Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Echinococcus

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Datasheet

Echinococcus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Echinococcus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Platyhelminthes
  •       Class: Cestoda
  •         Subclass: Eucestoda

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Echinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
TitleHidatid cyst from the lung
CaptionEchinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
Copyright©John W. McGarry
Echinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
Hidatid cyst from the lungEchinococcus hydatid cyst (lung). Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.©John W. McGarry
Echinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
TitleHydatid cyst in the liver
CaptionEchinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
Copyright©John W. McGarry
Echinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.
Hydatid cyst in the liverEchinococcus hydatid (liver) cyst. Fluid-filled large opaque cysts, the most common diameter being 5.0-10.0 cm. When mature, cysts may reach 0.5 m in diameter depending on available space. Scolices may be seen free in the cyst fluid on microscopic examination of fertile cysts.©John W. McGarry

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Echinococcus

International Common Names

  • English: echinococcosis - exotic

Parasitoses name

  • echinococcosis
  • echinococcosis/hydatidosis
  • hydatidosis

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Platyhelminthes
  •             Class: Cestoda
  •                 Subclass: Eucestoda
  •                     Order: Cyclophyllidea
  •                         Family: Taeniidae
  •                             Genus: Echinococcus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentOIE (2012)
BeninAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CameroonPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiPresentOIE (2012)
EgyptPresentOIE (2012)
EritreaPresentOIE (2012)
EswatiniPresentOIE (2012)
EthiopiaPresentOIE (2012)
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LibyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MoroccoPresentOIE (2012)
MozambiquePresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
NamibiaPresentOIE (2012)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
TanzaniaPresentOIE (2012)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
TunisiaPresentOIE (2009)
UgandaPresentOIE (2012)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

Asia

ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BangladeshPresentOIE (2009)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
GeorgiaPresentOIE (2009); OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IraqPresentOIE (2009)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
JordanPresentOIE (2009)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
KyrgyzstanPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
LebanonAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaPresentOIE (2009)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
UzbekistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BulgariaPresentOIE (2009)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CzechiaPresentOIE (2009)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandPresentOIE (2009)
GermanyPresentOIE (2009)
GreecePresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyPresentOIE (2009)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LuxembourgPresentOIE (2009)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MoldovaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
North MacedoniaPresentOIE (2009)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
PortugalPresentOIE (2009)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
RussiaPresentOIE (2009)
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SpainPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SwitzerlandPresentOIE (2009)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GuatemalaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE (2009)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE (2009)
BoliviaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
ChilePresentOIE (2009)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EcuadorPresentOIE (2009)
Falkland IslandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009)
UruguayPresentOIE (2009)

Host Animals

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Digestive Signs / Abdominal distention Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
General Signs / Exercise intolerance, tires easily Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Internal abdominal mass, swellings, adhesions abdomen Sign
General Signs / Polydipsia, excessive fluid consumption, excessive thirst Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Colic, abdominal pain Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain on external abdominal pressure Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Urinary Signs / Polyuria, increased urine output Sign

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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The DISCONTOOLS animal disease database identifies gaps in knowledge and research needs for 52 infectious diseases of animals.

An important resource for public and private funders of animal health research, DISCONTOOLS aims to help speed up the development of new DISease CONtrol TOOLS, including diagnostics, vaccines, and pharmaceuticals, to help reduce the occurrence and burden of animal diseases.

The DISCONTOOLS report for echinococcosis can be viewed at: https://www.discontools.eu/database/65-echinococcosis.html

References

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African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/index.php?option=com_flexicontent&view=items&cid=71&id=109&Itemid=56&lang=en

Craig PS, Rogan MT, Allan JC, 1996. Detection, screening and community epidemiology of taeniid cestode zoonoses: cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis. Advances in Parasitology, 38:169-250.

Deplazes P, Eckert J, 2001. Veterinary aspects of alveolar echinococcosis - a zoonosis of public health significance. Veterinary Parasitology [Special issue: Promoting advancement, preserving tradition. Plenary papers of the 18th international conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, Stresa, Italy, 26-30 August 2001.], 98(1/3):65-87.

Eckert J, Deplazes P, 2004. Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 17(1):107-135.

Hüttner M, Romig T, 2009. Echinococcus species in African wildlife. Parasitology, 136(10):1089-1095. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=par

Jenkins DJ, Romig T, Thompson RCA, 2005. Emergence/re-emergence of Echinococcus spp. - a global update. International Journal for Parasitology, 35(11/12):1205-1219.

Lightowlers MW, 2006. Cestode vaccines: origins, current status and future prospects. Parasitology, 133(Supplement S2):S27-S42. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=par

Lightowlers MW, Gottstein B, 1995. Echinococcosis/hydatidosis: antigens, immunological and molecular diagnosis. Echinococcus and hydatid disease [ed. by Thompson, R. C. A.\Lymbery, A. J.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 355-410.

Maillard S, Benchikh-Elfegoun MC, Knapp J, Bart JM, Koskei P, Gottstein B, Piarroux R, 2007. Taxonomic position and geographical distribution of the common sheep G1 and camel G6 strains of Echinococcus granulosus in three African countries. Parasitology Research, 100(3):495-503. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100447

Mathis A, Deplazes P, 2006. Copro-DNA tests for diagnosis of animal taeniid cestodes. Parasitology International [Taeniasis/cysticercosis and echinococcosis with focus on Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Cestode Zoonoses, Asahikawa, Japan, 2005.], 55(Supplement):S87-S90.

Moro P, Schantz PM, 2009. Echinococcosis: a review. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 13(2):125-133. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7CPT-4TPWW38-2&_user=6686535&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2009&_rdoc=4&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2317975%232009%23999869997%23948074%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=17975&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=41&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=4d3aa505402598c1e53adc8eb1d9a49a

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

Omer RA, Dinkel A, Romig T, Mackenstedt U, Elnahas AA, Aradaib IE, Ahmed ME, Elmalik KH, Adam A, 2010. A molecular survey of cystic echinococcosis in Sudan. Veterinary Parasitology, 169(3/4):340-346. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

Permin A, Hansen JW, 1994. Review of echinococcosis/hydatidosis: a zoonotic parasitic disease. World Animal Review, No.78:67-72.

Romig T, Omer RA, Zeyhle E, Hüttner M, Dinkel A, Siefert L, Elmahdi IE, Magambo J, Ocaido M, Menezes CN, Ahmed ME, Mbae C, Grobusch MP, Kern P, 2011. Echinococcosis in sub-Saharan Africa: emerging complexity. Veterinary Parasitology [Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Veterinary Parasitology College (EVPC), Munich, Germany, 28-30 April 2010.], 181(1):43-47. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044017

Sadjjadi SM, 2006. Present situation of echinococcosis in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Parasitology International [Taeniasis/cysticercosis and echinococcosis with focus on Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Cestode Zoonoses, Asahikawa, Japan, 2005.], 55(Supplement):S197-S202.

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
CDC Information on echinococcosishttp://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Echinococcosis.htmInformation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
CFSPH: Animal Disease Informationhttp://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/index.php"Animal Disease Information" provides links to various information sources, including fact sheets and images, on over 150 animal diseases of international significance.
FAO manual on meat inspection for developing countrieshttp://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0756e/t0756e00.htm
OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animalshttp://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial Manual) aims to facilitate international trade in animals and animal products and to contribute to the improvement of animal health services world-wide. The principal target readership is laboratories carrying out veterinary diagnostic tests and surveillance, plus vaccine manufacturers and regulatory authorities in Member Countries. The objective is to provide internationally agreed diagnostic laboratory methods and requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biological products.
Review of echinococcosis/hydatidosis: a zoonotic parasitic diseasehttp://www.fao.org/docrep/t1300t/t1300T0m.htmWorld Animal Review (1994) 78:67-72

Distribution Maps

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