of the symbiosis between anemonefish and sea anemones. Ethology, 80:19-46.

Murata M; Miyagawa K; Nakanishi K; Naya Y, 1986. Characterization of compounds that induce symbiosis between sea anemone and anemonefish. Science, 234:585-587.

Myers P; Espinosa R; Parr CS; Jones T; Hammond GS; Dewey TA, 2008. The Animal Diversity Web (online). http://animaldiversity.org

Nadik WN, 2000. Anemonefish and Their Selection of Host Anemone Species in Captivity. Bios, 71(4):121-126.

Nelson EJ; Ghlorse WC, 1999. Isolation and identification of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida strain Cura-d associated with diseased damselfish (Pomacentridae) eggs. Journal of Fish Diseases, 22(4):253-260.

Newcomb D; Fink W, 2004. "Amphiprion ocellaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Amphiprion_ocellaris.html

Ollerton J; McCollin D; Fautin DG; Allen GR, 2007. Finding NEMO: nestedness engendered by mutualistic organization in anemonefish and their hosts. Proc. Biol. Sci, 22(274):591-598.

Opala A, 2004. Sea Anemones and Anemonefishes: A Symbiotic Relationship. http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/classes/biology/bio515/hentschel/PDFs/Opala(2003).pdf

Palaniappan SS; Siti Azizah MN; Yusuf Y, 2003. Notes on the Occurrence of Amphiprion (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Asian Fisheries Science, 16:235-240.

Pallipuram Jayasankar, 2004. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting resolves species ambiguity of domesticated clown fish (genus: Amphiprion, family: Pomacentridae) from India. Aquaculture Research, 35(10):1006-1009. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2004.01112.x/abs/

Rattanayuvakorn S; Mungkornkarn P; Thongpan A; Chatchavalvanich K, 2005. Embryonic development of saddleback anemonefish Amphiprion polymnus, Linnaeus (1758). Kasetsart Journal Natural sciences, 39(3):455-436.

Ross RM, 1978. Reproductive Behavior of the Anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus on Guam. Copeia, 1:103-107.

Sadovy Y; Shapiro DY, 1987. Criteria for the diagnosis of hermaphroditism in fishes. Copeia, 1:136-156.

Sadovy Y; Vincent A, 2002. Ecological issues and the trade in live reef fishes. In: Coral Reef Fishes [ed. by Sale, P.]. San Diego, California: Academic Press, 395.

Sano M; Shimizu M; Nose Y, 1984. Food habits of teleostean reef fishes in Okinawa Island, southern Japan. Tokyo, Japan: University of Tokyo Press.

Shuman CS; Hogdson G; Ambrose RF, 2005. Population impacts of collecting sea anemones and anemonefish for the marine aquarium trade in the Philippines. Coral Reefs, 24:564-573.

Silphaduang U; Hatai K; Wada S; Noga E, 2000. Cladosporiosis in a tomato clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 31(2):259-261.

Tanaka Y; Yamada S; Sameshima M, 1992. Novel apocarotenoid apoastacenal isolated from nudibranch egg masses. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi-Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Science Fisheries, 58(8):1549.

Thresher R, 1984. Reproduction in Reef Fishes. New Jersey: TFH Publications Inc, 399 pp.

Thresher RE; Colin PL; Bell LJ, 1989. Planktonic duration, distribution and population structure of western and central Pacific damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Copeia, 2:420-434.

TMC, 2009. Tropical Marine Centre Hatchery: Species list. http://www.tmc-ltd.co.uk/hatchery/species-list.asp

Tullock JH, 1998. Clownfishes and sea anemones: A complete pet owner's manual. Hauppauge NY: Barron's educational series Inc, 71 pp.

Varghese B; Paulraj R; Gopakumar G; Chakraborty K, 2009. Dietary influence on the egg production and larval viability in true sebae clownfish Amphiprion sebae Bleeker 1853. Asian Fisheries Science, 22(1):7-20. http://www.asianfisheriessociety.org/modules/library/singlefile.php?cid=202&lid=759

Wild Singapore, 2009. Wild Singapore. http://www.wildsingapore.com/

Yuan-Shing H; Sheng-Chung S; Ming-Jong C, 2009. Reproduction behavior and larval rearing of the tomato anemonefish (Amphiprion frenatus). Journal of Taiwan Fisheries Research, 17(1):39-51.

Yuan-Shing H; Sheng-Chung S; Wen-Yie C, 2007. Spawning behavior and larval rearing of the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris). Journal of Taiwan Fisheries Research, 15(2):43-58.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Animal Diversity Webhttp://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html
Discover Lifehttp://pick4.pick.uga.edu/
Field guide to anemone fishes and their host sea anemoneshttp://www.nhm.ku.edu/inverts/ebooks/intro.html

Contributors

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04/12/09 Original text by:

Tagried Kurwie, Mahurangi Technical Institute1 Glenmore Drive, Warkworth, New Zealand

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