Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Buddleja madagascariensis
(smokebush)

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Datasheet

Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Buddleja madagascariensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • smokebush
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. madagascariensis is a shrub native to Madagascar that has been introduced outside its native range as an ornamental and hedge plant (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); leaves and a flower spike. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); leaves and a flower spike. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); leaves and a flower spike. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
LeavesBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); leaves and a flower spike. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); flowers and leaves. Kekaulike Ave Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2007.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); flowers and leaves. Kekaulike Ave Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); flowers and leaves. Kekaulike Ave Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2007.
Flowers and leavesBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); flowers and leaves. Kekaulike Ave Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); habit, showing leaves and flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); habit, showing leaves and flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); habit, showing leaves and flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
HabitBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); habit, showing leaves and flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); flower spike. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.
TitleFlower spike
CaptionBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); flower spike. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2001 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); flower spike. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.
Flower spikeBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); flower spike. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.©Forest & Kim Starr-2001 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); close-up of flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2004.
TitleFlowers
CaptionBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); close-up of flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2004.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); close-up of flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2004.
FlowersBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); close-up of flowers. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October 2004.©Forest & Kim Starr-2004 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); fruits. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
TitleFruits
CaptionBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); fruits. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); fruits. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
FruitsBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); fruits. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2009.
HabitBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); draping habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); draping habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Buddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); draping habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.
HabitBuddleja madagascariensis (smokebush); draping habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Buddleja madagascariensis Lam.

Preferred Common Name

  • smokebush

Other Scientific Names

  • Adenoplea madagascariensis (Lam.) Eastw.
  • Buddleja heterophylla Lindl.
  • Nicodemia madagascariensis (Lam.) R. Parker

International Common Names

  • English: buddleja bush; butterfly bush; Madagascar butterflybush; orange buddleia
  • Chinese: jiang guo zui yu cao

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: cambará
  • India: Madagascar butterfly bush
  • South Africa: Madagascar sagewood
  • Uruguay: buddelia de invierno; cambará

Summary of Invasiveness

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B. madagascariensis is a shrub native to Madagascar that has been introduced outside its native range as an ornamental and hedge plant (USDA-ARS, 2016). This species has escaped from cultivation and once naturalized it behaves as an aggressive invader principally in ruderal and heavily disturbed areas (Starr et al., 2003; GISD, 2016). Its rapid growth enables it to form dense impenetrable thickets that outcompete and displace native vegetation. In addition to its aggressive growth, this species produces fleshy fruits with numerous seeds that can be easily dispersed by birds and other animals. While seeds are not produced in some areas, the ability of this species to regenerate from stem fragments allows dispersal to distant locations as stem fragments can be carried by animals (i.e., birds and livestock), humans, vehicles, and waterways (Starr et al., 2003; Norman, 2012; GISD, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). Currently it has been listed as invasive in Bermuda, South Africa, St Helena, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Hawaii and Australia (MacKee, 1994; Wagner et al., 1999; Kairo et al., 2003; Henderson, 2007; GISD, 2016; PIER, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Loganiaceae
  •                             Genus: Buddleja
  •                                 Species: Buddleja madagascariensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Scrophulariaceae comprises around 59 genera and 1,880 species with worldwide distribution. The genus Buddleja (sometimes misspelled as Buddleia) is a genus of about 125 species of evergreen, semi-evergreen, and deciduous shrubs, trees, vines, and herbs distributed across tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa, and North and South America (Brickell and Zuk, 1997, Wagner et al., 1999).

The genus is named in honour of Reverend Adam Buddle (1660-1715), English botanist and vicar of Farmbridge in Essex (Wagner et al., 1999). The species name refers to the area of origin, Madagascar.

Description

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B. madagascariensis is a scandent shrub, sometimes twining, 2-5(10) m in length. Branches obtusely quadrangular, glabrescent. Leaves opposite; blades 8-16 × 2.7-4.5(6.2) cm, lanceolate, ovate, or elliptical, coriaceous, the apex acuminate or less frequently acute, the base rounded, the margins entire or denticulate; upper surface sparsely tomentulose; lower surface lanate-tomentose, whitish or ferruginous, with prominent venation; petioles 5-15 mm long; stipules early deciduous. Flowers short-pedicellate to subsessile, in dichasia grouped in terminal thyrses, 5-25 cm long. Calyx campanulate or broadly campanulate, white-tomentose, 2.5-4 mm long, the sepals deltate, 0.5-1 mm long; corolla yellow-orange, tubular, 8.5-11 mm long, white-tomentose outside. Fruits berries, purple at maturity, otherwise white, globose, 2.5-5 × 2.5-5 mm, glabrous. Seeds ovoid, 0.6-0.9 × 0.5-0.6 mm, not winged, body filling testa (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Norman, 2012).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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B. madagascariensis is native to Madagascar. This species can now be found cultivated and naturalized in India, North America (Florida), Mexico, the West Indies, South America (Argentina, Uruguay), Africa, Fiji, Hawaii, New Caledonia, New Zealand and Australia (Norman, 2012; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

China
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016Cultivated
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016Cultivated
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated
India
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2016Cultivated

Africa

BotswanaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
KenyaPresentIntroducedBioNET-EAFRINET, 2016
MadagascarPresentNativeMadagascar Catalogue, 2016
MauritiusPresentIntroducedNorman, 2012
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
RéunionPresentIntroducedNorman, 2012
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced Invasive GISD, 2016
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Henderson, 2007
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedBioNET-EAFRINET, 2016
UgandaPresentIntroducedBioNET-EAFRINET, 2016Naturalized
ZambiaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
MexicoPresentIntroducedNorman, 2012
USA
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999; PIER, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedPeña, 1997Naturalized
ParaguayPresentIntroducedParaguay Checklist, 2016Cultivated as ornamental
UruguayPresentIntroducedNorman, 2012

Europe

GreecePresentIntroducedNorman, 2012Cultivated in Crete

Oceania

Australia
-Lord Howe Is.PresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia, 2016Naturalized
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith, 1991
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Webb et al., 1988

History of Introduction and Spread

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B. madagascariensis has been introduced as an ornamental and hedge plant in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world including India, Mexico, Bermuda, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Argentina, Uruguay, South Africa, Fiji, Hawaii, New Caledonia, New Zealand and Australia (Norman, 2012; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). In South Africa this species is spreading across KwaZulu- Natal, Western Cape, Free State, Mpumalanga, and Eastern Cape (Invasive Species South Africa, 2016).

In Hawaii, Wagner et al. (1999) report that the first naturalized collection of B. madagascariensis was made in 1984, but it was collected earlier from cultivated or escaped plants in 1931 on O'ahu, 1972 on Maui, and 1975 on Hawaii (Starr et al., 2003). On Maui, this species is an aggressive invader and can be observed spreading in large thickets and competing with native vegetation (Starr et al., 2003; PIER, 2016).

In Australia the plant is widely cultivated as a garden ornamental, particularly in southern and eastern Australia. It can be found naturalized in many parts of the coastal districts of southeastern, central and northern Queensland, near Perth in Western Australia, in the coastal districts of New South Wales and in South Australia (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of B. madagascariensis is moderate to high. Because this species is widely commercialized and cultivated as an ornamental and hedge plant, the potential range of this invader could be much more than the current distribution reported (Starr et al., 2003).

Habitat

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B. madagascariensis grows as a weed in warmer temperate, subtropical and tropical regions in habitats where water and well-drained soils are available. It can also grow in disturbed sites, roadsides, waste areas, urban open spaces, riparian zones, and forest margins (Starr et al., 2003; BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016; GISD, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). In Puerto Rico it is cultivated as an ornamental in gardens across the Cordillera Central and escaped or persistent in Villalba and Toro Negro (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In New Zealand this species grows on sand dunes and coastal cliffs (Webb et al., 1988).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for B. madagascariensis is 2n = 38 (Norman, 2012).

Reproductive Biology

Buddleja flowers produce fragrance and nectar and are visited and probably pollinated by butterflies and bees (Brickell and Zuk, 1997; Starr et al., 2003).

Physiology and Phenology

B. madagascariensis is a fast-growing perennial shrub (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). For the closely related species B. davidii a life span of approximately 40 years has been suggested. Buddleja species often start producing flowers one year after germination (Ebeling et al., 2012).

In China, B. madagascariensis has been recorded flowering from April to June and fruiting from August to November (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In Puerto Rico it has been collected in flower in April and September (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In Australia, this species produces flowers mostly during spring and summer, but flowers can be present throughout the year (Weeds of Australia, 2016). No fruits have been observed in plants growing in Crete and Mauritius (Norman, 2012).

Environmental Requirements

B. madagascariensis grows best in humid habitats at low to mid elevations on gravelly, loam sandy, and sandy soils. This species does not tolerate temperatures < 0°C (Brickell and Zuk, 1997; GISD, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 12 28

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Buddleja species are susceptible to capsid bugs, caterpillars, weevils, spider mites, and fungal leaf spots (Brickell and Zuk, 1997; Starr et al., 2003).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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B. madagascariensis spreads mainly by seeds, but it can also spread vegetatively via stem fragments. Seeds can be dispersed by birds and other animals that eat the fleshy fruits. Stem segments and seeds can also be dispersed in dumped garden waste (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceAggressive invader of heavily disturbed sites Yes Yes Starr et al., 2003
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeed and stem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes GISD, 2016
Garden waste disposalStem segments and seeds can be dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
HorticultureWidely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Ornamental purposesPlanted as ornamental garden and hedge plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesStem segments and seeds can be dispersed in dumped garden waste Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
Land vehiclesSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016
WaterSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Weeds of Australia, 2016

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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Because the sap of B. madagascariensis is toxic, livestock needs to be excluded from areas where this species occurs, resulting in an economic impact for ranchers (Starr et al., 2003; GISD, 2016).

Environmental Impact

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B. madagascariensis can be highly invasive. In Hawaii, it is considered a serious invader of mesic forests at elevations ranging from 900 to 1200 m (Starr et al., 2003; Motooka et al., 2003; Norman, 2012). It also invades urban areas, stream banks, forests and wooden areas in South Africa (Invasive Species South Africa, 2016). It is regarded as an environmental weed in Australia (i.e., Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia) where it is listed among the top 200 most invasive plant species. It also known that this species is spreading into conservation areas in southwestern Western Australia (Kings Park in Perth) and South Australia (Belair National Park and Cleland Conservation Park; Weeds of Australia, 2016). In New Zealand this species invades sand dunes and coastal cliffs (Webb, et al., 1988).

Impact on habitats

B.madagascariensis is an invader on disturbed sites, forest margins, roadsides, riverbanks, and urban bushlands (Weeds of Australia, 2016). This species behaves as an aggressive weed particularly on heavily disturbed areas. Its rapid growth rate enables to outcompete native plant species. It also has the potential to grow forming dense thickets that displace native vegetation, alter successional patterns of disturbed sites, and inhibit the establishment of seedlings of native plant species (Starr et al., 2003; BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016; GISD, 2016; PIER, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016;).

Impact on biodiversity

In St Helena, B. madagascariensis has spread into thickets of native tree ferns in the Diana’s Peak National Park, contributing to the decline and extinction of endemic species. Due to the presence of this invasive species and the degradation of this natural habitats, the following three endemic species that remained in the fern thicket in the 1800s are now completely extinct: Acalypha rubra, Wahlenbergia roxburghii and W. burchellii. The St Helena olive Nesiota elliptica remains only in cultivation and the following three species are endangered and critically endangered species now restricted to tiny inbred patches: Wahlenbergia linifolia, Sium burchellii and Lachanodes arborea (Smith, 1996).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Wahlenbergia linifolia (large bellflower)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)Saint HelenaCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smothering; Rapid growthSmith, 1996
Sium burchellii (dwarf jellico)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)Saint HelenaCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smothering; Rapid growthSmith, 1996
Lachanodes arborea (she cabbage tree)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)Saint HelenaCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smothering; Rapid growthSmith, 1996

Social Impact

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The sap of B. madagascariensis is poisonous and can cause burning rashes and blisters. A powdery dust can emerge when plants dry causing throat allergies, coughing, nose swelling and eyelids blisters in some people (Starr et al., 2003; Invasive Species South Africa, 2016; GISD, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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B. madagascariensis is widely commercialized and cultivated as an ornamental and hedge plant (USDA-ARS, 2016).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support

Ornamental

  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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B. madagascariensis is similar to several other Buddleja species that have also been cultivated as ornamentals and have become naturalized. According to the website Weeds of Australia (2016), these species can be distinguished by the following differences:

  • B. madagascariensis is a straggling or climbing shrub with elongated (i.e. narrowly ovate) leaves 2-15 cm long. Its orange or yellow flowers are borne in dense elongated clusters up to 25 cm long. Unlike the other species, its fruit is a globular blue or black berry (2.5-5 mm across).
  • Buddleja davidii is an upright or arching shrub with elongated (i.e. narrowly ovate) leaves 4-20 cm long. Its mauve or purple (occasionally white) flowers have an orange-yellow throat and are borne in dense elongated clusters 12-30 cm long. Its fruit is a narrow brown capsule (5-10 mm long) that splits open when mature.
  • Buddleja dysophylla is a sprawling or climbing shrub with triangular or heart-shaped (i.e. cordate) leaves 1-10 cm long. Its white or greenish-yellow flowers have a reddish-maroon throat and are borne in elongated clusters up to 30 cm long. Its fruit is a very small capsule (2-3.5 mm long) that splits open when mature.
  • Buddleja globosa is an upright or arching shrub with elongated (i.e. narrowly ovate) leaves up to 20 cm long. Its yellow or orange flowers are borne in small rounded clusters about 2 cm across. Its fruit is a capsule that splits open when mature.
  • Buddleja lindleyana is an upright or arching shrub with elongated (i.e. narrowly ovate) leaves 3-11 long. Its purple flowers are borne in relatively loose elongated clusters 4-20 cm long. Its fruit is a short oval capsule (4-6 mm long) that splits open when mature.

Prevention and Control

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Small infestations of B. madagascariensis can be pulled out by hand, making sure to remove all stem material (Starr et al., 2003; GISD, 2016).

The herbicides triclopyr and glyphosate have been used to control areas invaded by B. madagascariensis (Motooka et al., 2003; GISD, 2016). In Hawaii, good results have been reported treating stems < 7 cm diameter with triclopyr ester at 20% in crop oil applied to basal bark (Motooka et al., 2003). Larger stems can be cut and painted with 50% glyphosate (GISD, 2016).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2016. Keys and Fact Sheets for East Africa Invasive Plants: Buddleja madagascariensis (Orange Buddleia). http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/Buddleja_madagascariensis_(Orange_Buddleia).htm

Brickell C, Zuk JD, 1997. The American Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. New York, USA: DK Publishing, Inc..

Ebeling SK, Schreiter S, Hensen I, Durka W, Auge H, 2012. Outcrossing breeding system does not compromise invasiveness in Buddleja davidii., Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 207:843-848

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

GISD, 2016. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/

Henderson L, 2007. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a summary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA)., Bothalia, 37(2):215-248

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Invasive Species South Africa, 2016. Factsheet for Buddleja madagascariensis-online resources. http://www.invasives.org.za/legislation/item/872-madagascar-sagewood-buddleja-madagascariensis

Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp.

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12/10/16 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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