Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Buxus sempervirens
(common boxwood)

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Datasheet

Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 31 October 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Threatened Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Buxus sempervirens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common boxwood
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); habit. 8m tall, 60cm in diameter. Gabaz Forest, Rize, Turkey.
TitleHabit
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); habit. 8m tall, 60cm in diameter. Gabaz Forest, Rize, Turkey.
Copyright©Necmi Aksoy
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); habit. 8m tall, 60cm in diameter. Gabaz Forest, Rize, Turkey.
HabitBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); habit. 8m tall, 60cm in diameter. Gabaz Forest, Rize, Turkey.©Necmi Aksoy
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); bark. Düzce, Turkey.
TitleBark
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); bark. Düzce, Turkey.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); bark. Düzce, Turkey.
BarkBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); bark. Düzce, Turkey.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); root system. Yenice, Turkey.
TitleRoot system
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); root system. Yenice, Turkey.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); root system. Yenice, Turkey.
Root systemBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); root system. Yenice, Turkey.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); leaves and fruits.
TitleLeaves and fruits
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); leaves and fruits.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); leaves and fruits.
Leaves and fruitsBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); leaves and fruits.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); close-up of  fruits, showing the 3 small horns at the top of the capsule.
TitleFruits
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); close-up of fruits, showing the 3 small horns at the top of the capsule.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); close-up of  fruits, showing the 3 small horns at the top of the capsule.
FruitsBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); close-up of fruits, showing the 3 small horns at the top of the capsule.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); mature fruit showing it to be an ovoid, dehiscent, 3-part hard capsule. Düzce, Turkey.
TitleFruits
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); mature fruit showing it to be an ovoid, dehiscent, 3-part hard capsule. Düzce, Turkey.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); mature fruit showing it to be an ovoid, dehiscent, 3-part hard capsule. Düzce, Turkey.
FruitsBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); mature fruit showing it to be an ovoid, dehiscent, 3-part hard capsule. Düzce, Turkey.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); newly emerged seedlings. Düzce, Turkey.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); newly emerged seedlings. Düzce, Turkey.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); newly emerged seedlings. Düzce, Turkey.
SeedlingsBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); newly emerged seedlings. Düzce, Turkey.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); natural regeneration. Düzce, Turkey.
TitleRegeneration
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); natural regeneration. Düzce, Turkey.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); natural regeneration. Düzce, Turkey.
RegenerationBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); natural regeneration. Düzce, Turkey.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); seedlings, showing comparative shoot and root formation. Düzce, Turkey.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); seedlings, showing comparative shoot and root formation. Düzce, Turkey.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); seedlings, showing comparative shoot and root formation. Düzce, Turkey.
SeedlingsBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); seedlings, showing comparative shoot and root formation. Düzce, Turkey.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); coppicing of an individual plant. Düzce, Turkey.
TitleRoot and stem sprouts when damaged.
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); coppicing of an individual plant. Düzce, Turkey.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); coppicing of an individual plant. Düzce, Turkey.
Root and stem sprouts when damaged.Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); coppicing of an individual plant. Düzce, Turkey.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); sprouting following damage.
TitleSprouting
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); sprouting following damage.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); sprouting following damage.
SproutingBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); sprouting following damage.©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); products from boxwood. Amasra, Turkey.
TitleWood products
CaptionBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); products from boxwood. Amasra, Turkey.
Copyright©Alper H. Colak
Buxus sempervirens (common boxwood); products from boxwood. Amasra, Turkey.
Wood productsBuxus sempervirens (common boxwood); products from boxwood. Amasra, Turkey.©Alper H. Colak

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Buxus sempervirens L.

Preferred Common Name

  • common boxwood

Variety

  • Buxus sempervirens var. angustifolia
  • Buxus sempervirens var. arborescens
  • Buxus sempervirens var. Ashville
  • Buxus sempervirens var. aureovariegata
  • Buxus sempervirens var. bullata
  • Buxus sempervirens var. elegantissima
  • Buxus sempervirens var. Faulkner
  • Buxus sempervirens var. Glencoe
  • Buxus sempervirens var. Graham Blandy
  • Buxus sempervirens var. Handworthii
  • Buxus sempervirens var. latifolia maculata
  • Buxus sempervirens var. Newport Blue
  • Buxus sempervirens var. pendula
  • Buxus sempervirens var. rotondifolia
  • Buxus sempervirens var. suffruticosa
  • Buxus sempervirens var. Vardar Valley
  • Buxus sempervirens var. Welleri

Other Scientific Names

  • Boxux sempervirens
  • Buxus arborescens Mill.
  • Buxus colchica Pojark.
  • Buxus hyrcana Pojark.
  • Buxus suffruticosa Mill.

International Common Names

  • English: box; dudgeon; european box; Turkish boxwood
  • Spanish: salamo (Spain)
  • French: buis; buis béni; buis bénit; buis commun; buis toujours vert; le buis
  • Portuguese: buxo; madeira de buxo

Local Common Names

  • China: huang yang mu
  • Denmark: buksbom; bux; buxbom
  • Estonia: harilik pukspuu
  • Finland: boxwood; buxbom; puksipuu
  • Germany: Beetzaun; Buchs; Buchsbaum; Gemeiner Buchsbaum; Gewöhnlicher Buchsbaum; Graubkraut; Immergrüner Buchsbaum
  • Greece: puxari; puxos
  • Iran: schemschaad
  • Israel: teasshur
  • Italy: bosso; bosso comune; bosso verde; bossolo; busso
  • Luxembourg: palmboom
  • Netherlands: boksboom; bus; busboom; turks palmhout
  • Poland: bukspan ogrodowy; bukszpan zwyczajny
  • Romania: boschtom; samsheet
  • Russian Federation: kavkazskaja palma
  • Spain: boj; buje
  • Turkey: adi simsir

EPPO code

  • BUXAR (Buxus arborescens)
  • BUXSE (Buxus sempervirens)

Trade name

  • box
  • boxwood
  • dudgeon

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Buxales
  •                         Family: Buxaceae
  •                             Genus: Buxus
  •                                 Species: Buxus sempervirens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The genus Buxus belongs to the family Buxaceae Dum., a small family with only six genera and 100 species in total (Çolak, 2003a), closely related to the Euphorbiaceae (Grieve, 1984). Species of Buxaceae are distributed throughout the world in the tropics, subtropics and temperate zones (Brower and Stahlin, 1975; Çolak, 2003a). The genus Buxus contains 70-90 species depending on the taxonomic treatment, extending from North and Central America to Eurasia, Africa and western India (Hecker, 1995). Two species, B. sempervirens, B. microphylla and their horticultural selections or cultivars, are mostly grown for ornamental purposes (Relf, 2001). The word Buxus comes from the Greek word 'pyxos, pykos' which means 'hard', and Aristotle and Theophrastes used this name for B. sempervirens (Hecker, 1995). In Latin, 'sempervirens' means 'evergreen' indicating its greenery in all seasons.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresent Natural
AzerbaijanPresent Natural
Georgia (Republic of)Present Natural
IndiaPresentPlanted, Natural
IranPresent Natural
JapanUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-HonshuUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-KyushuUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-ShikokuUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
TurkeyPresentPlanted, Natural

Africa

AlgeriaPresent Natural
LibyaPresent Natural
MoroccoPresent Natural
TunisiaPresent Natural

North America

USAPresent Planted
-AlabamaPresent Planted
-ArkansasPresent Planted
-CaliforniaPresent Planted
-ColoradoPresent Planted
-ConnecticutPresent Planted
-DelawarePresent Planted
-FloridaPresent Planted
-GeorgiaPresent Planted
-IdahoPresent Planted
-IllinoisPresent Planted
-IndianaPresent Planted
-KansasPresent Planted
-KentuckyPresent Planted
-LouisianaPresent Planted
-MarylandPresent Planted
-MassachusettsPresent Planted
-MississippiPresent Planted
-MissouriPresent Planted
-MontanaPresent Planted
-NevadaPresent Planted
-New HampshirePresent Planted
-New JerseyPresent Planted
-New MexicoPresent Planted
-New YorkUnconfirmed record Planted CAB Abstracts
-North CarolinaPresent Planted
-OhioPresent Planted
-OklahomaPresent Planted
-OregonPresent Planted
-PennsylvaniaPresent Planted
-Rhode IslandPresent Planted
-South CarolinaPresent Planted
-South DakotaPresent Planted
-TennesseePresent Planted
-TexasPresent Planted
-UtahPresent Planted
-VermontPresent Planted
-VirginiaPresent Planted
-WashingtonPresent Planted
-West VirginiaPresent Planted

South America

BoliviaPresent Planted
EcuadorPresent Planted

Europe

AlbaniaPresentPlanted, Natural
AustriaPresentPlanted, Natural
BelarusPresent Planted
BelgiumUnconfirmed recordPlanted, NaturalCAB Abstracts
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresent Natural
BulgariaPresent Natural
CroatiaPresent Natural
Czech RepublicPresent Planted
Former USSRUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
FranceUnconfirmed recordPlanted, Natural
GermanyPresentPlanted, Natural
GreeceUnconfirmed recordPlanted, NaturalCAB Abstracts
HungaryPresentPlanted, Natural
IrelandPresent Planted
ItalyPresentPlanted, Natural
LuxembourgPresentPlanted, Natural
Macedonia
PolandUnconfirmed record Planted CAB Abstracts
PortugalPresentPlanted, Natural
-AzoresPresent Planted
RomaniaPresent Planted
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Southern RussiaPresentPlanted, Natural
SlovakiaPresent Planted
SloveniaPresent Natural
SpainPresentPlanted, Natural
SwitzerlandPresentPlanted, Natural
UKPresentPlanted, Natural
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentPlanted, Natural

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-VictoriaPresent Planted

Invasive Species Threats

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Invasive SpeciesWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Cydalima perspectalis (box tree moth)Herbivory/grazing/browsingGninenko et al., 2014; Kenis et al., 2013

References

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Aichele DR; Schwegler HWA, 1996. Der Kosmos-Pflanzführer. Blütenpflanze, Farne, Moose, Flechten, Pilze, Algen in 653 Farbbildern. Stuttgart, Germany: Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH u. Co.

Aksoy N, 1998. Expeditions to the Box (Buxus sempervirens) forest at Firtina Cachment area (Camlihemsin, Rize). The Karaca Arboretum Magazine, Yalova, 4(3):98-107.

Batdorf LR, 1995. Boxwood Handbook: A practical guide to knowing and growing boxwood. Boyce, Virginia, USA: American Boxwood Society.

Bird R, 1989. Growing from Seed, Vol. 3. London, UK: Thompson and Morgan Group Ltd.

Brondegaard VJ, 1992. Der Buchsbaum. Forst und Holz, 2:39.

Brouwer W; Stählin A, 1975. Handbuch der Samenkunde für Landwirtschaft, Gartenbau und Forstwirtschaft mit einem Schlüssel zur Bestimmung der wichtigsten landwirtschaftlichen Samen. Frankfurt, Germany: DLG.

Chiej R, 1984. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. London, UK: MacDonald.

Cincura F; Somsak L; Zaborsky J; Krejca J, 1988. Baueme und Straucher unserer Heimat. Bratislava, Slovakia: Verlag Slovart.

Çolak AH, 2003. A General Evaluation of Box (Buxus sempervirens L.) under Threat. Immergrüne Blaetter, The German Rhododendron Society, Bremen, Germany, Heft 42:58-65.

Çolak AH, 2003. Examination of box (Buxus sempervirens L.) in Northwest Anatolia, Turkey: a contribution for the preservation of biological diversity and nature conservation. Swiss Forestry Journal, 154(3/4):81-89.

Çolak AH, 2003. Research and Observation on r-K-Strategy Plants in the Northwest Anatolian Mountains and Their Significance for Forest Management and Nature Conservation. Rhododendron und immergrüne Laubgehölze Jahrbuch, The German Rhododendron Society, Bremen, Germany, 123-142.

Crosnier C, 1998. La cueillette des savoirs. Les usages du végétal, Morvan - Bourgogne. Saint-Brisson, France: Parc Naturel Régional du Morvan.

Davis PH, 1978. Buxus L. In: Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 7. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 631-632.

Dirr MA; Heuser CW, 1987. The reference manual of woody plant propagation. From seed to tissue culture. Athens, GA: Varsity Press.

Erlbeck R; Haseder IE; Stinglwagner GKF, 1998. Das Kosmos Wald- und Forstlexikon. Stuttgart, Germany: Kosmos V.

Fraser A, 2004. Box (Buxus sempervirens). http://www.the-tree.org.uk/BritishTrees/box.htm.

Gninenko YI; Shiryaeva NV; Shurov VI, 2014. The box tree moth - a new invasive pest in the Caucasian forests. Plant Health Research and Practice, 7:32-39.

Godet JD, 1995. Knospen und Zweige der einheimischen Baum und Straucharten. Augsburg, Germany: Natur Buch Verlag.

Grieve A, 1984. A Modern Herbal. London, UK: Penguin.

Hausen BM, 1981. Woods Injurious to Human Health. A manual. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter & Co.

Hecker U, 1995. Bäume und Sträucher. Munich, Germany: BLV Handbuch.

Hegi G, 1957. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. vol. 3. Hansen, München.

Kenis M; Nacambo S; Leuthardt FLG; Domenico Fdi; Haye T, 2013. The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis, in Europe: horticultural pest or environmental disaster? Aliens, 33:38-41.

Krüssmann G, 1979. Die Baeume Europas. 2. Auflage, Berlin and Hamburg, Germany: Paul Parey.

Lewis WH; Elvin-Lewis; MPF, 1977. Medical botany: plants affecting man's health. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Mayer H; Aksoy H, 1986. Turkish forests. [Walder der Turkei.] 1986, xx + 290pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.

Relf D, 2001. Boxwood in the Landscape Publication Number 426-603, Virginia Tech. USA: Virginia Cooperative Extension.

Schmidt A, 1990. Der Buchsbaum (Buxus sempervirens L.). In: Bayerischer Forstverein (Hg.), Sträucher im Wald und Flur. Landsberg, Germany: Ecomed.

Schmidt O, 1990. Vögel und Sträucher. In: Bayerischer Forstverein (Hg.), Sträucher im Wald und Flur. Landsberg, Germany: Ecomed.

USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Wick R, 1997. Diseases of Boxwood. The Virginia Gardener Newsletter, 3(7).

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