Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Brevipalpus lewisi
(citrus flat mite)

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Datasheet

Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Brevipalpus lewisi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • citrus flat mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, dorsal view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with
TitleAdult
CaptionBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, dorsal view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with
Copyright©PaDIL/Qing Hai Fan MAF (MPI) Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand - CC BY 4.0
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, dorsal view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with
AdultBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, dorsal view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with ©PaDIL/Qing Hai Fan MAF (MPI) Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand - CC BY 4.0
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, ventral view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with 2 omega.
TitleAdult
CaptionBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, ventral view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with 2 omega.
Copyright©PaDIL/Qing Hai Fan MAF (MPI) Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand - CC BY 4.0
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, ventral view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with 2 omega.
AdultBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, ventral view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with 2 omega.©PaDIL/Qing Hai Fan MAF (MPI) Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand - CC BY 4.0
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); (a) adult female  and (b) deutonymph.
TitleAdult female and deutonymph
CaptionBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); (a) adult female and (b) deutonymph.
Copyright©Roberto H. Gonzalez
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); (a) adult female  and (b) deutonymph.
Adult female and deutonymphBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); (a) adult female and (b) deutonymph.©Roberto H. Gonzalez

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor, 1949

Preferred Common Name

  • citrus flat mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Hystripalpus lewisi

International Common Names

  • French: brevipalpe de lewis

Local Common Names

  • Japan: Budo-hime-hadani

EPPO code

  • BRVPLE (Brevipalpus lewisi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Tenuipalpidae
  •                                     Genus: Brevipalpus
  •                                         Species: Brevipalpus lewisi

Description

Top of page The citrus flat mite belongs to the Brevipalpus cuneatus group (Baker and Tuttle, 1987), which is characterized by having seven pairs of lateral hysterosomal setae and three pairs of dorsocentral setae. The number of rod-like sensory setae on the second tarsus of the female has also been used to separate groups; the citrus flat mite has only one solenidium on tarsus II. However, this character may not prove to be a sound character; Baker and Tuttle (1964) have reported specimens from Arizona having one or two rod-like setae on tarsus II, and in some cases, one on one leg and two on the other.

Female

The body length ranges between 206 and 300 µm; rostrum extends beyond middle of femur I; palpus four-segmented with three setae on the distal segment; dorsocentral area of propodosoma rugose, not aerolate (compared with Brevipalpus chilensis); propodosomal and hysterosomal dorsal pores are very well marked. Reticulation pattern on propodosoma not meeting dorsally, individual components much longer than wide; same pattern is observed on the hysterosomal reticulation.

Male

Unknown.

Deutonymph

First and second propodosomal setae smaller than the postocular setae; humeral and the last four lateral setae leaf-like, serrate; other laterals and dorsal pairs, lanceolate. Ehara (1956) characterized the Japanese deutonymph by having femora I and II with very broad, serrate dorsal setae. He concluded that the Japanese material was somewhat different from the Californian specimens, differing in the ventral reticulation of propodosoma of the females and in the dorsal chaetotaxy of the nymphs.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Georgia (Republic of)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
IranPresentArbabi et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2010
JapanPresent Not invasive Ehara, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-HokkaidoRestricted distribution Not invasive Ehara, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-HonshuRestricted distribution Not invasive Ehara, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2010
LebanonPresentJeppson et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2010
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
TajikistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
TurkeyPresentGöven et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2010

Africa

EgyptPresentBaker and Tuttle, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2010

North America

MexicoPresentRodríguez-Navarro et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010
USAWidespreadNative Invasive Baker and Tuttle, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-ArizonaPresentNativeBaker and Tuttle, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-CaliforniaWidespreadNativeBaker and Tuttle, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-MarylandPresentNativeBaker and Tuttle, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-North CarolinaPresentNativeBaker and Tuttle, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2010

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

Europe

BulgariaPresentJeppson et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2010
FrancePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-France (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GreecePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
HungaryPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Ueckermann and Ripka, 2016
MontenegroPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
PortugalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Portugal (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
RomaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SerbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SpainPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

Oceania

AustraliaPresentBaker and Tuttle, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-VictoriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

Risk of Introduction

Top of page As with all other species of Brevipalpus feeding on fruits and leaves, dispersal is likely to occur with the movement of plant material.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page B. lewisi is polyphagous. Apart from its main hosts (Citrus species, preferentially lemons, tangerines and oranges), grapes, walnuts, forest and ornamental trees (Alnus, Catalpa, Melia, Myrtus and Pittosporum), shrubs from desert areas (Atriplex semibaccata) and flowering plants (Rosa, Geranium and Aster) are reported as hosts from the southern USA (Baker and Tuttle, 1964).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Whole plant / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page B. lewisi overwinters in the adult stage on deciduous host plants such as grapes in California, USA. It is active throughout the year on Citrus, particularly in the Coachella and Imperial valleys, USA. Peak populations occur during the warmest months because periods of high temperature and low humidity have no deleterious influence upon the mite populations. The number of annual generations is therefore related to the type of host, for example, four generations have been reported on vines in Bulgaria and in California, USA. Under conditions in Arizona, USA, the mite is most prevalent during August and September, particularly on Citrus.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Euseius scutalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Homeopronematus anconai Predator Eggs
Typhlodromus flumenis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Typhlodromus reticulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Hessein and Perring (1988) observed the adults and nymphs of Homeopronematus anconai to feed on eggs of B. lewisi in the laboratory. It was suggested that both H. anconai and Metaseiulus occidentalis might prey on B. lewisi on grapes. Typhlodromus reticulatus was reported to prey on B. lewisi on grapevines (Buchanan et al., 1980).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact

Top of page The citrus flat mite is a pest of citrus, grapes and many ornamental plants. It is particularly recognized as a pest of vines and citrus in Japan, grapes in Bulgaria, and citrus in the desert areas of California and Arizona, USA. Most of the more than 30 hosts of this species are ornamental plants.

The mite prefers to feed on citrus fruits where it may cause a conspicuous scarring of the rind. Economic damage results in a reduction in quality. No injury is produced on the leaves or stems. The scab-like scars produced by this mite on most varieties of citrus fruits rarely occur on grapefruit (Elmer and Jeppson, 1957).

Infestations on grapevines occur on all green parts of the plants. Overwintering females hidden on the bark move to the new shoots and stems from early spring, often resulting in death of the shoots (Jeppson et al., 1975).

Detection and Inspection

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A diagnostic Lucid key to 19 species of Brevipalpus is available in Flat Mites of the World.

Prevention and Control

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Chemical Control

The mite is susceptible to sulfur dust and several non-organophosphorous acaricides. Populations on grapes and deciduous trees could be controlled by applications of oil sprays during the dormant period.

References

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Arbabi M; Golmohammad zadeh Khiaban N; Askari M, 2002. Plant mite fauna of Sistan-Baluchestan and Hormozgan Provinces. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 22(1):En1-17, Pe87-88.

Baker EW, 1949. The genus Brevipalpus (Acarina:Pseudoleptidae). Am. Midl. Nat., 42(2):350-402.

Baker EW; Tuttle DM, 1964. The false spider mites of Arizona. Ariz. Agr. Expt. Sta. Techn. Bull., 163:1-80.

Baker EW; Tuttle DM, 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). Technical Bulletin No. 1706. USA: USDA-ARS.

Buchanan GA; Bengston M; Exley EM, 1980. Population growth of Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) on grapevines. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 31(5):957-965

CABI/EPPO, 2010. Brevipalpus lewisi. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 739.

Ehara S, 1956. Two false spider mites from Japanese orchards (Phytoptipalpidae ). Ann. Zool. Japonenses, 29(4):234-238.

Elmer HS; Jeppson LR, 1957. Biology and control of citrus flat mite. Journal of Economic Entomology, 50(5):566-570.

Göven MA; Çobanoglu S; Güven B, 2009. Predatory mite fauna in Aegean vineyards. (Ege Bölgesi bag alanlarIndaki avcI akar faunasI.) Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 49(1):1-10. http://www.ziraimucadele.gov.tr

Hessein NA; Perring TM, 1988. Homeopronematus anconai (Baker) (Acari: Tydeidae) predation on citrus flat mite, Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). International Journal of Acarology, 14(2):89-90; [1 fig.]; 5 ref.

Jeppson LR; Keifer HH; Baker EW, 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press.

Rodríguez-Navarro S; Mcmurtry J; Estébanes-González ML, 2003. Phytophagous mites and their predators, associated to fruit trees in Teziutlan, Puebla, Mexico. (Âcaros fitófagos y sus depredadores asociados a frutales en Teziutlán, Puebla, México.) Folia Entomológica Mexicana, 42(1):79-90.

Ueckermann EA; Ripka G, 2016. Three new species and a new record of tenuipalpid mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Hungary. Journal of Natural History, 50(15/16):989-1015. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tnah20

Distribution Maps

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