Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Detection and Inspection
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor, 1949
Preferred Common Name
- citrus flat mite
Other Scientific Names
- Hystripalpus lewisi
International Common Names
- French: brevipalpe de lewis
Local Common Names
- Japan: Budo-hime-hadani
- BRVPLE (Brevipalpus lewisi)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Chelicerata
- Class: Arachnida
- Subclass: Acari
- Superorder: Acariformes
- Suborder: Prostigmata
- Family: Tenuipalpidae
- Genus: Brevipalpus
- Species: Brevipalpus lewisi
DescriptionTop of page The citrus flat mite belongs to the Brevipalpus cuneatus group (Baker and Tuttle, 1987), which is characterized by having seven pairs of lateral hysterosomal setae and three pairs of dorsocentral setae. The number of rod-like sensory setae on the second tarsus of the female has also been used to separate groups; the citrus flat mite has only one solenidium on tarsus II. However, this character may not prove to be a sound character; Baker and Tuttle (1964) have reported specimens from Arizona having one or two rod-like setae on tarsus II, and in some cases, one on one leg and two on the other.
The body length ranges between 206 and 300 µm; rostrum extends beyond middle of femur I; palpus four-segmented with three setae on the distal segment; dorsocentral area of propodosoma rugose, not aerolate (compared with Brevipalpus chilensis); propodosomal and hysterosomal dorsal pores are very well marked. Reticulation pattern on propodosoma not meeting dorsally, individual components much longer than wide; same pattern is observed on the hysterosomal reticulation.
First and second propodosomal setae smaller than the postocular setae; humeral and the last four lateral setae leaf-like, serrate; other laterals and dorsal pairs, lanceolate. Ehara (1956) characterized the Japanese deutonymph by having femora I and II with very broad, serrate dorsal setae. He concluded that the Japanese material was somewhat different from the Californian specimens, differing in the ventral reticulation of propodosoma of the females and in the dorsal chaetotaxy of the nymphs.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 11 Mar 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Egypt||Present||Baker and Tuttle (1964); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|South Africa||Present, Localized||Saccaggi et al. (2017)||Western and Northern Cape only|
|Georgia||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|India||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Iran||Present||Arbabi et al. (2002); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Japan||Present||Ehara (1956); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-Hokkaido||Present, Localized||Ehara (1956); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-Honshu||Present, Localized||Ehara (1956); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Lebanon||Present||Jeppson et al. (1975); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Taiwan||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Tajikistan||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Turkey||Present||Göven et al. (2009); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Bulgaria||Present||Jeppson et al. (1975); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|France||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010);|
|Greece||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Hungary||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010); Ueckermann and Ripka (2016)|
|Montenegro||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Portugal||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010);|
|Romania||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Serbia||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Spain||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010);|
|Ukraine||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Cuba||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Mexico||Present||Rodríguez-Navarro et al. (2003); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|United States||Present, Widespread||Native||Invasive||Baker and Tuttle (1964); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-Arizona||Present||Native||Baker and Tuttle (1964); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-California||Present, Widespread||Native||Baker and Tuttle (1964); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-Maryland||Present||Native||Baker and Tuttle (1964); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-North Carolina||Present||Native||Baker and Tuttle (1964); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|Australia||Present||Baker and Tuttle (1964); CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-New South Wales||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-Queensland||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-South Australia||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
|-Victoria||Present||CABI and EPPO (2010)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page As with all other species of Brevipalpus feeding on fruits and leaves, dispersal is likely to occur with the movement of plant material.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page B. lewisi is polyphagous. Apart from its main hosts (Citrus species, preferentially lemons, tangerines and oranges), grapes, walnuts, forest and ornamental trees (Alnus, Catalpa, Melia, Myrtus and Pittosporum), shrubs from desert areas (Atriplex semibaccata) and flowering plants (Rosa, Geranium and Aster) are reported as hosts from the southern USA (Baker and Tuttle, 1964).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Abutilon (Indian mallow)||Malvaceae||Unknown|
|Citrus limonia (mandarin lime)||Rutaceae||Main|
|Citrus reticulata (mandarin)||Rutaceae||Main|
|Citrus sinensis (navel orange)||Rutaceae||Main|
|Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)||Rutaceae||Main|
|Juglans regia (walnut)||Juglandaceae||Main|
|Pistacia vera (pistachio)||Anacardiaceae||Other|
|Punica granatum (pomegranate)||Punicaceae||Main|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Main|
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / external feeding|
|Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting|
|Growing point / external feeding|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Leaves / necrotic areas|
|Whole plant / external feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page B. lewisi overwinters in the adult stage on deciduous host plants such as grapes in California, USA. It is active throughout the year on Citrus, particularly in the Coachella and Imperial valleys, USA. Peak populations occur during the warmest months because periods of high temperature and low humidity have no deleterious influence upon the mite populations. The number of annual generations is therefore related to the type of host, for example, four generations have been reported on vines in Bulgaria and in California, USA. Under conditions in Arizona, USA, the mite is most prevalent during August and September, particularly on Citrus.
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Hessein and Perring (1988) observed the adults and nymphs of Homeopronematus anconai to feed on eggs of B. lewisi in the laboratory. It was suggested that both H. anconai and Metaseiulus occidentalis might prey on B. lewisi on grapes. Typhlodromus reticulatus was reported to prey on B. lewisi on grapevines (Buchanan et al., 1980).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Leaves||adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
ImpactTop of page The citrus flat mite is a pest of citrus, grapes and many ornamental plants. It is particularly recognized as a pest of vines and citrus in Japan, grapes in Bulgaria, and citrus in the desert areas of California and Arizona, USA. Most of the more than 30 hosts of this species are ornamental plants.
The mite prefers to feed on citrus fruits where it may cause a conspicuous scarring of the rind. Economic damage results in a reduction in quality. No injury is produced on the leaves or stems. The scab-like scars produced by this mite on most varieties of citrus fruits rarely occur on grapefruit (Elmer and Jeppson, 1957).
Infestations on grapevines occur on all green parts of the plants. Overwintering females hidden on the bark move to the new shoots and stems from early spring, often resulting in death of the shoots (Jeppson et al., 1975).
Detection and InspectionTop of page
A diagnostic Lucid key to 19 species of Brevipalpus is available in Flat Mites of the World.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
The mite is susceptible to sulfur dust and several non-organophosphorous acaricides. Populations on grapes and deciduous trees could be controlled by applications of oil sprays during the dormant period.
ReferencesTop of page
Baker EW, 1949. The genus Brevipalpus (Acarina:Pseudoleptidae). Am. Midl. Nat., 42(2):350-402
Baker EW, Tuttle DM, 1964. The false spider mites of Arizona. Ariz. Agr. Expt. Sta. Techn. Bull., 163:1-80
Ehara S, 1956. Two false spider mites from Japanese orchards (Phytoptipalpidae ). Ann. Zool. Japonenses, 29(4):234-238
Elmer HS, Jeppson LR, 1957. Biology and control of citrus flat mite. Journal of Economic Entomology, 50(5):566-570
Hessein NA, Perring TM, 1988. Homeopronematus anconai (Baker) (Acari: Tydeidae) predation on citrus flat mite, Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). International Journal of Acarology, 14(2):89-90; [1 fig.]; 5 ref
Rodríguez-Navarro S, Mcmurtry J, Estébanes-González ML, 2003. Phytophagous mites and their predators, associated to fruit trees in Teziutlan, Puebla, Mexico. (Âcaros fitófagos y sus depredadores asociados a frutales en Teziutlán, Puebla, México.) Folia Entomológica Mexicana, 42(1):79-90
Saccaggi, D. L., Ueckermann, E. A., Toit, I. du, Ngubane-Ndhlovu, N. P., 2017. First records of Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) in South Africa, with notes on distribution and field ecology. African Entomology, 25(2), 523-528. http://www.bioone.org/loi/afen doi: 10.4001/003.025.0523
Ueckermann EA, Ripka G, 2016. Three new species and a new record of tenuipalpid mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Hungary. Journal of Natural History, 50(15/16):989-1015. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tnah20
Baker EW, Tuttle DM, 1964. The false spider mites of Arizona. In: Ariz. Agr. Expt. Sta. Techn. Bull. 163 1-80.
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Ehara S, 1956. Two false spider mites from Japanese orchards (Phytoptipalpidae ). In: Ann. Zool. Japonenses, 29 (4) 234-238.
Göven M A, Çobanoğlu S, Güven B, 2009. Predatory mite fauna in Aegean vineyards. (Ege Bölgesi bağ alanlarındaki avcı akar faunası.). Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 49 (1), 1-10. http://www.ziraimucadele.gov.tr
Rodríguez-Navarro S, Mcmurtry J, Estébanes-González M L, 2003. Phytophagous mites and their predators, associated to fruit trees in Teziutlan, Puebla, Mexico. (Ácaros fitófagos y sus depredadores asociados a frutales en Teziutlán, Puebla, México.). Folia Entomológica Mexicana. 42 (1), 79-90.
Saccaggi D L, Ueckermann E A, Toit I du, Ngubane-Ndhlovu N P, 2017. First records of Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) in South Africa, with notes on distribution and field ecology. African Entomology. 25 (2), 523-528. http://www.bioone.org/loi/afen DOI:10.4001/003.025.0523
Ueckermann E A, Ripka G, 2016. Three new species and a new record of tenuipalpid mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Hungary. Journal of Natural History. 50 (15/16), 989-1015. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tnah20
Distribution MapsTop of page
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