Invasive Species Compendium

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Echinococcus

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Datasheet

Echinococcus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Echinococcus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Platyhelminthes
  •       Class: Cestoda
  •         Subclass: Eucestoda

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Echinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
TitleHidatid cyst from the lung
CaptionEchinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
Copyright©John W. McGarry
Echinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
Hidatid cyst from the lungEchinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.©John W. McGarry
Echinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
TitleHydatid cyst in the liver
CaptionEchinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
Copyright©John W. McGarry
Echinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
Hydatid cyst in the liverEchinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.©John W. McGarry

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Echinococcus

International Common Names

  • English: echinococcosis - exotic

Parasitoses name

  • echinococcosis
  • echinococcosis/hydatidosis
  • hydatidosis

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Platyhelminthes
  •             Class: Cestoda
  •                 Subclass: Eucestoda
  •                     Order: Cyclophyllidea
  •                         Family: Taeniidae
  •                             Genus: Echinococcus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ArmeniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AzerbaijanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BahrainDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BangladeshPresentOIE, 2009
BhutanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CambodiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChinaRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE, 2009
Georgia (Republic of)PresentOIE Handistatus, 2005; OIE, 2009
IndiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IranDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IraqPresentOIE, 2009
IsraelDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
JapanNo information availableOIE, 2009
JordanPresentOIE, 2009
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KyrgyzstanRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
LaosNo information availableOIE, 2009
LebanonAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaPresentOIE, 2009
MyanmarNo information availableOIE, 2009
NepalDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
OmanNo information availableOIE, 2009
PakistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
PhilippinesNo information availableOIE, 2009
QatarNo information availableOIE, 2009
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ThailandNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkeyNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkmenistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UzbekistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE, 2009
YemenNo information availableOIE, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaPresentOIE, 2012
AngolaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BeninDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BotswanaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE, 2009
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE, 2009
CongoNo information availableOIE, 2009
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiPresentOIE, 2012
EgyptPresentOIE, 2012
Equatorial GuineaOIE, 2012
EritreaPresentOIE, 2012
EthiopiaPresentOIE, 2012
GabonNo information availableOIE, 2009
GambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GhanaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuineaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE, 2009
KenyaOIE, 2012
LesothoDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LibyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MalawiOIE, 2012
MaliNo information availableOIE, 2009
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MoroccoPresentOIE, 2012
MozambiqueRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
NamibiaPresentOIE, 2012
NigeriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
RéunionLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE, 2009
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaLast reported2011OIE, 2012
SudanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SwazilandPresentOIE, 2012
TanzaniaPresentOIE, 2012
TogoDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TunisiaPresentOIE, 2009
UgandaPresentOIE, 2012
ZambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ZimbabweDisease not reportedOIE, 2009

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
GreenlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MexicoDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
USARestricted distributionOIE, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CubaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuatemalaRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
HaitiNo information availableOIE, 2009
HondurasDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE, 2009
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE, 2009
BoliviaAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
BrazilRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
ChilePresentOIE, 2009
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EcuadorPresentOIE, 2009
Falkland IslandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
UruguayPresentOIE, 2009
VenezuelaNo information availableOIE, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AndorraNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BelarusDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Bosnia-HercegovinaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaPresentOIE, 2009
CroatiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
CyprusDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Czech RepublicPresentOIE, 2009
DenmarkDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
FinlandPresentOIE, 2009
FranceNo information availableOIE, 2009
GermanyPresentOIE, 2009
GreeceRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
HungaryDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IcelandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Isle of Man (UK)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyPresentOIE, 2009
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LuxembourgPresentOIE, 2009
MacedoniaPresentOIE, 2009
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MoldovaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MontenegroNo information availableOIE, 2009
NetherlandsDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NorwayDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PolandNo information availableOIE, 2009
PortugalPresentOIE, 2009
RomaniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Russian FederationPresentOIE, 2009
SerbiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SpainRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
SwedenDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SwitzerlandPresentOIE, 2009
UKDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
-Northern IrelandLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Yugoslavia (former)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE, 2009
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
New ZealandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Host Animals

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Digestive Signs / Abdominal distention Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
General Signs / Exercise intolerance, tires easily Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Internal abdominal mass, swellings, adhesions abdomen Sign
General Signs / Polydipsia, excessive fluid consumption, excessive thirst Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Colic, abdominal pain Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain on external abdominal pressure Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Urinary Signs / Polyuria, increased urine output Sign

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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The DISCONTOOLS animal disease database identifies gaps in knowledge and research needs for 52 infectious diseases of animals.

An important resource for public and private funders of animal health research, DISCONTOOLS aims to help speed up the development of new DISease CONtrol TOOLS, including diagnostics, vaccines, and pharmaceuticals, to help reduce the occurrence and burden of animal diseases.

The DISCONTOOLS report for echinococcosis can be viewed at: https://www.discontools.eu/database/65-echinococcosis.html

References

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African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/index.php?option=com_flexicontent&view=items&cid=71&id=109&Itemid=56&lang=en

Craig PS, Rogan MT, Allan JC, 1996. Detection, screening and community epidemiology of taeniid cestode zoonoses: cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis. Advances in Parasitology, 38:169-250.

Deplazes P, Eckert J, 2001. Veterinary aspects of alveolar echinococcosis - a zoonosis of public health significance. Veterinary Parasitology [Special issue: Promoting advancement, preserving tradition. Plenary papers of the 18th international conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, Stresa, Italy, 26-30 August 2001.], 98(1/3):65-87.

Eckert J, Deplazes P, 2004. Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 17(1):107-135.

Hüttner M, Romig T, 2009. Echinococcus species in African wildlife. Parasitology, 136(10):1089-1095. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=par

Jenkins DJ, Romig T, Thompson RCA, 2005. Emergence/re-emergence of Echinococcus spp. - a global update. International Journal for Parasitology, 35(11/12):1205-1219.

Lightowlers MW, 2006. Cestode vaccines: origins, current status and future prospects. Parasitology, 133(Supplement S2):S27-S42. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=par

Lightowlers MW, Gottstein B, 1995. Echinococcosis/hydatidosis: antigens, immunological and molecular diagnosis. Echinococcus and hydatid disease [ed. by Thompson, R. C. A.\Lymbery, A. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 355-410.

Maillard S, Benchikh-Elfegoun MC, Knapp J, Bart JM, Koskei P, Gottstein B, Piarroux R, 2007. Taxonomic position and geographical distribution of the common sheep G1 and camel G6 strains of Echinococcus granulosus in three African countries. Parasitology Research, 100(3):495-503. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100447

Mathis A, Deplazes P, 2006. Copro-DNA tests for diagnosis of animal taeniid cestodes. Parasitology International [Taeniasis/cysticercosis and echinococcosis with focus on Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Cestode Zoonoses, Asahikawa, Japan, 2005.], 55(Supplement):S87-S90.

Moro P, Schantz PM, 2009. Echinococcosis: a review. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 13(2):125-133. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7CPT-4TPWW38-2&_user=6686535&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2009&_rdoc=4&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2317975%232009%23999869997%23948074%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=17975&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=41&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=4d3aa505402598c1e53adc8eb1d9a49a

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

Omer RA, Dinkel A, Romig T, Mackenstedt U, Elnahas AA, Aradaib IE, Ahmed ME, Elmalik KH, Adam A, 2010. A molecular survey of cystic echinococcosis in Sudan. Veterinary Parasitology, 169(3/4):340-346. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

Permin A, Hansen JW, 1994. Review of echinococcosis/hydatidosis: a zoonotic parasitic disease. World Animal Review, No.78:67-72.

Romig T, Omer RA, Zeyhle E, Hüttner M, Dinkel A, Siefert L, Elmahdi IE, Magambo J, Ocaido M, Menezes CN, Ahmed ME, Mbae C, Grobusch MP, Kern P, 2011. Echinococcosis in sub-Saharan Africa: emerging complexity. Veterinary Parasitology [Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Veterinary Parasitology College (EVPC), Munich, Germany, 28-30 April 2010.], 181(1):43-47. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

Sadjjadi SM, 2006. Present situation of echinococcosis in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Parasitology International [Taeniasis/cysticercosis and echinococcosis with focus on Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Cestode Zoonoses, Asahikawa, Japan, 2005.], 55(Supplement):S197-S202.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
CDC Information on echinococcosishttp://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Echinococcosis.htmInformation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
CFSPH: Animal Disease Informationhttp://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/index.php"Animal Disease Information" provides links to various information sources, including fact sheets and images, on over 150 animal diseases of international significance.
FAO manual on meat inspection for developing countrieshttp://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0756e/t0756e00.htm
OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animalshttp://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial Manual) aims to facilitate international trade in animals and animal products and to contribute to the improvement of animal health services world-wide. The principal target readership is laboratories carrying out veterinary diagnostic tests and surveillance, plus vaccine manufacturers and regulatory authorities in Member Countries. The objective is to provide internationally agreed diagnostic laboratory methods and requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biological products.
Review of echinococcosis/hydatidosis: a zoonotic parasitic diseasehttp://www.fao.org/docrep/t1300t/t1300T0m.htmWorld Animal Review (1994) 78:67-72

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