Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Beet western yellows virus
(turnip (mild) yellows)

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Datasheet

Beet western yellows virus (turnip (mild) yellows)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Beet western yellows virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • turnip (mild) yellows
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Luteoviridae
  •         Genus: Polerovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TuYV induced anthocyanous and red discolourations at the margin and tips of leaves of oilseed rape plants in autumn.
TitleSymptoms on oilseed rape plants
CaptionTuYV induced anthocyanous and red discolourations at the margin and tips of leaves of oilseed rape plants in autumn.
Copyright©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
TuYV induced anthocyanous and red discolourations at the margin and tips of leaves of oilseed rape plants in autumn.
Symptoms on oilseed rape plantsTuYV induced anthocyanous and red discolourations at the margin and tips of leaves of oilseed rape plants in autumn.©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Conspicuous anthocyanous discoloration of the whole leaves of oilseed rape in the late winter period induced by TuYV.
TitleSymptoms on oilseed rape leaves
CaptionConspicuous anthocyanous discoloration of the whole leaves of oilseed rape in the late winter period induced by TuYV.
Copyright©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Conspicuous anthocyanous discoloration of the whole leaves of oilseed rape in the late winter period induced by TuYV.
Symptoms on oilseed rape leavesConspicuous anthocyanous discoloration of the whole leaves of oilseed rape in the late winter period induced by TuYV.©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Typical TuYV induced reddening of the upper leaves on oilseed rape in late spring.
TitleSymptoms on oilseed rape leaves
CaptionTypical TuYV induced reddening of the upper leaves on oilseed rape in late spring.
Copyright©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Typical TuYV induced reddening of the upper leaves on oilseed rape in late spring.
Symptoms on oilseed rape leavesTypical TuYV induced reddening of the upper leaves on oilseed rape in late spring.©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
TuYV - infected summer oilseed rape showing reddening and yellowing of the upper leaves.
TitleSymptoms on oilseed rape leaves
CaptionTuYV - infected summer oilseed rape showing reddening and yellowing of the upper leaves.
Copyright©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
TuYV - infected summer oilseed rape showing reddening and yellowing of the upper leaves.
Symptoms on oilseed rape leavesTuYV - infected summer oilseed rape showing reddening and yellowing of the upper leaves.©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Yellowing and reddening of the outer leaves on turnip develop in autumn by TuYV infection.
TitleSymptoms on turnip leaves
CaptionYellowing and reddening of the outer leaves on turnip develop in autumn by TuYV infection.
Copyright©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Yellowing and reddening of the outer leaves on turnip develop in autumn by TuYV infection.
Symptoms on turnip leavesYellowing and reddening of the outer leaves on turnip develop in autumn by TuYV infection.©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Strong reddening on the winter forms of false flax (Camelina sativa) induced by TuYV.
TitleSymptoms on Camelina sativa plants
CaptionStrong reddening on the winter forms of false flax (Camelina sativa) induced by TuYV.
Copyright©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Strong reddening on the winter forms of false flax (Camelina sativa) induced by TuYV.
Symptoms on Camelina sativa plantsStrong reddening on the winter forms of false flax (Camelina sativa) induced by TuYV.©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
TuYV induced anthocyanous discolouration on phacelia, a temporary host of TuYV.
TitleSymptoms on phacelia
CaptionTuYV induced anthocyanous discolouration on phacelia, a temporary host of TuYV.
Copyright©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
TuYV induced anthocyanous discolouration on phacelia, a temporary host of TuYV.
Symptoms on phaceliaTuYV induced anthocyanous discolouration on phacelia, a temporary host of TuYV.©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Yellowing and stunting on penny cress (Thlaspi arvensis) a common weed in oilseed rape crops, expressed after TuYV infection in early autumn.
TitleSymptoms on Thlaspi arvensis
CaptionYellowing and stunting on penny cress (Thlaspi arvensis) a common weed in oilseed rape crops, expressed after TuYV infection in early autumn.
Copyright©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany
Yellowing and stunting on penny cress (Thlaspi arvensis) a common weed in oilseed rape crops, expressed after TuYV infection in early autumn.
Symptoms on Thlaspi arvensisYellowing and stunting on penny cress (Thlaspi arvensis) a common weed in oilseed rape crops, expressed after TuYV infection in early autumn.©K. Graichen, Aschersleben, Germany

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Beet western yellows virus

Preferred Common Name

  • turnip (mild) yellows

Other Scientific Names

  • brassica virus 5
  • malva yellows virus
  • radish yellows virus
  • turnip mild yellows virus
  • turnip yellows luteovirus
  • Vergilbungsvirus der Stoppelrübe

International Common Names

  • English: BWYV; TuMYV
  • French: jaunisse des navets; virus jaune du navet
  • Russian: virus shultuchi turnipsa

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Vergilbung der Stoppelrübe; Wasserrübenvergilbungsvirus

English acronym

  • TuYV

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Luteoviridae
  •                 Genus: Polerovirus
  •                     Species: Beet western yellows virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresentWang et al. (2013); Xiang et al. (2008)
-ZhejiangPresentZheng et al. (2018)
IranPresentTabarestani et al. (2010)
IsraelPresentMarco (1984)
JapanPresentKojima et al. (1995); Wakamatsu et al. (1996)
LebanonPresentHorn et al. (1995)
PakistanPresentMakkouk et al. (1998)
South KoreaPresentPark ChungYoul et al. (2018)
SyriaPresentHorn et al. (1995)
TurkeyPresentHorn et al. (1995)
YemenPresentAnsi et al. (2010)

Europe

CzechiaPresent, WidespreadChod et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
FrancePresent, WidespreadKerlan (1991); Deverchere and Maisonneuve (1994)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadSchröder (1991); Prüfe et al. (1994); Schröder (1994); Graichen et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
ItalyPresentAutonell et al. (1995)
SpainPresentFresno et al. (1997)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadSmith and Hinckes (1985); Hill et al. (1989); Hardwick et al. (1994)

North America

United StatesPresent, WidespreadTimmerman et al. (1985); Bosque-Perez and Buddenhagen (1990); Thomas et al. (1993); Hampton et al. (1998)
-CaliforniaPresentBosque-Perez and Buddenhagen (1990); Eicholtz et al. (2018)
-IllinoisPresent, WidespreadTimmerman et al. (1985)
-OregonPresent, WidespreadHampton et al. (1998)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadThomas et al. (1993)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJohnstone and Duffus (1984); Johnstone and McLean (1987)
-TasmaniaPresentJohnstone and Duffus (1984); Johnstone and McLean (1987)
New ZealandPresentKyriakou et al. (1983)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Whole plant / dwarfing

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Myzus persicaeDuffus, 1972. Insect
Sitobion avenaeBlackman and Eastop, 2000. Insect

References

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Ansi A, Kumari SG, Makkouk KM, Muharram I, Basha R, Al-Motokel W, 2010. Survey to identify virus diseases affecting food legume crops in Yemen. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo), 55(2):153-161

Autonell CR, Turina M, Fantino MG, 1995. Infezioni da virus in alcune coltivazioni di spinacio in Italia. Informatore Fitopatologico, 45:43-47

Blackman RL, Eastop VF, 2000. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide. Aphids on the world's crops: an identification and information guide., Ed. 2:x + 466 pp.; 39 pp. of ref

Bosque-Perez NA, Buddenhagen IW, 1990. Studies on epidemiology of virus disease of chickpea in California. Plant Disease, 74(5):372-378

Burckhardt F, 1960. Untersuchungen über eine viröse Vergilbung der Stoppelrübe. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt Berlin-Dahlem, 99:84-96

Chod J, Chodovß D, Jokes M, 1997. Host and indicator plants of beet western yellows virus. Listy Cukrovarnicke^acute~ a R^hacek~epar^hacek~ske^acute~, 113(5):129-130; 4 ref

Clark MF, Adams AN, 1977. Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. Journal of General Virology, 34(3):475-483

D'Arcy CJ, Torrance L, Martin RR, 1989. Discrimination among luteoviruses and their strains by monoclonal antibodies and identification of common epitopes. Phytopathology, 79(8):869-873

Deverchere J, Maisonneuve CH, 1994. Viroses du colza. Peu de plantes virosées dans les champs en 1994. Oleoscope No. 23:22

Duffus JE, 1960. Radish yellows, a disease of radish, sugar beet, and other crops. Phytopathology, 50:45-49

Duffus JE, 1961. Economic significance of beet western yellows (radish yellows) on sugar beet. Phytopathology, 51:605-607

Duffus JE, 1964. Host relationship of beet western yellows virus strains. Phytopathology, 54:736-738

Duffus JE, 1972. Beet western yellows virus. AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses, No. 89. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=89

Duffus JE, Russell GE, 1972. Serological relationship beet western yellows and turnip yellows viruses. Phytopathology, 62(11):1274-1277

Duffus JE, Russell GE, 1975. Serological relationship between beet western yellows and beet mild yellowing viruses. Phytopathology, 65(7):811-815

Eicholtz, M., Grinstead, S., Wu, L. P., Kinard, G., Li, R., 2018. First report of Beet western yellows virus infecting Epiphyllum spp. Plant Disease, 102(2), 464. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1238-PDN

Fresno J, Castro S, Babin M, Carazo G, Molina A, de Blas C, Romero J, 1997. Virus diseases of broad bean in Spain. Plant Disease, 81:112

Govier DA, 1985. Purification and partial characterisation of beet mild yellowing virus and its serological detection in plants and aphids. Annals of Applied Biology, 107(3):439-447

Graichen K, 1994. Evidence of resistance to turnip yellows virus (TuYV) in oilseed rape and related species. VortrSge Pflanzenzüchtung, 30:132-143

Graichen K, 1997. Wasserrübenvergilbungsvirus, Ertrags- und QualitStsminderungen beim Winterraps. Raps, 15:156-159

Graichen K, Peterka H, 1995. Evidence of resistance to beet western yellows virus in oilseed rape. Züchtungsforschung, Berichte aus der Bundesanstalt für Züchtungsforschung an Kulturpflanzen, 1:87-90

Graichen K, Rabenstein F, 1996. European isolates of beet western yellows virus (BWYV) from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. napus) are non-pathogenic on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. altissima) but represent isolates of turnip yellows virus (TuYV). Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 103(3):233-245; 57 ref

Graichen K, Schliephake E, 1996. Occurrence, symptoms and vectors of turnip yellows virus (syn. beet western yellows virus) on winter oilseed rape. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 48(8/9):186-191; 31 ref

Graichen K, Schliephake E, Rabenstein F, 1997. Epidemic infestation of winter oilseed rape by turnip yellows luteovirus (syn. beet western yellows luteovirus) in the 1995/96 growing season. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 49(10):241-246; 26 ref

Guilley H, Richards KE, Jonard G, 1995. Nucleotide sequence of beet mild yellowing virus RNA. Archives of Virology, 140(6):1109-1118; 39 ref

Hampton RO, Keller KE, Baggett JR, 1998. Beet western yellows luteovirus in Western Oregon: pathosystem relationships in a vegetable-sugar beet seed production region. Plant Disease, 82(2):140-148; 40 ref

Hardwick NV, Davies JML, Wright DM, 1994. The incidence of three virus diseases of winter oilseed rape in England and Wales in the 1991/92 and 1992/93 growing seasons. Plant Pathology, 43(6):1045-1049

Hartleb H, 1975. New results on the host range of beet mild yellowing virus (Short communication). Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 11(5):365-368

Hartleb H, Bauer E, 1977. The importance of field weeds for overwintering of the virus of mild yellowing of beet in the German Democratic Republic in the years 1972 to 1976. Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 13(3):153-162

Heinze K, 1967. Die Vergilbungskrankheit der Kohl- und Wasserrübe als Krankheitsursache auf Zierpflanzen. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt Berlin-Dahlem, 121:132-139

Hill SA, Lane A, Hardwick NV, 1989. The incidence and importance of beet western yellows virus in oilseed rape. Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 23:311-318

Hogenhout SA, Verbeek M, Hans F, Houterman PM, Fortass M, Wilk Fvan der, Huttinga H, Heuvel JFJMvan den, 1996. Molecular bases of the interactions between luteoviruses and aphids. Agronomie, 16(3):167-173; 26 ref

Horn NM, Makkouk KM, Kumari SG, Heuvel JFJMvan den, Reddy DVR, 1995. Survey of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for chickpea stunt disease and associated viruses in Syria, Turkey and Lebanon. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 34(3):192-198; 21 ref

Jay CN, Smith HG, 1995. The effects of beet western yellows virus on the growth and yield of oilseed rape. Proceedings of the 9th International Rapeseed Congress, Cambridge, UK, 4 - 7 July 1995, 2:664-666

Johnstone GR, Duffus JE, 1984. Some luteovirus diseases in Tasmania caused by beet western yellows and subterranean clover red leaf viruses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 35(6):821-830

Johnstone GR, McLean GD, 1987. Virus diseases of subterranean clover. Annals of Applied Biology, 110(2):421-440

Jones TD, Buck KW, Plumb RT, 1991. The detection of beet western yellows virus and beet mild yellowing virus in crop plants using the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods, 35(3):287-296

Kerlan C, 1991. Les viroses, une étude de longue haleine. Oleoscope No. 5:6-7

Kojima M, Minagawa M, Azuhata F, Wakamatsu K, Sasagawa R, Johnstone G, 1995. Beet western yellows virus isolated from spinach plants in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, No. 47:35-43; 19 ref

Kyriakou A, Close RC, Ashby JW, 1983. A strain of beet western yellows virus in Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 26(2):271-277

Lin NS, Hsu YH, Hsu HT, 1990. Immunological detection of plant viruses and a mycoplasmalike organism by direct tissue blotting on nitrocellulose membranes. Phytopathology, 80(9):824-828

Makkouk KM, Bashir M, Jones R, 1998. First record of faba bean necrotic yellows virus and beet western yellows luteovirus affecting lentil and chickpea in Pakistan. Plant Disease, 82(5):591; 2 ref

Marco S, 1984. Beet western yellows virus in Israel. Plant Disease, 68(2):162-163

Park ChungYoul, Kim JeongSun, Lee HongKyu, Oh JongHee, Lim SeungMo, Moon JaeSun, Lee SuHeon, 2018. Beet western yellows virus (BWYV): aspect of outbreak and survey, and first complete genome sequence of a Korea isolate of BWYV. Research in Plant Disease, 24(4), 276-284. http://www.online-rpd.org/journal/view.html?uid=1626&sort=&scale=&key=year&keyword=&s_v=24&s_n=4&pn=vol&year=2018&vmd=Full

Polák J, Májková L, 1992. Winter oilseed rape as a likely source and reservoir of beet western virus. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 28(3):191-196

Prüfe M, Schrod J, Löwer C, Eppler A, 1994. Untersuchungen zum Virusbefall des Rapses in der Umgebung von Giessen. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt Berlin-Dahlem, 301:94

Randles JW, Rathjen JP, 1995. Genus Luteovirus. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, eds. Virus Taxonomy. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. New York, USA: Springer Verlag, 379-383

Read MA, Hewson RT, 1988. Prevention of beet western yellows virus (BWYV) in winter oilseed rape by control of aphid vectors with deltamethrin. Brighton Crop Protection Conference. Pests and Diseases - 1988. Vol. 3 Thornton Heath, Surrey, UK; British Crop Protection Council, 989-996

Russell GE, 1958. Sugar beet yellows: a preliminary study of the distribution and interrelation of viruses and virus strains found in East Anglia, 1955-1957. Annals of Applied Biology, 46:393-398

Schliephake E, Graichen K, Rabenstein F, 1999. Investigations on the vector transmission of the beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV) and the turnip yellows virus (TuYV). Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 106: in press

Schliephake E, Karl E, 1995. Beobachtung des Blattlausfluges mittels Saugfalle. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 10:203-206

Schröder M, 1991. SchSdigen Viren nun auch den Raps? DLG-Mitteilungen/Agrar Inform, 8:57-58

Schröder M, 1994. Investigations on the susceptibility of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., ssp. napus) to different virus diseases. Journal of Plant Diseses and Protection, 101:576-589

Schubert J, Rabenstein F, Graichen K, Richter K, 1998. Comparison of the 5'-end nucleotide sequences of luteoviruses from oilseed rape and sugar beet. Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 31:519-530

Smith HG, Hinckes JA, 1985. Studies on beet western yellows virus in oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Annals of Applied Biology, 107(3):473-484

Stevens M, 1993. Methods for distinguishing sugar beet yellowing viruses in plant and aphids and their use in epidemiological studies. Dissertation, University of East Anglia, UK

Stevens M, Smith HG, Hallsworth PB, 1994. The host range of beet yellowing viruses among common arable weed species. Plant Pathology, 43(3):579-588

Tabarestani AZ, Shamsbakhsh M, Safaei N, 2010. Distribution of three important aphid borne canola viruses in Golestan province. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 41(2):251-259. http://journals.ut.ac.ir/page/article-frame.html?articleId=426468

Thomas PE, Evans DW, Fox L, Biever KD, 1990. Resistance to beet western yellows virus among forage brassicas. Plant Disease, 74(4):327-330; 25 ref

Thomas PE, Hang AN, Reed G, Gilliland GC, Reisenauer G, 1993. Potential role of winter rapeseed culture on the epidemiology of potato leaf roll disease. Plant Disease, 77(4):420-423

Timmermann EL, D'Arcy J, Splittenstoesser WE, 1985. Beet western yellows virus in Illinois vegetable crops and weeds. Plant Disease, 69:933-936

Vandervalle R, 1950. La jaunisse des navets. Parasitica, 6:111-112

Vanderwalle R, Roland G, 1951. Contribution a l'etude de la jaunisse du navet. Parasitica, 7:14-15

Veidt I, Lot H, Leiser M, Scheidecker D, Guilley H, Richards K, Jonard G, 1988. Nucleotide sequence of beet western yellows virus RNA. Nucleic Acids Research, 16(21):9917-9932

Wakamatsu K, Aida M, Sano Y, Kojima M, 1996. Serological detection of beet western yellows virus from some vegetable plants in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, No. 48:11-17; 8 ref

Walkey DGA, Pink DAC, 1990. Studies on resistance to beet western yellows virus in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and the occurrence of field sources of the virus. Plant Pathology, 39(1):141-155

Wallis RL, 1967. Some host plants of the green peach aphid and beet western yellows virus in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Economical Entomology, 60:904-907

Walsh JA, Perrin RM, Miller A, Laycock DS, 1989. Studies on beet western yellows virus in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera) and the effect of insecticidal treatment on its spread. Crop Protection, 8(2):137-143

Wang R, Wang N, Ye T, Chen SY, Fan ZF, Zhou T, 2013. Occurrence of Beet western yellows virus in Japanese hop (Humulus scandens) in China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(2):450. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2843

Watson MA, 1963. Turnip mild yellows virus. Report of Rothamsted Experimental Station for 1962, 112

Xiang HY, Shang QX, Han CG, Li DW, Yu JL, 2008. First identification of Beet western yellows virus on sugarbeet and lettuce in China. Plant Pathology, 57(2):390. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01665.x

Zheng, H. Y., Wu, X. Y., Han, K. L., Chen, Z. Q., Song, X. J., Peng, J. J., Lu, Y. W., Lin, L., Chen, J. P., Yan, F., Wu, X. Y., Han, K. L., 2018. First report of Beet western yellows virus infecting Crocus sativus in China. Plant Disease, 102(7), 1471. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-10-17-1579-PDN

Distribution References

Ansi A, Kumari S G, Makkouk K M, Muharram I, Basha R, Al-Motokel W, 2010. Survey to identify virus diseases affecting food legume crops in Yemen. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo). 55 (2), 153-161.

Autonell C R, Turina M, Fantino M G, 1995. Virus infections of spinach crops in Italy. (Infezioni da virus in alcune coltivazioni di spinacio in Italia.). Informatore Fitopatologico. 45 (1), 43-47.

Bosque-Perez N A, Buddenhagen I W, 1990. Studies on epidemiology of virus disease of chickpea in California. Plant Disease. 74 (5), 372-378. DOI:10.1094/PD-74-0372

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chod J, Chodová D, Jokeš M, 1997. Host and indicator plants of beet western yellows virus. (Hostitelé a indikátorové rostliny viru západní žloutenky řepy (beet western yellow virus).). Listy Cukrovarnické a Řepařské. 113 (5), 129-130.

Deverchere J, Maisonneuve CH, 1994. (Viroses du colza. Peu de plantes virosées dans les champs en 1994). In: Oleoscope, 23 22.

Eicholtz M, Grinstead S, Wu L P, Kinard G, Li R, 2018. First report of Beet western yellows virus infecting Epiphyllum spp. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 464. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1238-PDN

Fresno J, Castro S, Babin M, Carazo G, Molina A, Blas C de, Romero J, 1997. Virus diseases of broad bean in Spain. Plant Disease. 81 (1), 112. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.1.112B

Graichen K, Schliephake E, Rabenstein F, 1997. Epidemic infestation of winter oilseed rape by turnip yellows luteovirus (syn. beet western yellows luteovirus) in the 1995/96 growing season. (Epidemischer Befall von Winterraps durch das Wasserrübenvergilbungsvirus (Syn. Westliches Rübenvergilbungsvirus) im Anbaujahr 1995/96.). Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes. 49 (10), 241-246.

Hampton R O, Keller K E, Baggett J R, 1998. Beet western yellows luteovirus in Western Oregon: pathosystem relationships in a vegetable-sugar beet seed production region. Plant Disease. 82 (2), 140-148. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.2.140

Hardwick N V, Davies J M L, Wright D M, 1994. The incidence of three virus diseases of winter oilseed rape in England and Wales in the 1991/92 and 1992/93 growing seasons. Plant Pathology. 43 (6), 1045-1049. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.1994.tb01656.x

Hill S A, Lane A, Hardwick N V, 1989. The incidence and importance of beet western yellows virus in oilseed rape. In: Aspects of Applied Biology, 311-318.

Horn N M, Makkouk K M, Kumari S G, Heuvel J F J M van den, Reddy D V R, 1995. Survey of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for chickpea stunt disease and associated viruses in Syria, Turkey and Lebanon. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 34 (3), 192-198.

Johnstone G R, Duffus J E, 1984. Some luteovirus diseases in Tasmania caused by beet western yellows and subterranean clover red leaf viruses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 35 (6), 821-830. DOI:10.1071/AR9840821

Johnstone G R, McLean G D, 1987. Virus diseases of subterranean clover. Annals of Applied Biology. 110 (2), 421-440. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1987.tb03274.x

Kerlan C, 1991. (Les viroses, une étude de longue haleine). In: Oleoscope, 5 6-7.

Kojima M, Minagawa M, Azuhata F, Wakamatsu K, Sasagawa R, Johnstone G, 1995. Beet western yellows virus isolated from spinach plants in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University. 35-43.

Kyriakou A, Close R C, Ashby J W, 1983. A strain of beet western yellows virus in Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 26 (2), 271-277.

Makkouk K M, Bashir M, Jones R, 1998. First record of faba bean necrotic yellows virus and beet western yellows luteovirus affecting lentil and chickpea in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 82 (5), 591. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.5.591D

Marco S, 1984. Beet western yellows virus in Israel. Plant Disease. 68 (2), 162-163. DOI:10.1094/PD-69-162

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