Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Busseola fusca
(African maize stalk borer)

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Datasheet

Busseola fusca (African maize stalk borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Busseola fusca
  • Preferred Common Name
  • African maize stalk borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
B. fusca larva feeding in the midrib of a leaf.
TitleLarva feeding
CaptionB. fusca larva feeding in the midrib of a leaf.
CopyrightICRISAT
B. fusca larva feeding in the midrib of a leaf.
Larva feedingB. fusca larva feeding in the midrib of a leaf.ICRISAT
TitleAdult moth
Caption
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult moth©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Busseola fusca Fuller

Preferred Common Name

  • African maize stalk borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Busseola sorghicida Thurau
  • Calamistis fusca Fuller
  • Sesamia fusca Fuller

International Common Names

  • English: maize stalk borer; maize stem borer; sorghum stalk/stem borer

Local Common Names

  • France: le foreur africain des tiges du mais; perceur de la tige du maïs
  • Germany: Maisstengelbohrer
  • Iran: kerme saghehchare arsen
  • Spain: barrenador del tallo del maíz

EPPO code

  • BUSSFU (Busseola fusca)
  • BUSSSO (Busseola sorghicida)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Busseola
  •                                 Species: Busseola fusca

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Africa

AngolaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
BeninPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
Burkina FasoPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
BurundiPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
CameroonPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
ChadPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
EritreaPresent Not invasive Haile Hofsvang, 2003
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1988; Leul and Thangavel, 2013; EPPO, 2014
GabonPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
GhanaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
GuineaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
LesothoPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
SomaliaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014; Assefa, 2015
SudanPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
SwazilandPresentSithole, 1989
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
TogoPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentCIE, 1988; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / frass visible
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / frass visible
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Roots / internal feeding
Seeds / empty grains
Seeds / frass visible
Stems / dead heart
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bracon sesamiae Parasite Larvae
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite
Cotesia chilonis Parasite
Cotesia flavipes Parasite Larvae South Africa maize; sorghum
Cotesia sesamiae Parasite Larvae
Dentichasmias busseolae Parasite Kenya maize
Eurytoma braconidis Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Glyptapanteles maculitarsis Parasite
Odontepyris transvaalensis Parasite
Pediobius furvus Parasite Pupae Kenya maize
Procerochasmias nigromaculatus Parasite Pupae
Psilochalcis soudanensis Parasite Pupae
Sturmiopsis parasitica Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Telenomus busseolae Parasite Eggs
Tetrastichus sesamiae Parasite
Trichogramma mwanzai Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea lutea Parasite
Xanthopimpla stemmator Parasite Pupae

References

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Adesiyun AA; Ajayi O, 1980. Control of the sorghum stem borer, Busseola fusca, by partial burning of the stalks. Tropical Pest Management, 26(2):113-117

Adetiloye PO; Oyekanmi AA; Olatunde GO, 2002. Evaluation of four cropping systems in the control of maize stem borers and the effects on maize growth and grain yield. ASSET Series A: Agriculture and Environment, 2(1): 55-61.

Amoako-Atta B; Omolo EO, 1983. Yield losses caused by the stem-/pod-borer complex within maize-cowpea-sorghum intercropping systems in Kenya. Insect Science and its Application, 4(1/2):39-46

Assefa Y, 2015. Potential new pests in the neighbourhood: diversity and abundance of sugarcane stem borers in the Pondoland region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Proceedings of the Annual Congress - South African Sugar Technologists' Association [88th Annual Congress of the South African Sugar Technologists' Association, Durban, South Africa, 18-20 August 2015.], No.88:292-303. http://www.sasta.co.za/publications/congress-proceedings

Barrow MR, 1985. The effect of different maize genotypes on the maize stalk-borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), feeding in whorl tissue. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 48(1):113-119

Barrow MR, 1989. Screening and breeding for resistance to Busseola fusca. In: Toward Insect Resistant Maize for the Third World: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Methodologies for Developing Host Plant Resistance to Maize Insects, 9-14 Mar 1987, Mexico. Mexico: CIMMYT, 184-191.

Bowden J, 1956. New species of African stem-boring Agrotidae (Lepidoptera). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 47:415-428.

CABI, 1988. Distribution maps of pests. Series A (Agricultural). Map no. 499. Busseola fusca (Fuller). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Chabi Olaye A; Nolte C; Schulthess F; Borgemeister C, 2005. Abundance, dispersion and parasitism of the stem borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 95(2): 169-177.

Chabi Olaye A; Nolte C; Schulthess F; Borgemeister C, 2005. Effects of grain legumes and cover crops on maize yield and plant damage by Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the humid forest of southern Cameroon. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 108(1): 17-28.

Chinwada P; Omwega CO; Overholt WA, 2001. Stemborer research in Zimbabwe: prospects for the establishment of Cotesia flavipes Cameron. Insect Science and its Application, 21(4):327-334; [Status and advances in biological control of cereal stemborers in Africa.]; 27 ref.

Chinwada P; Overholt WA; Omwega CO; Mueke JM, 2003. Geographic differences in host acceptance and suitability of two Cotesia sesamiae populations in Zimbabwe. Biological Control, 28(3): 354-359.

Cugala D; Overholt WA; Santos L; Giga D, 2001. Release of Cotesia flavipes Cameron for biological control of cereal stemborers in two ecological zones in Mozambique. Insect Science and its Application, 21(4):303-310; [Status and advances in biological control of cereal stemborers in Africa.]; 31 ref.

Dakouo D; Ratnadass A, 2001. Efficiency of a pheromone-baited trap for the sorghum stemborer, Busseola fusca. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter, 2001 publ. 2005; 42: 51-52.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gebre-Amlak A, 1988. Ecology and management of maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in southern Ethiopia. PhD thesis. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Gebre-Amlak A, 1989. Phenology and fecundity of maize stalk borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) in Awassa, southern Ethiopia. Insect Science and its Application, 10(2):131-137

Gebrekidan B, 1985. Breeding sorghum for resistance to insects in eastern Africa. Insect Science and its Application, 6(3):351-357

Getu E; Overholt WA; Kairu E; Omwega CO, 2003. Evidence of the establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of cereal stemborers, and its host range expansion in Ethiopia. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 93(2):125-129; 18 ref.

Gohole LS, 2003. Enhancing foraging behaviour of stemborer parasitoids: role of a non-host plant, Melinis minutiflora. Enhancing foraging behaviour of stemborer parasitoids: role of a non-host plant, Melinis minutiflora., xii + 140 pp.; 8 ref.

Haile A; Hofsvang T, 2001. Effect of sowing dates and fertilizer on the severity of stem borer (Busseola fusca Fuller, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on sorghum in Eritrea. International Journal of Pest Management, 47(4):259-264; 37 ref.

Haile A; Hofsvang T, 2003. A three-year partial life table study of the stemborer Busseola fusca Fuller (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on sorghum in the highlands Eritrea. Insect Science and its Application, 23(3): 221-233.

Harris KM, 1962. Lepidopterous stem borers of cereals in Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 53:139-171.

Harris KM; Nwanze KF, 1992. Busseola fusca (Fuller), the African maize stalk borer: a handbook of information. ICRISAT Information Bulletin, No. 33:vi + 84 pp.

Kaufmann T, 1983. Observations on the host plant adaptation of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 85(2):321-326

Kfir K, 1993. Diapause termination in Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 86(3):273-277

Kfir R, 1990. Prospects for cultural control of the stalk borers, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Busseola fusca (Fuller), in summer grain crops in South Africa. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 53(1):41-47

Kfir R, 1991. Duration of diapause in the stem borers, Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 61(3):265-270

Kfir R, 1991. Effect of diapause on development and reproduction of the stem borers Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(6):1677-1680

Kfir R, 1995. Parasitoids of the African stem borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in South Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 85(3):369-377

Kfir R, 2002. Increase in cereal stem borer populations through partial elimination of natural enemies. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 104(2/3):299-306; 50 ref.

Kfir R; Bell RA, 1993. Intraseasonal changes in populations of the African stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its parasitoids in Natal, South Africa. Revue de Zoologie Africaine, 107(6):543-553

Leul Mengistu; Thangavel Selvaraj, 2013. Diversity of sugarcane borer species and their extent of damage status on cane and sugar yield in three commercial sugarcane plantations of Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 9(6):1461-1473. http://www.ijat-aatsea.com/pdf/v9_n6_13_November/10_IJAT_2013_9(6)_Entomology-Leul%20Mengistu.pdf

Macfarlane JH, 1990. Damage assessment and yield losses in sorghum due to the stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern Nigeria. Tropical Pest Management, 36(2):131-137

Matama-Kauma T; Kyamanywa S; Ogwang JA; Omwega CO; Willson HR, 2001. Cereal stemborer species complex and establishment of Cotesia flavipes Cameron in Eastern Uganda. Insect Science and its Application, 21(4):317-325; [Status and advances in biological control of cereal stemborers in Africa.]; 43 ref.

Medvecky BA; Zalom FG; Williams WA, 1992. Traps and lures for a pheromone-based monitoring system for the maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Kitale, Kenya. Tropical Pest Management, 38(1):70-74

Megenasa T, 1982. Insect pests of sorghum in Ethiopia. In: Gebrekidan B, ed. Sorghum Improvement in Eastern Africa: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop, 17-21 Oct 1982, Nazreth and Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Nazreth, Ethiopia: Ethiopian Sorghum Improvement Project, 54-64.

Meijerman L; Ulenberg SA, 1996. Identification of African stem borer larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Pyralidae) based on morphology. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 86(5):567-578; 25 ref.

Midega CAO; Khan ZR; Berg J van den; Ogol CKPO, 2005. Habitat management and its impact on maize stemborer colonization and crop damage levels in Kenya and South Africa. African Entomology, 13(2): 333-340.

MOHYUDDIN AI; GREATHEAD DJ, 1970. An annotated list of the parasites of graminaceous stem borers in East Africa, with a discussion of their potential in biological control. Entomophaga, 15(3):241-274.

Moyal P, 1995. Borer infestation and damage in relation to maize stand density and water stress in the Ivory Coast. International Journal of Pest Management, 41(2):114-121

Moyal P, 1996. Statistical model of crop losses caused by maize stem borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in C(te d'Ivoire. Environmental Entomology, 25(2):227-236; 29 ref.

Moyal P; Tran M, 1989. Morphological study of the pre-imaginal instars of lepidopterous borers of maize in the savannah area of Ivory Coast. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 25(4):461-472

Muturi JJ; Ngi-Song AJ; Mueke JM; Setamou M; Schulthess F; Jiang-NanQing, 2006. Multiparasitism by the pupal parasitoids, Xanthopimpla stemmator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Pediobius furvus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on two African cereal stemborers, Chilo partellus ( Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology, 16(1/2): 49-60.

Ndemah R; Gounou S; Schulthess F, 2002. The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92(6):507-519; 45 ref.

Nsami E; Pallangyo B; Mgoo V; Omwega CO, 2001. Distribution and species composition of cereal stemborers in the Eastern Zone of Tanzania. Insect Science and its Application, 21(4):347-351; [Status and advances in biological control of cereal stemborers in Africa.]; 10 ref.

Nwanze KF, 1985. Sorghum insect pests in West Africa. Proceedings of the international sorghum entomology workshop, 15-21 July 1984, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 37-43

Nwanze KF, 1988. Distribution and seasonal incidence of some major insect pests of sorghum in Burkina Faso. Insect Science and its Application, 9(3):313-321

Nye IWB, 1960. The insect pests of graminaceous crops in East Africa. Colonial Research Studies, No. 31. London, UK: HMSO.

OAU/CAB, 1985. Distribution maps of major crop pests and diseases in Africa, Map no. 193. Organization of African Unity, Scientific Technical and Research Commission. Yaounde, Cameroon: Interafrican Phytosanitary Council.

Odindo MO; Otieno WA; Oloo GW; Kilori J; Odhiambo RC, 1989. Prevalance of microorganisms in field-sampled borers on sorghum, maize, and cowpea in western Kenya. Insect Science and its Application, 10(2):225-228; 14 ref.

Polaszek A, 1998. African cereal stem borers: economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control. African cereal stem borers: economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control., x + 530 pp.; 42 pp. of ref.

Rebe M; Berg J van den; McGeoch MA, 2004. Colonization of cultivated and indigenous graminaceous host plants by Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) under field conditions. African Entomology, 12(2): 187-199.

Reddy KVS; Masyanga BSK, 1988. Effects of different proportions of sorghum/cowpea intercrop rows on crop borer incidence. Annual Report, 1987. Nairobi, Kenya: International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, 6-7.

Rensburg JBJ van; Pringle KL, 1989. A sequential sampling technique for surveys of eggs laid by the maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 52(2):223-228

Rensburg JBJ van; Walters MC; Giliomee JH, 1987. Ecology of the maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 77(2):255-269

Rensburg JBJ van; Walters MC; Giliomee JH, 1989. Selective oviposition by the maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 52(1):105-108

Rensburg JBJvan, 1992. Evaluation of pheromone trapping systems in relation to light trap captures of the maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 9(4):144-149

RTgine A; Coderre D, 2000. Abundance and diversity of maize stem borer species in a maize-groundnut mixture in central Cameroon. African Crop Science Journal, 8(4):365-374; 33 ref.

Sezonlin M; Dupas S; Ru B le; Gall P le; Moyal P; Calatayud PA; Giffard I; Faure N; Silvain JF, 2006. Phylogeography and population genetics of the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in sub-Saharan Africa. Molecular Ecology, 15(2): 407-420.

Sithole SZ, 1989. Sorghum stem borers in southern Africa. International workshop on sorghum stem borers, held in Patancheru, India, on 17-20 November 1987. Patancheru, India: ICRISAT, 41-47

Sohati PH; Musonda EM; Mukanga M, 2001. Distribution of cereal stemborers in Zambia and release of Cotesia flavipes Cameron, an exotic natural enemy of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). Insect Science and its Application, 21(4):311-316; [Status and advances in biological control of cereal stemborers in Africa.]; 7 ref.

Tadele Tefera, 2004. Lepidopterous stem borers of sorghum and their natural enemies in eastern Ethiopia. Tropical Science, 44(3): 128-130.

Tams WHT; Bowden J, 1953. A revision of the African species of Sesamia Guenée and related genera (Agrotidae-Lepidoptera). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 43:645-678.

Usua EJ, 1968. The biology and ecology of Busseola fusca and Sesamia species in south-western Nigeria during Nov.-Dec., 1964. 1. Distribution and population studies. Journal of Economic Entomology, 61:830-833.

van den Berg J; van Rensburg JBJ, 1996. Comparison of various directional insecticidal sprays against Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in sorghum and maize. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 13:51-54.

van Rensburg JBJ; Walters MC; Giliomee JH, 1985. Geographical variation in the seasonal moth flight activity of the maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) in South Africa. South African Journal of Plants and Soil, 2:123-126.

Wahl RO, 1926. The maize-stalk borer (Busseola fusca, Fuller). Farming in South Africa, 1:279-282.

Walker PT, 1960. The relation between infestation by the stalk borer Bussola fusca, and yield of maize in East Africa. Annals of Applied Biology, 48:780-786.

Walker PT; Hodson MJ, 1976. Developments in maize stem-borer control in East Africa, including the use of insecticide granules. Annals of Applied Biology, 84:111-114

Yitaferu K; Walker AK, 1997. Studies on the maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its major parasitoid, Dolichogenidea fuscivora (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in eastern Ethiopia. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87(3):319-324; 28 ref.

Yitaferu L; Gebre-Amlak A; Lakra RK, 1994. Diapause termination in maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) larvae at Alemaya, eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 12(3/4):266-272

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