Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Beet curly top virus
(curly top)

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Datasheet

Beet curly top virus (curly top)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Beet curly top virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • curly top
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Geminiviridae
  •         Genus: Curtovirus

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Beet curly top virus

Preferred Common Name

  • curly top

Other Scientific Names

  • Beet curly top geminivirus
  • beet curly top hybrigeminivirus
  • potato green dwarf virus
  • sugarbeet curly top virus
  • sugarbeet curly-leaf virus
  • sugarbeet virus 1
  • tomato yellow virus
  • tomato yellows virus
  • western yellow blight virus

International Common Names

  • English: beet curly top; curly top of beet; potato green dwarf; sugar beet curly top virus; sugar beet curly-leaf; tomato yellows; tomato yellows virus

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kraeuselschopfkrankheit: Ruebe

EPPO code

  • BCTV00 (Beet curly top curtovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Geminiviridae
  •                 Genus: Curtovirus
  •                     Species: Beet curly top virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);

Asia

IndiaPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentSingh (1978); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
IsraelAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Klein (1992); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentIkegami (1990); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresent, LocalizedBENNETT and TANRISEVER (1957); Bennett and Tanrisever (1958); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
BulgariaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
CyprusPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
DenmarkAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-SicilyPresentEPPO (2020)
SloveniaAbsentEPPO (2020)
SpainAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Bejarano and Lichtenstein (1992); EPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentDavis (1927); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Costa RicaPresentRODRÍGUEZ (1961); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Puerto RicoAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)ADSUAR (1955); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresent, WidespreadBENNETT and COSTA (1949); HILLS and TAYLOR (1954); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadFLOCK et al. (1960); Magyarosy and Duffus (1977); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-ColoradoPresentPanella and Ruppel (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentBeardsley (1966); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-IdahoPresent, WidespreadHUNGERFORD (1934); Blickenstaff and Traveller (1979); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresent, WidespreadSCHNEIDER (1955); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-KansasPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentHaggestad and Moore (1959); SCHNEIDER (1959); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresent, WidespreadSchneider and Hogaboam (1977); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresentSCHNEIDER (1955); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-MontanaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-NebraskaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-New MexicoPresent, WidespreadFinkner (1976); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentHaggestad and Moore (1959); SCHNEIDER (1959); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentDoney (1998); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-OregonPresent, WidespreadHamm et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-South DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresent, WidespreadATKINS et al. (1957); Halliwell and Johnson (1988); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-UtahPresent, WidespreadMurphy (1946); Thornley and Mumford (1979); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadJones et al. (1940); Thomas and Boll (1977); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentFULTON (1955); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-WyomingPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentBENNETT et al. (1946); Feldman and Gracia (1985); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresentBELL and ALANDIA (1957); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
BrazilAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
-AmazonasAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)BENNETT and COSTA (1949); CABI (Undated)
UruguayPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / distortion
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / distortion
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Circulifer opacipennisInsectMediterranean countries
Circulifer tenellusInsectNorth America

References

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Abdel-Salam AM, 1991. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Egypt: 1 - characterization, partial purification and antiserum production. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 42(2):507-520

Abdel-Salam AM; Amin AH, 1990. An Egyptian isolate of beet curly top virus: new differential hosts, physical properties, seed transmission, and serologic studies. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 41(3):843-858

Abdel-Salam AM; Thomas PE, 1994. Isolation and partial characterization of a geminivirus transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) in some tomato fields in Washington and Oregon States. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 22(1):91-105; 22 ref.

Adsuar J, 1955. A disease of tomato in Puerto Rico resembling Brazilian curly top of tomatoes. Journal of Agriculture, University of Puerto Rico, 39:113-114.

Arjmand MN; Farsinejad K; Alimoradi I; Aghaeizadeh M; Katal B; Frese L, Panella L (ed. ), Srivastava HM (ed.), Lange-W, 1998. Pre-breeding for major disease resistances in sugar beet in Iran. International Crop Network Series, 12:58-61.

Atkins IM; Futrell MC; Merkel OG, 1957. Observations on curly top of flax in Texas. Plant Disease Reporter, 41:995-1000.

Beardsley JW, 1966. Insects and other terrestrial arthopods from the leeward Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian Entomol. Soc., Proc., 19:157-185.

Bejarano ER; Lichtenstein CP, 1992. Prospects for engineering virus resistance in plants with antisense RNA. Trends in Biotechnology, 10(11):383-388; 41 ref.

Bell FH; Segundo AB, 1957. Disease of temperate climate crops in Bolivia. Plant Disease Reporter, 41:646-649.

Bennett CW, 1971. The curly top disease of sugarbeet and other plants. Monograph, American Phytopathological Society, No. 7.

Bennett CW; Carsner E; Coons GH; Brandes EW, 1946. The Argentine curly top of sugar beet. Journal of Agricultural Research, 72:19-48.

Bennett CW; Costa AS, 1949. The Brazilian curly top of tomato and tobacco resembling North American and Argentine curly top of sugar beet. Journal of Agricultural Research, 78:675-693.

Bennett CW; Tanrisever A, 1957. Sugar beet curly top disease in Turkey. Plant Disease Reporter, 41:721-725.

Bennett CW; Tanrisever A, 1958. Curly top disease in Turkey and its relationship to curly top in North America. Journal of American Society of Sugar Beet Technology, 10:189-211.

Blickenstaff CC; Traveller D, 1979. Factors affecting curly top damage to sugarbeets and beans in southern Idaho, 1919-77. Agricultural Reviews and Manuals, Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, ARM-W-8:iv + 22 pp.

Boulton MI; Markham PG, 1986. The use of squash-blotting to detect plant pathogens in insect vectors. In: Jones RAC, Torrance L, eds. Developments in Applied Biology 1: Developments and Applications in Virus Testing. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biologists, 55-69.

Briddon RW; Markham PG, 1995. Geminiviridae. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, eds. Virus Taxonomy. Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, 6th, 158-165.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Beet curly top virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 24. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CABI/EPPO, 2016. Beet curly top virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 24 (Edition 6).

Csizinszky AA, 1978. Effect of environmental pH on the attachment and infectivity of curly-top virus in pepper, Capsicum annuum L. Florida Scientist, 41(2):122-128

Davis EW, 1927. Notes on collections of the sugar beet leafhopper showing the extension of its known range into British Columbia and to the coast of Washington and Oregon. Journal of Economic Entomology, 20:581-586.

Davis RM; Wang HePing; Falk BW; Nunez JJ, 1998. Curly top virus found in perennial shrubs in foothills. California Agriculture, 52(5):38-40; 2 ref.

Doney DL; Frese L Panella L; Srivastava HM; Lange W, 1998. Beta evaluation and sugar beet enhancement from wild sources. International Crop Network Series, 12:73-76.

Duarte MLR; Albuquerque FC, 1971. Tomato diseases in Amazon region. Instituto de Pesquisas e Experimentacao Agropecuarias do Norte, Fitotecnia, 2:9-34.

Duffus JE, 1983. Epidemiology and control of curly top diseases of sugarbeet and other crops. In: Plumb RT, Thresh JM, ed. Plant virus epidemiology. The spread and control of insect-borne viruses Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford United Kingdom, 297-304

Duffus JE, 1986. Beet curly top. In: Whitney ED, Duffus JE, eds. Compendium of beet diseases and insects. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society Press, 31-32.

Duffus JE; Skoyen IO, 1977. Relationship of age of plants and resistance to a severe isolate of the best curly top virus. Phytopathology, 67(2):151-154

Ebrahim-Nesbat F, 1979. Cytological study of sugarbeet leaves infected with curly top virus in Iran. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 86(3/4):169-172

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Esau K, 1935. Ontogeny of the phloem in sugar beets affected by the curly top disease. American Journal of Botany, 22:149-163.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1982. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 5. EPPO Bulletin, 12(1). unnumbered.

Feldman JM; Gracia O, 1985. Viruses identified on tomato crops in Salta and Jujuy. IDIA, No.433/436:88-89

Finkner RE, 1976. Cultivar blends for buffering against curly top and leafspot diseases of sugarbeet. Journal of the American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists, 19(1):74-82

Flock RA; Laird EF; Dickson RC, 1960. Loss caused by late infection of cantaloupes by the curly top virus. Phytopathology, 50:327-328.

Frischmuth T; Engel M; Jeske H, 1997. Beet curly top virus DI DNA-mediated resistance is linked to its size. Molecular Breeding, 3(3):213-217; 17 ref.

Fulton RW, 1955. Curly top of tobacco in Wisconsin. Plant Disease Reporter, 39:799-800.

Haggestad HE; Moore EL, 1959. Occurrence of curly top on tobacco in Maryland and North Carolina in 1958. Plant Disease Reporter, 43:682-684.

Halliwell RS; Johnson J, 1988. Virus diseases of spinach in the Texas winter garden. Miscellaneous Publication, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, MP-1656:4 pp.

Hamm PB; Jaeger JR; MacDonald L, 1995. Virus diseases of pepper in northeast Oregon. Plant Disease, 79(9):968

Harper K; Creamer R, 1995. Hybridization detection of insect-transmitted plant viruses with digoxigenin-labeled probes. Plant Disease, 79(6):563-567

Hills OA; Taylor EA, 1954. Effect of curly top-infective beet leafhoppers on cantaloup plants in varying stages of development. Journal of Economical Entomology, 47:44-48.

Hoyle BJ, 1977. Curly top identification handbook: nine crops. DANR University of California, Publication 4079.

Hungerford CW, 1934. Curly top of vegetables in Idaho. Plant Disease Reporter, 18:173-174.

Ikegami M, 1990. Computer analysis between nucleotide and amino acid sequences of mung bean yellow mosaic virus and those of maize streak, wheat dwarf, chloris striate mosaic and beet curly top viruses. Journal of Agricultural Science, Tokyo Nogyo Daigaku, 35(1):17-23

Jones LK; Vincent CL; Burk EF, 1940. The resistance of progeny of Katahdin potatoes to viruses. J. Agr. Res., 60:631-644.

Klein M, 1992. Role of Circulifer/Neoaliturus in the transmission of plant pathogens. Advances in Disease Vector Research, 9:151-193

Kubelkova D; Spak J, 1999. Virus diseases of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and some other species of the Papaveraceae family. Plant Protection Science, 35:33-36.

Larsen RC; Duffus JE, 1984. A simplified procedure for the purification of curly top virus and the isolation of its monomer and dimer particles. Phytopathology, 74(1):114-118

Lee SukChan; Park JongBum; Davis KR, 1999. Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host for studying symptom development during geminivirus infection. Plant Pathology Journal, 15(2):99-104; 38 ref.

Lewellen RT, 1989. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile sugarbeet germplasm C600CMS. Crop Science, 29(1):246; 5 ref.

Magyarosy AC; Duffus JE, 1977. The occurrence of highly virulent strains of the beet curly top virus in California. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(4):248-251

Martin MW; Thomas PE, 1986. Increased value of resistance to infection if used in integrated pest management control of tomato curly top. Phytopathology, 76(5):540-542

Matthews REF, 1992. Fundamentals of plant virology. San Diego, USA; Academic Press Inc., xii + 403 pp.

Murphy AM, 1946. Sugar beet and curly top history in southern Utah 1912-1945. American Society of Sugar Beet Technology, Proceedings, 4:408-412.

Panella LW; Ruppel EG, 1997. Registration of sugarbeet germplasms FC721 and FC721CMS resistant to Rhizoctonia root rot and moderately resistant to the beet curly top virus. Crop Science, 37(5):1675-1676; 7 ref.

Rodriguez RA, 1961. Outbreak of curly top in Costa Rica. Plant Disease Reporter, 45:980.

Schneider CL, 1955. Incidence of curly top in sugar beet in Minnesota and Iowa in 1954. Plant Disease Reporter, 39:453-454.

Schneider CL, 1959. Occurrence of curly top in sugar beet in Maryland in 1958. Plant Disease Reporter, 43:681.

Schneider CL; Hogaboam GJ, 1977. New occurrences of powdery mildew and curly top on sugarbeet in Michigan in 1975. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(2):88-89

Singh RN, 1978. Note on the beet curly-top virus in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(2):93-94

Strausbaugh CA; Gillen AM; Gallian JJ; Camp S; Stander JR, 2006. Influence of host resistance and insecticide seed treatments on curly top in sugar beets. Plant Disease, 90(12):1539-1544. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Strausbaugh CA; Wenninger EJ; Eujayl IA, 2012. Management of severe curly top in sugar beet with insecticides. Plant Disease, 96(8):1159-1164. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Thomas PE; Boll RK, 1977. Effect of host preference on transmission of curly top virus to tomato by the beet leafhopper. Phytopathology, 67(7):903-905

Thomas PE; Mink GI, 1979. Beet curly top virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 210. Wellsbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biologists.

Thornley WR; Mumford DL, 1979. Intracellular location of beet curly top virus antigen as revealed by fluorescent antibody staining. Phytopathology, 69(7):738-740

Timmermans MCP; Das OP; Messing J, 1994. Geminiviruses and their uses as extrachromosomal replicons. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 45:79-112; 177 ref.

Wang HePing; Gurusinghe Pde A; Falk BW, 1999. Systemic insecticides and plant age affect beet curly top virus transmission to selected host plants. Plant Disease, 83(4):351-355; 19 ref.

Distribution References

ADSUAR J, 1955. A disease of Tomato in Puerto Rico resembling the Brazilian curly top of Tomatoes. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 39 (2), 113-114 pp.

ATKINS I M , FUTRELL M C , MERKLE O G, 1957. Observations on curly top of Flax in Texas. Plant Disease Reporter. 41 (12), 995-1000 pp.

Beardsley JW, 1966. Insects and other terrestrial arthopods from the leeward Hawaiian Islands. In: Hawaiian Entomol. Soc., Proc. 19 157-185.

Bejarano E R, Lichtenstein C P, 1992. Prospects for engineering virus resistance in plants with antisense RNA. Trends in Biotechnology. 10 (11), 383-388. DOI:10.1016/0167-7799(92)90279-5

BELL F H , ALANDIA S, 1957. Diseases of temperate climate crops in Bolivia. Plant Disease Reporter. 41 (7), 646-649.

BENNETT C W , CARSNER E , COONS G H , BRANDES E W, 1946. The Argentine Curly Top of Sugar Beet. Journal of Agricultural Research. 72 (1), 19-48 pp.

BENNETT C W , COSTA A S, 1949. The Brazilian Curly Top of Tomato and Tobacco resembling North American and Argentine Curly Top of Sugar Beet. Journal of Agricultural Research. 78 (12), 675-693 pp.

BENNETT C W , TANRISEVER A, 1957. Sugar Beet curly top disease in Turkey. Plant Disease Reporter. 41 (9), 721-725 pp.

Bennett CW, Tanrisever A, 1958. Curly top disease in Turkey and its relationship to curly top in North America. In: Journal of American Society of Sugar Beet Technology, 10 189-211.

Blickenstaff C C, Traveller D, 1979. Factors affecting curly top damage to sugarbeets and beans in southern Idaho, 1919-77. In: Agricultural Reviews and Manuals, Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, iv + 22 pp.

CABI, EPPO, 2001. Beet curly top virus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 24.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Davis E W, 1927. Notéis on Collections of the Sugar Beet Leaf-hopper showing the Extension of its known Range into British Columbia and to the Coast in Washington and Oregon. Journal of Economic Entomology. 20 (4), 581-586 pp. DOI:10.1093/jee/20.4.581

Doney D L, 1998. Beta evaluation and sugar beet enhancement from wild sources. In: International Crop Network Series [International Beta genetic resources network. A report on the 4th International Beta Genetic Resources Workshop and World Beta Network Conference, Izmir, Turkey, 28 February-3 March 1996.], [ed. by Frese L Panella L, Srivastava H M, Lange W]. 73-76.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Feldman J M, Gracia O, 1985. Viruses identified on tomato crops in Salta and Jujuy. (Virus identificados en cultivos de tomate de Salta y Jujuy.). IDIA. 88-89.

Finkner R E, 1976. Cultivar blends for buffering against curly top and leafspot diseases of sugarbeet. Journal of the American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists. 19 (1), 74-82.

FLOCK R A , LAIRD E F , DICKSON R C, 1960. Loss caused by late infection of Cantaloupes by the curly top virus. Phytopathology. 50 (4), 327-328 pp.

FULTON E W, 1955. Curly-top of Tobacco in Wisconsin. Plant Disease Reporter. 39 (11), 799-800 pp.

Haggestad HE, Moore EL, 1959. Occurrence of curly top on tobacco in Maryland and North Carolina in 1958. In: Plant Disease Reporter, 43 682-684.

Halliwell R S, Johnson J, 1988. Virus diseases of spinach in the Texas winter garden. In: Miscellaneous Publication, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, 4 pp.

Hamm P B, Jaeger J R, MacDonald L, 1995. Virus diseases of pepper in northeast Oregon. Plant Disease. 79 (9), 968. DOI:10.1094/PD-79-0968A

HILLS O A , TAYLOR E A, 1954. Effect of Curly Top-infective Beet Leafhoppers on Cantaloup Plants in varying Stages of Development. Journal of Economic Entomology. 47 (1), 44-48 pp. DOI:10.1093/jee/47.1.44

HUNGERFORD C W, 1934. Curly top of vegetables in Idaho. Plant Disease Reporter. 18 (14), 173-174 pp.

Ikegami M, 1990. Computer analysis between nucleotide and amino acid sequences of mung bean yellow mosaic virus and those of maize streak, wheat dwarf, chloris striate mosaic and beet curly top viruses. Journal of Agricultural Science, Tokyo Nogyo Daigaku. 35 (1), 17-23.

Jones L K, Vincent C L, Bürk E F, 1940. The resistance of progeny of Katahdin Potatoes to viroses. Journal of Agricultural Research. 60 (9), 631-444 pp.

Klein M, 1992. Role of Circulifer/Neoaliturus in the transmission of plant pathogens. Advances in Disease Vector Research. 151-193.

Magyarosy A C, Duffus J E, 1977. The occurrence of highly virulent strains of the beet curly top virus in California. Plant Disease Reporter. 61 (4), 248-251.

Murphy A M, 1946. Sugar beet and curly top history in southern Utah 1912-1945. American Society of Sugar Beet Technology, Proceedings. 408-412.

Panella L W, Ruppel E G, 1997. Registration of sugarbeet germplasms FC721 and FC721CMS resistant to Rhizoctonia root rot and moderately resistant to the beet curly top virus. Crop Science. 37 (5), 1675-1676. DOI:10.2135/cropsci1997.0011183X003700050056x

RODRÍGUEZ R A, 1961. Outbreak of curly top in Costa Rica. Plant Disease Reporter. 48 (12), 980 p.

SCHNEIDER C L, 1955. Incidence of curly top of Sugar Beets in Minnesota and Iowa in 1954. Plant Disease Reporter. 39 (6), 453-454 pp.

SCHNEIDER C L, 1959. Occurrence of curly top of Sugar Beets in Maryland in 1958. Plant Disease Reporter. 43 (7), 681 p.

Schneider C L, Hogaboam G J, 1977. New occurrences of powdery mildew and curly top on sugarbeet in Michigan in 1975. Plant Disease Reporter. 61 (2), 88-89.

Singh R N, 1978. Note on the beet curly-top virus in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 12 (2), 93-94.

Thomas P E, Boll R K, 1977. Effect of host preference on transmission of curly top virus to tomato by the beet leafhopper. Phytopathology. 67 (7), 903-905. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-67-903

Thornley W R, Mumford D L, 1979. Intracellular location of beet curly top virus antigen as revealed by fluorescent antibody staining. Phytopathology. 69 (7), 738-740. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-69-738

Distribution Maps

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