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Datasheet

Avipoxvirus

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Datasheet

Avipoxvirus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Avipoxvirus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Poxviridae
  •         Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Avian poxviruses (Avipoxvirus spp.) are large DNA viruses that cause disease in over 200 species of domestic and wild birds (van Riper and Forrester, 2008). Avian pox...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Thin section electron microscopy showing a mature pox virus particle, with a centrally located biconcave core, two lateral bodies and the outer coat.
TitleMature pox virus particle
CaptionThin section electron microscopy showing a mature pox virus particle, with a centrally located biconcave core, two lateral bodies and the outer coat.
CopyrightNatàlia Majó Masferror
Thin section electron microscopy showing a mature pox virus particle, with a centrally located biconcave core, two lateral bodies and the outer coat.
Mature pox virus particleThin section electron microscopy showing a mature pox virus particle, with a centrally located biconcave core, two lateral bodies and the outer coat. Natàlia Majó Masferror
Histopathology of a pox lesion, showing epithelial hypertrophy and inclusion bodies.
TitleHistopathology
CaptionHistopathology of a pox lesion, showing epithelial hypertrophy and inclusion bodies.
CopyrightU.S. Geological Survey/Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Hawaii
Histopathology of a pox lesion, showing epithelial hypertrophy and inclusion bodies.
HistopathologyHistopathology of a pox lesion, showing epithelial hypertrophy and inclusion bodies.U.S. Geological Survey/Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Hawaii
Pox virus infected CAM. Note diffuse thickening of the membrane.
TitlePox virus infected CAM
CaptionPox virus infected CAM. Note diffuse thickening of the membrane.
CopyrightLaboratorios Hipra, S.A.
Pox virus infected CAM. Note diffuse thickening of the membrane.
Pox virus infected CAMPox virus infected CAM. Note diffuse thickening of the membrane.Laboratorios Hipra, S.A.
Cutaneous form of pox virus infection. Variously sized papules or nodules are observed in the comb of this animal.
TitleCutaneous pox virus symptoms.
CaptionCutaneous form of pox virus infection. Variously sized papules or nodules are observed in the comb of this animal.
CopyrightNatàlia Majó Masferror
Cutaneous form of pox virus infection. Variously sized papules or nodules are observed in the comb of this animal.
Cutaneous pox virus symptoms.Cutaneous form of pox virus infection. Variously sized papules or nodules are observed in the comb of this animal. Natàlia Majó Masferror
Histologic section of poxvirus-infected CAM. Epithelial hyperplasia and large, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) within epithelial cells are observed.
TitleHistology
CaptionHistologic section of poxvirus-infected CAM. Epithelial hyperplasia and large, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) within epithelial cells are observed.
CopyrightNatàlia Majó Masferror
Histologic section of poxvirus-infected CAM. Epithelial hyperplasia and large, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) within epithelial cells are observed.
HistologyHistologic section of poxvirus-infected CAM. Epithelial hyperplasia and large, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) within epithelial cells are observed.Natàlia Majó Masferror
Diphteric form of pox virus infection. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea.|Diphteric form of pox virus infection. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea.
TitleDiptheric form symptoms
CaptionDiphteric form of pox virus infection. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea.|Diphteric form of pox virus infection. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea.
CopyrightLaboratorios Hipra, S.A.
Diphteric form of pox virus infection. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea.|Diphteric form of pox virus infection. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea.
Diptheric form symptomsDiphteric form of pox virus infection. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea.|Diphteric form of pox virus infection. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea. Yellowish pseudomembranes are observed in the lumen of the trachea.Laboratorios Hipra, S.A.
Nodule in a feathered area of a pigeon caused by pox virus infection.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionNodule in a feathered area of a pigeon caused by pox virus infection.
CopyrightNatàlia Majó Masferror
Nodule in a feathered area of a pigeon caused by pox virus infection.
SymptomsNodule in a feathered area of a pigeon caused by pox virus infection.Natàlia Majó Masferror
Histologic section of poxvirus-infected skin. Epithelial hyperplasia and large, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) within epithelial cells are observed.
TitleHistology
CaptionHistologic section of poxvirus-infected skin. Epithelial hyperplasia and large, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) within epithelial cells are observed.
CopyrightNatàlia Majó Masferror
Histologic section of poxvirus-infected skin. Epithelial hyperplasia and large, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) within epithelial cells are observed.
HistologyHistologic section of poxvirus-infected skin. Epithelial hyperplasia and large, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) within epithelial cells are observed.Natàlia Majó Masferror
Characteristic pox lesions on the feet of an immature apapane, Hawaii Island.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCharacteristic pox lesions on the feet of an immature apapane, Hawaii Island.
CopyrightU.S. Geological Survey/Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Hawaii
Characteristic pox lesions on the feet of an immature apapane, Hawaii Island.
SymptomsCharacteristic pox lesions on the feet of an immature apapane, Hawaii Island.U.S. Geological Survey/Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Hawaii
Cutaneous pox lesions on the bill and eyelid of nestling Laysan Albatross, Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCutaneous pox lesions on the bill and eyelid of nestling Laysan Albatross, Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.
CopyrightU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Cutaneous pox lesions on the bill and eyelid of nestling Laysan Albatross, Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.
SymptomsCutaneous pox lesions on the bill and eyelid of nestling Laysan Albatross, Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Avipoxvirus International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), 2009

Other Scientific Names

  • Poxvirus avium

Summary of Invasiveness

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Avian poxviruses (Avipoxvirus spp.) are large DNA viruses that cause disease in over 200 species of domestic and wild birds (van Riper and Forrester, 2008). Avian pox occurs worldwide and is typically an endemic, mild, and self-limiting disease among wild birds. Outbreaks, however, often occur in captive situations, such as zoos and game farms, where bird densities are high.  Epizootics among endemic birds on remote islands (Hawaiian Islands, since circa 1902 [van Riper et al., 2004]; Galapagos Archipelago, since circa 1971 [Vargas, 1987]; Canary Islands, since 2000 [Smits et al., 2005]; Falkland Islands, since circa 1962 [Munro, 2006]) are characterized by high morbidity and mortality and indicate the invasive nature of avian pox. Invasiveness of avian poxvirus is due in part to its ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions and be transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food, water and aerosols, biting arthropods, or by any means that brings virus in direct contact with living epithelial cells (van Riper and Forrester, 2007). Avipoxvirus is listed as an invasive microorganism by the IUCN - Invasive Species Specialists Group (ISSG, 2008).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Poxviridae
  •                 Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
  •                     Genus: Avipoxvirus

Diseases Table

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Distribution

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Avian poxviruses occur worldwide except in the Arctic and some remote island locations (van Riper and Forrester, 2007; Shearn-Bochsler et al., 2008).  There are fewer published reports from Africa and South America but this probably reflects limited research activity and not a natural distribution.  In North America they appear to be more prevalent in the warmer and moister regions of the United States (van Riper and Forrester, 2007).  Where it has been reported on remote oceanic islands, like the Hawaiian Islands, Galapagos Islands and Canary Islands, avian poxvirus behaves as an invasive species, spreading rapidly among susceptible species and causing higher mortality.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentWinteroll et al., 1979
AzerbaijanPresent1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanPresent1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentHu, 1982
-GansuPresentZhang et al., 1996
-Hong KongPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-ShaanxiPresentWang et al., 1996
-ShanxiPresentWang et al., 1996
Georgia (Republic of)Present1983OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaPresentMathur et al., 1972; Pandey and Mallick, 1974
-Andhra PradeshPresentRao, 1965
IndonesiaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranPresent2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqPresentAl-Falluji et al., 1979; Al-Ani, 1986
IsraelPresentPerelman et al., 1988In captive birds
JapanPresentKawashima, 1962; Sato et al., 1962; Horiuchi et al., 1965; Iwata et al., 1986; Tsai et al., 1997
JordanPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitPresent1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonPresent2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentIderis and Ibrahim, 1986; Karpinski and Clubb, 1986; Reed and Schrader, 1989
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahPresent1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaPresentCooper, 1969; Greenwood and Blakemore, 1973In captive birds.
SingaporePresent1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesPresentKiel, 1985; Samour and Cooper, 1993; Samour et al., 1996
UzbekistanPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaPresent1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdePresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoirePresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptPresent1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaPresent2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiquePresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaPresentAllwright et al., 1994; Stannard et al., 1998
Spain
-Canary IslandsLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Medina et al., 2004; Smits et al., 2005; Illera et al., 2008
SudanPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaPresentLoir and Ducloux, 1894; OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaLocalisedSince 1958Wingate et al., 1980
CanadaPresentSyverton and McTaggerty, 1944; Kuntze et al., 1968; Moffat, 1972; Cox, 1980; Mikaelian et al., 1996
-OntarioWidespreadKarstad, 1965; Kirmse, 1966; Kirmse, 1967
-QuebecPresentMikaelian et al., 1997
MexicoPresentGALLAGHER, 1916; Graham, 1978; Olmos et al., 1986
USAPresentBaldwin, 1922; Emmel, 1930; BUMP et al., 1947; Locke et al., 1960; Goodpasture and Anderson, 1962; Minsky and Petrak, 1982
-AlaskaPresentMorton and Dieterich, 1979
-ArizonaPresentBlakenship et al., 1966
-CaliforniaPresentPower and Human, 1976; Hill and Bogue, 1977; Emanuelson et al., 1978; Harris et al., 1978; McDonald et al., 1981; Wheeldon et al., 1985
-FloridaPresentSimpson et al., 1975; Hitchner and Clubb, 1980; Jacobson et al., 1980; Akey et al., 1981; Deem et al., 1997
-GeorgiaPresentMusselman, 1928; STODDARD, 1931; Wheeldon et al., 1985
-HawaiiWidespread Invasive Henshaw, 1902; Locke et al., 1965; Warner, 1968; Jenkins et al., 1989; Sileo et al., 1990; Tripathy et al., 2000; Atkinson et al., 2005; van and Riper Forrester, 2007; Jarvi et al., 2008
-IdahoLocalisedDocherty and Long, 1986Boise, feeding station
-IllinoisPresentBRANDLY and DUNLAP, 1938; Labisky and Mann, 1961; Sharma et al., 1968
-IndianaPresentBoosinger et al., 1982
-KentuckyPresentPoonacha and Wilson, 1981In captive birds
-MarylandPresentIRONS, 1934; Herman et al., 1962; Montgomery et al., 1980
-MississippiPresentGoodpasture and Anderson, 1962
-MissouriPresentHalliwell, 1972In captive birds
-New JerseyLocalisedWorth, 1956Princeton, banding station
-New YorkPresentCOULSTON and MANWELL, 1941; Leibovitz, 1969; Tangredi, 1974; Donnelly and Crane, 1984
-North DakotaPresentPearson et al., 1975; Wheeldon et al., 1985
-OklahomaPresentJohnson and Castro, 1986In captive birds
-OregonPresentDickenson, 1967; Crawford et al., 1979; Crawford, 1986
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadLocke, 1961; Ratcliff, 1967; Petrak, 1982
-South CarolinaPresentSTODDARD, 1931
-TennesseePresentGoodpasture and Anderson, 1962
-TexasWidespreadDubose, 1965; Clark et al., 1988; Wilson and Crawford, 1988; Docherty et al., 1991
-VirginiaPresentDubose, 1965
-WashingtonPresentGiddens et al., 1971; Landolt and Kocan, 1976; Fitzner et al., 1985; Garner, 1989

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsPresent1995``OIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsPresent2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupePresent1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniquePresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaWidespreadKirmse and Loftin, 1969
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadSince 1964 Invasive Tikasingh et al., 1982

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaPresentHitchner and Clubb, 1980
BrazilPresentReis and Nobrega, 1937; OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChilePresentCubillos et al., 1979
ColombiaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Vargas, 1987; Curry and Grant, 1989; Thiel et al., 2005
Falkland IslandsLocalisedIntroduced2004 Invasive Munro, 2006Port Stevens, New Island & Albermarle
ParaguayPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruPresentKirmse, 1967
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AustriaPresentLoupal et al., 1985
BelarusPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaPresent1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicPresentRajchard and Rachac, 2001
DenmarkPresentChristiansen, 1949; OIE Handistatus, 2005
FrancePresentHeusinger, 1844; Megnin, 1878; Curasson, 1946; OIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyPresentHartig and Frese, 1973; Kitzing, 1980; Kaleta and Marschall, 1982; Luthgen, 1983; Herbst and Krauss, 1989; Krone et al., 2004
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyPresentMaggiora and Valenti, 1903; Rinaldi et al., 1972; Mani et al., 1990; Chiocco, 1992; Cerrone et al., 1999
MacedoniaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaPresent1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsPresentDe Jong, 1912; Jansen, 1942; OIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayPresentHolt and Krogsrud, 1973; Weli et al., 2004
PolandPresentLandowska-Plazewska and Plazewski, 1968
PortugalPresent2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
-MadeiraLocalisedIllera et al., 2008On Porto Santo Island only
RomaniaPresentCociu et al., 1972
Russian FederationPresent2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaPresent1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainWidespreadVogelsang, 1938; Groth, 1963; Orós et al., 1997; Hernández et al., 2001; Buenestado et al., 2004
SwedenPresentHulphers, 1943
SwitzerlandPresentBouvier, 1946; Zangger and Muller, 1990
UKPresentMiles and Stocker, 1948; JENNINGS, 1954; Edwards, 1955; Poulding, 1960; Pomeroy, 1962; Keymer and Blackmore, 1964; Green, 1969; Kear and Brown, 1976; Nuttall et al., 1985
UkrainePresent2002OIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaPresentBURNET and STANLEY, 1959; Harrigan et al., 1975; Chung and Spradbow, 1977; Wobeser, 1981; Annuar et al., 1983; Sutton and Fillipich, 1983; Raidal et al., 1996
French PolynesiaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaPresentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandPresentWesterskov, 1953; Quinn, 1971; Austin et al., 1973
SamoaPresent2003OIE Handistatus, 2005

History of Introduction and Spread

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In the Hawaiian Islands, there are no clear accounts of when avian pox first arrived. Fowlpox was likely introduced during the 1800s with the importation of domestic fowl (Riper et al., 2002).  Spread of avian pox must have accelerated after the introduction of the Southern House Mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, around 1827 (LaPointe, 2007). Naturalist bird collectors had observed pox-like lesions on native forest birds and speculated on its impact throughout the 1890s (Henshaw, 1902). Fowlpox was first officially diagnosed on domestic chickens in 1901 and, a year later, avian pox was diagnosed in an endemic forest bird, the akepa (Loxops coccineus) (Riper et al., 2002). Presumed, and confirmed, avian pox epizootics have been reported in the Hawaiian Crow (Corvus hawaiiensis) (Jenkins et al., 1989) on Hawaii Island and in endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) (Riper et al., 2002; Atkinson et al., 2005; Aruch et al., 2007) throughout the islands. Avipoxvirus was identified from a Red-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda) on Midway Atoll in the northwest Hawaiian Islands in 1963 (Locke et al., 1965) and epizootics of avian pox among nesting seabirds have regularly occurred on Midway Atoll since then (Sileo et al., 1990). A recent molecular analysis of contemporary pox lesions from native birds and historical lesions from museum specimens revealed that at least one variant (Variant 2) of contemporary Hawaiian forest bird Avipoxvirus was present in 1900 (Jarvi et al., 2008). The two variants of Hawaiian forest bird Avipoxvirus are genetically distinct from fowlpox and more similar to canarypox suggesting separate introductions of the two apparent species (Jarvi et al., 2008).

In the Galapagos Islands, avian pox viruses may have been introduced with domestic chickens before the twentieth century as there are unpublished accounts of pox-like lesions as early as 1905 (Wikelski et al., 2004). Based on histological examination, lesions from Darwin’s Finches (Geospiza spp.) were identified as avian pox in 1971 (Vargas, 1987).  Pox-like lesions were reported from Galapagos mockingbirds (Nesomimus parvulus) on Isla Santa Cruz in 1979 (Vargas, 1987) and epizootics of presumed avian pox commonly occur in yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia), Galapagos doves (Zenaida galapagoensis), Galapagos mockingbirds, and Galapagos finches (Geospiza spp.) on the inhabited islands and islets of Santa Cruz and Isabella (Thiel et al., 2005).  Avian pox was also suspected during an epizootic among Galapagos mockingbirds on the islands of Genovesa, Champion, and Gardner during the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event of 1982-1983 (Curry and Grant, 1989; Grant et al., 2000). The Black Salt Marsh Mosquito, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus [Aedestaeniorhynchus], is native to the Galapagos Islands and may serve as a vector of Avipoxvirus (Bataille et al., 2009).  However, in 1985, Culex quinquefasciatus was first collected on Isla Santa Cruz (Whiteman et al., 2005) and the establishment of this avid, bird feeding mosquito on inhabited islands may have accelerated the spread and prevalence of avian pox.  Recent molecular analysis of Avipoxvirus from chickens and endemic passerines in the Galapagos revealed fowlpox among chickens and two canarypox-like strains (Gal1 and Gal 2) among endemic passerines (Thiel et al., 2005). The original virus affecting endemic passerines may have come from domestic songbirds or migrating wild passerines.

Avian pox was first observed on White-tailed Laurel Pigeons (Columba junoniae) on La Palma in the Canary Islands in 2000 (Medina et al., 2004). In 2002, an epizootic of avian pox in Short-toed Larks (Calandrella rufescens) and Berthelot’s Pipits (Anthus berthelotti) was reported from the islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote.  Poultry fleas may have driven the spread of Avipoxvirus during the epizootic (Smits et al., 2005).  Avian pox has since been detected on 5 of the 9 islands that make up the Canaries and Porto Santos in the Maderian archipelago (Illera et al., 2008). Eleven mosquito species are known from the Canary Islands including the Northern House Mosquito, Culex pipiens, which was introduced to these islands prior to the mid-1800s (Baez and Fernandez, 1980).

In the Falkland Islands, avian pox was first reported from domestic chickens and the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris [Diomedeamelanophris]) in 1987; however, suspected avian pox infections had been reported in albatross colonies as early as 1962.  An avian pox outbreak in the Falklands in 2006 killed approximately 200 Gentoo Penguins (Pygoscelis papua) (Munro, 2006). Scavenging birds such as gulls, vultures, and skuas may have spread the virus from domestic sites to breeding colonies.  Researchers may also have spread Avipoxvirus from one rookery to another.  In 2004, avian poxvirus was detected in a nestling Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Anvers Island, Antarctica (Shearn-Bochsler et al., 2008). In the case of southern giant petrels, adult birds likely brought the virus to the nesting colony, but the origin and initial route of infection in the adult birds is unknown.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canary Islands <2000 Animal production (pathway cause) Yes No Medina et al. (2004) Accidental
Falkland Islands c. 1962 Animal production (pathway cause) ,
Research (pathway cause)
No No Munro (2006) Accidental
Galapagos Islands <1905 Animal production (pathway cause) Yes No Wikelski et al. (2004) Accidental
Galapagos Islands <1971 Animal production (pathway cause) Yes No Vargas (1987) Accidental
Hawaii <1902 Animal production (pathway cause) ,
Pet trade (pathway cause)
Yes No Riper et al. (2002); van Riper et al. (2002) Accidental

Risk of Introduction

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Avipoxvirus appears to be present throughout most of the continental regions of the world and absent, for the most part, from the most remote polar regions and oceanic islands (Riper and Forrester, 2007).  The main route of introduction to these remote areas is likely to be infected hosts transported as part of the commercial poultry, game and pet bird trade (van Riper et al., 2002; Foster, 2009).  Migratory wild birds may also spread the virus from mainland areas to less remote islands (Thiel et al., 2005). Due to the environmental stability of the virus, however, the reuse and resale of contaminated cages or equipment may also serve as a route of entry. Virus might also arrive with mosquito vectors that are common stowaways in aircraft cabins and cargo holds (Lounibos, 2002).

Once established in an archipelago, virus may be spread interisland by migrating or dispersing wild birds, arthropod vectors (windblown or as stowaways on aircraft or ships), or even on the soles of contaminated boots after people have visited farms, poultry houses, rearing facilities, or seabird rookeries.  Avian researchers and recreational birders may inadvertently spread the virus if they are not diligent in the disinfection of all footwear, clothing, tripods, mist nets, traps, and banding equipment when working between or visiting diseased and disease-free areas (Munro, 2006).

Pathogen Characteristics

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Avian poxvirus is a large, enveloped DNA virus ranging from 260 to 309 kilobase pairs long with a G+C content of 35% and molecular weight of 185±5 x 106 daltons.  All avian poxviruses show identical morphology. The brick-shape virions measure approximately 330x280x200 nanometres and are covered with surface knobs (Tripathy, 1993). While poxviruses are typically resistant to ether, some avian poxvirus species/strains are sensitive to ether and chloroform. Avian poxvirus can withstand temperature as high as 50°C for 30 minutes and 60ºC for 8 minutes (Tripathy, 1993). The virus can withstand desiccation for several months or years.  The viruses develop in the cytoplasm of avian epithelial cells forming characteristic inclusions known as Bollinger bodies which consist, by weight, of 50% extractable lipids (Tripathy, 1993). Species differentiation in the past has been based on host specificity and antigenic similarities (Kirmse, 1967) but recent molecular work has begun to differentiate avian poxvirus species and strains by gene sequencing (Tripathy and Reed, 2003).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Accipiter gentilisWild host
Accipiter nisusWild host
Agapornis fischeriExperimental settings, Wild host
Agapornis personataExperimental settings, Wild host
Agapornis roseicollisExperimental settings, Wild host
Aimophila cassiniiWild host
Aix galericulataWild host
Aix sponsaWild host
Ajaia ajajaWild host
Alauda arvensisWild host
Alectoris rufa (red-legged partridge)Wild host
Amazona aestivaWild host
Amazona albifronsExperimental settings, Wild host
Amazona autumnalisExperimental settings
Amazona farinosaExperimental settings
Amazona finschiExperimental settings, Wild host
Amazona ochrocephalaExperimental settings, Wild host
Anas clypeataWild host
Anas creccaWild host
Anas penelopeWild host
Anas platyrhynchosDomesticated host, Wild hostPoultry: All Stages
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinusWild host
Anous stolidusWild host
Anous tenuirostrisWild host
Anser anser (geese)Domesticated host, Experimental settings, Wild hostPoultry: All Stages
Anser cygnoidesWild host
Anser fabalisWild host
Anser indicus (bar-headed goose)Wild host
Anthus berthelotiiWild host
Anthus novaeseelandiaeWild host
Aprosmictus erythropterusWild host
Aquila chrysaetos (golden eagle)Wild host
Aquila heliacaWild host
Ara araraunaWild host
Ara chloropteraWild host
Ara militarisWild host
Ara rubrogenysExperimental settings
Aratinga canicularisExperimental settings
Aratinga holochloraExperimental settings
Aratinga mitrataExperimental settings
Aratinga solstitialisExperimental settings
Ardea herodiasWild host
Asio otusWild host
Aythya affinisWild host
Bonasa bonasiaWild host
Bonasa umbellus (ruffed grouse)Wild host
Branta canadensis (Canada goose)Wild host
Branta sandvicensis (Hawaiian Goose)Wild host
Brotogeris pyrrhopterusExperimental settings
Bubo buboExperimental settings
Bubo virginianusWild host
Bucephala clangulaWild host
Burhinus oedicnemusWild host
Buteo buteoWild host
Buteo jamaicensisExperimental settings, Wild host
Buteo lagopusWild host
Buteo platypterusWild host
Calandrella rufescensWild host
Calidris albaWild host
Calidris alpinaWild host
Callipepla californicaWild host
Callipepla gambeliiWild host
Callipepla squamataWild host
Cardinalis cardinalisWild host
Carduelis cannabinaExperimental settings
Carduelis carduelisExperimental settings, Wild host
Carduelis chlorisWild host
Carduelis cucullataWild host
Carduelis pinus (pine siskin)Wild host
Carduelis spinusWild host
Carpodacus mexicanus (house finch)Wild host
Casmerodius albusWild host
Cathartes auraWild host
Catharus fuscescensWild host
Catharus minimusWild host
Catharus mustelinusWild host
Catharus ustulatusWild host
Centrocercus urophasianus (greater sage-grouse)Wild host
Cereopsis novaehollandiaeWild host
Certhia familiarisWild host
Chaetura pelagicaWild host
Chasiempis sandwichensisWild host
Chlamydotis undulataWild host
Chloropsis aurifronsWild host
Chlorospingus ophthalmicusWild host
Chrysococcyx capriusWild host
Chrysolophus pictusWild host
Ciconia ciconiaWild host
Ciconia nigraWild host
Circus cyaneusWild host
Circus pygargusWild host
Colaptes auratusWild host
Colinus virginianusDomesticated host, Experimental settings, Wild hostPoultry: All Stages
Columba araucanaWild host
Columba junoniae (White-tailed Laurel Pigeon)Wild host
Columba livia (pigeons)Domesticated host, Wild hostPoultry: All Stages
Columba palumbusWild host
Copsychus malabaricus (White-rumped Shama)Wild host
Coracina novaehollandiaeWild host
Corvus coraxWild host
Corvus coroneWild host
Corvus frugilegus (rook)Wild host
Corvus hawaiiensis (Hawaiian Crow)Wild host
Corvus monedulaWild host
Cosmopsarus regiusWild host
Cotinga maculataWild host
Coturnix coturnixWild host
Crossoptilon auritumWild host
Crossoptilon crossoptilonWild host
Cyanocitta cristataExperimental settings, Wild host
Cyanocompsa cyanoidesWild host
Cygnus atratusWild host
Cygnus columbianusWild host
Cygnus olor (mute swan)Wild host
Dendragapus obscurusWild host
Dendroica petechia (yellow warbler bird)Wild host
Dendroica tigrinaWild host
Deroptyus accipitrinusExperimental settings
Diomedea immutabilisWild host
Diomedea melanophrisWild host
Dumetella carolinensisWild host
Dysmorodrepanis munroi (Akiapolaau)Wild host
Egretta rufescensWild host
Egretta thulaWild host
Empidonax trailliiWild host
Enicognathus leptorhynchusExperimental settings
Eumyias thalassinaWild host
Euphonia violaceaWild host
Falco cherrugWild host
Falco juggerWild host
Falco peregrinusWild host
Falco rusticolusWild host
Falco tinnunculusExperimental settings
Fringilla coelebsExperimental settings, Wild host
Fulica atraWild host
Galerida cristataWild host
Gallus gallusDomesticated hostPoultry: All Stages
GeospizaWild host
Geothlypis trichasWild host
Gracula religiosaWild host
Grallina cyanoleucaWild host
Grandala coelicolorWild host
Grus canadensisWild host
Grus grusWild host
Grus japonensisWild host
Grus virgoWild host
Gymnorhina tibicenWild host
Haematopus ostralegusWild host
Hemignathus obscurusWild host
Hemignathus virensExperimental settings, Wild host
Himatione sanguineaWild host
Icteria virensWild host
Junco hyemalis (snowbird)Wild host
Lagopus mutusWild host
LamprotornisExperimental settings
LaniusWild host
Larus argentatusWild host
Larus canusWild host
Leucopsar rothschildiWild host
Leucosticte tephrocotisWild host
Lophophorus impejanusWild host
Lophura diardiWild host
Loriculus vernalisWild host
Loxops coccineus (Akepa)Wild host
Macronectes giganteusWild host
Manacus manacusWild host
Manacus vitellinusWild host
Melanitta nigraWild host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Domesticated host, Wild hostPoultry: All Stages
Melopsittacus undulatusWild host
Melospiza melodiaExperimental settings
Mimus polyglottosWild host
Molothrus ater (brown-headed cowbird)Wild host
Muscovy duckWild host
Myadestes obscurusWild host
Myadestes palmeri (Puaiohi)Wild host
Nesomimus parvulusWild host
Numenius arquataWild host
Numida meleagris (guineafowl)Experimental settings
Nymphicus hollandicusWild host
Oporornis philadelphiaWild host
Oreomystis mana (Hawaii creeper)Wild host
Oryzoborus angolensisExperimental settings
Otis tardaWild host
Otus asioWild host
Padda oryzivora (Java sparrow)Wild host
Paroreomyza maculata (Oahu creeper)Wild host
Parus bicolorWild host
Parus majorExperimental settings, Wild host
Passer domesticus (house sparrow)Wild host
Passer melanurusWild host
Passer montanus (eurasian tree sparrow)Wild host
Passerculus sandwichensisWild host
Passerella iliacaExperimental settings
Pavo cristatusWild host
Perdix perdix (grey partridge)Wild host
Phaethon lepturus (white-tailed tropicbird)Wild host
Phaethon rubricaudaWild host
Phalacrocorax bougainvilliiWild host
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)Wild host
Phoenicopterus chilensisWild host
Phoeniculus purpureusWild host
Pionites melanocephalaExperimental settings
Pionus fuscusExperimental settings
Pionus maximilianiExperimental settings
Pionus menstruusExperimental settings
Pionus senilisExperimental settings
Pipilo chlorurusWild host
Pipilo erythrophthalmusWild host
Pipra erythrocephalaWild host
Pipra mentalisWild host
Piranga rubraWild host
Platycercus eximiusExperimental settings
Plectrophenax nivalisExperimental settings
Ploceus velatusWild host
Pluvialis apricariaWild host
Podiceps cristatusWild host
Prunella collarisWild host
Prunella modularisWild host
Psephotus haematonotusExperimental settings
Psittirostra psittacea (Ou)Wild host
Puffinus puffinusWild host
Pygoscelis papuaWild host
Pyrrhula pyrrhulaExperimental settings, Wild host
Quelea quelea (weaver bird)Wild host
QuiscalusWild host
Quiscalus quisculaWild host
Rhea americanaWild host
RhodacanthisWild host
Seiurus aurocapillusWild host
Seiurus motacillaWild host
Serinus canariaDomesticated host, Wild hostPoultry: All Stages
Sicalis flaveolaWild host
Spheniscus demersusWild host
Spheniscus humboldtiWild host
Spizella arboreaWild host
Spizella passerinaWild host
Spizella pusillaWild host
SporophilaWild host
Sterna fuscata (sooty tern)Wild host
Sterna maximaWild host
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove)Wild host
Strix variaWild host
Struthio camelus (ostrich)Domesticated host, Wild hostPoultry: All Stages
Sturnus vulgaris (common starling)Experimental settings, Wild host
Sylvia atricapillaWild host
Sylvia currucaWild host
Tadorna ferrugineaWild host
Tangara guttataWild host
Telespiza cantans (Laysan finch)Experimental settings
Tetrao tetrixWild host
Thraupis episcopusWild host
Tragopan satyraWild host
Tragopan temminckiiWild host
Troglodytes troglodytesWild host
Turdus merula (eurasian blackbird)Wild host
Turdus migratoriusWild host
Turdus nudigenis (bare-eyed thrush)Wild host
Turdus philomelosWild host
Turdus pilarisWild host
Tympanuchus cupidoWild host
Uria aalgeWild host
Vanellus vanellusWild host
Vestiaria coccinea (Iiwi)Experimental settings, Wild host
Vultur gryphusWild host
Zenaida macrouraWild host
Zonotrichia albicollisExperimental settings
Zonotrichia atricapillaWild host
Zonotrichia leucophrysWild host
Zosterops japonicus (Japanese white-eye)Wild host
Zosterops lateralis (silvereye)Wild host
Zosterops palpebrosusWild host

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Tolerated Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Tolerated Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
E - Polar climate Tolerated Polar climate (Average temp. of warmest month < 10°C)
ET - Tundra climate Tolerated Tundra climate (Average temp. of warmest month < 10°C and > 0°C)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There are no natural enemies of Avipoxvirus.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes Yes
Pet trade Yes Yes
Research Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes
Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
Livestock Yes Yes
Pets and aquarium species Yes Yes

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegyptiInsectWorld
Aedes stimulansInsectNorth America
Aedes taeniorhynchusInsectSouth America
Aedes vexansInsectWorld
Alphitobius diaperinusInsectWorld
Anopheles maculipennisInsectWorld
Culex nigripalpusInsectSouth America
Culex pipiensInsectWorld
Culex quinquefasciatusInsectWorld
Culex tarsalisInsectNorth America
Culiseta annulataInsectWorld
Dermanyssus gallinaeMiteWorld
Echidnophaga gallinaceaInsectWorld
Stomoxys calcitransInsectWorld

Economic Impact

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In chickens, cutaneous fowlpox seldom results in economically significant mortality; however, the diphtheritic form of fowlpox can cause up to 60% mortality in unvaccinated chickens.  Cutaneous fowlpox can cause a transient drop in layer egg production, up to 15%, and reduces growth rate in young birds (Beckman, 2007).  On a flock basis, outbreaks of fowlpox generally last 6-10 weeks resulting in significant economic loss in egg production.  For domestic turkeys, the reduced weight gain in market birds has a larger impact (Cunningham, 1978).  Septicaemic canarypox can have a great impact on individual commercial canary breeders due to the high incidence and mortality rates associated with this form of the disease (Ritchie, 1995).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on biodiversity

Although avian pox is typically an endemic, mild, and self-limiting disease among wild birds, epizootics among endemic birds on remote islands  such as the Hawaiian Islands, (van Riper et al., 2004), Galapagos Archipelago (Vargas, 1987), Canary Islands (Smits et al., 2005) and Falkland Islands (Munro, 2006) are characterized by high morbidity and mortality.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Branta sandvicensis (Hawaiian Goose)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)HawaiiPathogenicKear and Brown, 1976
Chasiempis sandwichensis ibidis (Oahu elepaio)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicVanderwerf, 2009
Columba junoniae (White-tailed Laurel Pigeon)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Canary IslandsPathogenicMedina et al., 2004
Corvus hawaiiensis (Hawaiian Crow)No DetailsHawaiiPathogenicJenkins et al., 1989
Dysmorodrepanis munroi (Akiapolaau)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)HawaiiPathogenicAtkinson et al., 2005
Loxops coccineus (Akepa)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)HawaiiPathogenicLepson and Freed, 1997
Myadestes palmeri (Puaiohi)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)HawaiiPathogenicHerrmann and Snetsinger, 1997
Oreomystis mana (Hawaii creeper)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicAtkinson et al., 2005; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Psittirostra psittacea (Ou)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicSnetsinger et al., 1998; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Loxioides bailleui (palila)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Oreomystis bairdi (akikiki)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Palmeria dolei (crested honeycreeper)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Paroreomyza flammea (Molokai creeper)EX (IUCN red list: Extinct) EX (IUCN red list: Extinct); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Paroreomyza maculata (Oahu creeper)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Pseudonestor xanthophrys (Maui parrotbill)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011b

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
Impact mechanisms
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Al-Ani MOA, 1986. An outbreak of pox among pheasants in Iraq. Avian Pathology, 15(4):795-796; 5 ref.

Al-Falluji MM, Tantawi HH, Al-Bana A, Sheikhly S, 1979. Pox infections among captive peacocks. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 15:597-600.

Allwright DM, Burger WP, Geyer A, Wessels J, 1994. Avian pox in ostriches. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 65(1):23-25; 7 ref.

Annuar BO, Mackenzie JS, Lalor PA, 1983. Isolation and characterization of avipoxvirus from wild birds in Western Australia. Archives of Virology, 76:217-229.

Aruch S, Atkinson CT, Savage AF, LaPointe DA, 2007. Prevalence and distribution of pox-like lesions, avian malaria, and mosquito vectors in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park, Hawai'i, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 43(4):567-575. http://www.wildlifedisease.org

Atkinson CT, Lease JK, Dusek RJ, Samuel MD, 2005. Prevalence of pox-like lesions and malaria in forest bird communities on Leeward Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii. Condor, 107(3):537-546. http://www.bioone.org/bioone/?request=get-abstract&issn=0010-5422&volume=107&issue=03&page=0537

Austin FJ, Bull PC, Chaudry MA, 1973. A poxvirus isolated from Silvereyes (Zosterops lat.) from Lower Hutt, New Zealand. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 9:111-114.

Baez M, Fernandez JM, 1980. Notes on the mosquito fauna of the Canary Islands (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 12(3):349-355.

Baldwin SP, 1922. Adventures in bird-banding in 1921. Auk, 39:210-224.

Bataille A, Cunningham AA, Cedeño V, Patiño L, Constantinou A, Kramer LD, Goodman SJ, 2009. Natural colonization and adaptation of a mosquito species in Galapagos and its implications for disease threats to endemic wildlife. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(25):10230-10235. http://www.pnas.org/

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Blakenship LH, Reed RE, Irby HD, 1966. Pox in mourning doves and Gambel's quail in southern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management, 30:253-257.

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Bouvier G, 1946. Observations on the diseases of game, of some wild animals and of fish (1942-1945). (Observations sur les maladies du gibier, de quelques animaux sauvages et des poissones (1942-1945).) Schweizerisches Archive Tierheilkunde, 88:268-274.

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Cerrone A, Blasone M, Piccirillo A, Mariani F, Menna LF, 1999. Clinical findings observed in some ostrich-farms in Campania during the period 1997-1998. (L'allevamento dello struzzo in Campania: casi clinici osservati nel biennio 1997-98.) In: Selezione Veterinaria, No. 8/9. 653-661.

Chiocco D, 1992. Owlpoxvirus isolation and cross-challenge studies in chickens. Acta Medica Veterinaria, 38:261-266.

Christiansen M, 1949. Diseases in wild birds. Dansk Ornithologisk Forening Tidsskrift, 43:189 - 215.

Chung YS, Spradbow PB, 1977. Studies on poxviruses isolated from a magpie in Queensland. Australian Veterinary Journal, 53:334-336.

Clark FD, Hume GM, Hayes ES, 1988. An isolated case of avian pox in a military macaw (Ara militaris mexicana). Companion Animal Practice, 2(2):34-35; 7 ref.

Cociu M, Wagner G, Micu N, Tuschak E, Mihaescu G, 1972. Avian pox in a bustard (Otis tarda). (Gefluegelpocken bei einer trappe (Otis tarda).) In: Diseases of Zoo Animals, 14th International Symposium, Wroclaw, Poland. 81-83.

Cooper JE, 1969. Two cases of pox in recently imported peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). Veterinary Record, 85:683-684.

COULSTON F, MANWELL RD, 1941. Successful Chemotherapy of a Virus Disease of the Canary. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2:101-107.

Cox WR, 1980. Avian pox infection in a Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 16(4):623-626.

Crawford JA, 1986. Differential prevalence of avian pox in adult and immature California quail. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 22(4):564-566.

Crawford JA, Oates RM, 1979. Avian pox in California quail from Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 15:447-449.

Cubillos A, Schlatter R, Cubillos V, 1979. [English title not available]. (Difterovireula aviar en torcaza (Columba araucana, Lesson) del sur del Chile.) Journal of Veterinary Medicine B, 26:430-432.

Cunningham CH, 1978. Avian pox. In: Diseases of poultry (7th Edition) [ed. by Hofstad, M. S. \Calnek, B. W. \Helmboldt, C. F. \Reid, W. M. \Yoder Jr, H. W.]. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 597-609.

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Damassa AJ, 1966. The role of Culex tarsalis in the transmission of fowl pox virus. Avian Diseases, 10:57-66.

De Jong DA, 1912. Epithelioma contagiosum in Pyrrula vulgaris. (Epithelioma contagiosum bij Pyrrula vulgaris.) Tijdskrift Veartsenigk, 39:734-736.

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Garner MM, 1989. Bumblefoot associated with poxvirus in a wild golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Companion Animal Practice, 19(10):17-20; 12 ref.

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Graham CLG, 1978. Poxvirus infection in a spectacled amaon parrot (Amazona albifrons). Avian Diseases, 22:340-343.

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Green GH, 1969. Suspected pox virus infection of a dunlin. British Birds, 62:26-27.

Greenwood AG, Blakemore WF, 1973. Pox infection in falcons. Veterinary Record, 93(No.17):468-470.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR)http://www.hear.org/
Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Wildlife Diseases, Avian Poxhttp://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10370_12150_12220-26362--,00.html
USDA, National Agricultural Library National Invasive Species Information Centerhttp://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/microbes/fowlpox.shtml
USGS, National Wildlife Health Center, Avian Pox factsheethttp://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/disease_information/other_diseases/avian_pox.jsp
USGS, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Research Summarieshttp://biology.usgs.gov/pierc/PMPoxMalaria.htm
World Conservation Union, ISSG Global Invasive Species Database, Avipoxvirushttp://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=444&fr=1&sts=

Organizations

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UK: Falklands Conservation, 1 Princes Avenue, London N3 2DA, http://www.falklandsconservation.com/

USA: USDA-APHIS-NVSL: UDSA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Veterinary Services Laboratory, PO Box 844, Ames, IA 50010, http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/lab_info_services/

USA: USGS-NWHC - National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road Madison, Wisconsin 53711, http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/

USA: USGS-PIERC: Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Kilauea Field Station, PO Box 44, Hawaii National Park Hawaii, http://biology.usgs.gov/pierc/

Galapagos Islands: Charles Darwin Research Station (CDRS), run by the Charles Darwin Foundaton, Puerto Ayora, Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos, http://www.darwinfoundation.org/english/pages/index.php

Contributors

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21/07/10 Original text by:

Dennis LaPointe, US Geological Survey, Hawaii, USA

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