Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Brevipalpus californicus
(citrus flat mite)

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Datasheet

Brevipalpus californicus (citrus flat mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Brevipalpus californicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • citrus flat mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Brevipalpus californicus (Banks, 1904)

Preferred Common Name

  • citrus flat mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Brevipalpus australis Baker, 1949
  • Brevipalpus browningi Baker, 1949
  • Brevipalpus confusis Baker, 1949
  • Brevipalpus woglumi McGregor, 1949
  • Hystripalpus californicus Mitrofanov & Strunkova, 1979
  • Tenuipalpus australis Tucker, 1926
  • Tenuipalpus californicus Banks, 1904
  • Tenuipalpus vitis Womersley, 1940

International Common Names

  • English: bunch, mite; mite, citrus flat; mite, red flat (USA); mite, scarlet tea (India, Sri Lanka); red flat mite (USA); scarlet mite of tea (India, Sri Lanka)
  • Arabic: acarous el-mawaleh el-mobattat

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Scharlachrote Teemilbe; Teemilbe, Scharlachrote

EPPO code

  • BRVPAU (Brevipalpus californicus)
  • BRVPBR (Brevipalpus browningi)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Tenuipalpidae
  •                                     Genus: Brevipalpus
  •                                         Species: Brevipalpus californicus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentEPPO (2020)
AngolaPresentEPPO (2020)
Congo, Republic of thePresentEPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentYousef (1967); ZAHER et al. (1971); Zaher (1984); EPPO (2020)
LibyaPresentEPPO (2020)
MauritaniaPresentEPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
RéunionPresentEPPO (2020)
SenegalPresentEPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentMeyer (1979); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentEPPO (2020)

Asia

GeorgiaPresentLivshits et al. (1980); CABI (Undated)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-AssamPresentEPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentAnupam Tagore and Putatunda (2004)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Meena-Thakur Sangita-Sharma Dinabandhoo CL (2004)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNehru et al. (2005)
-JharkhandPresentRabindra Prasad et al. (2006)
-KarnatakaPresentEPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentEPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresent, WidespreadGupta et al. (1971); Sadana and Joshi (1979); Grewal (1992); CABI (Undated)
-Tamil NaduPresentEPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresent, WidespreadMisra et al. (1990)
IsraelPresentYousef (1967); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentEPPO (2020)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentEPPO (2020)
NepalPresentEPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentMoralde et al. (1982)
Sri LankaPresentDanthanarayana and Ranaweera (1970); Danthanarayana and Ranaweera (1974); Vitarana (1990); EPPO (2020)
SyriaPresentKerhili et al. (2015)
TajikistanPresentLivshits et al. (1980)
ThailandPresentEPPO (2020)

Europe

CyprusPresentEPPO (2020)
FranceAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
GreecePresentEPPO (2020)
-CretePresentEPPO (2020)
HungaryPresentEPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentBenfatto (1980); EPPO (2020)
-SicilyPresentEPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a); Livshits et al. (1980)Present based on regional distribution.
SpainPresentEPPO (2020)

North America

Costa RicaPresentAguilar and Murillo (2012); Aguilar and Ochoa (1988)
CubaPresentEPPO (2020)
GuadeloupeAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentEvans et al. (1993)
MartiniqueAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentBaker and Tuttle (1987); Monjarás-Barrera et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresentEPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentEPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentMuma (1975); Jeppson (1977); Denmark (1982); Denmark (1984); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentEPPO (2020)
-KansasPresentEPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentCABI (Undated b)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentEPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentEPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentEPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
GuamPresentReddy et al. (2011)
New ZealandPresentCollyer (1973)
Papua New GuineaPresentEPPO (2020)

South America

BrazilPresentCABI (Undated b)
-GoiasPresentMiranda et al. (2007)
-PernambucoPresentBarbosa et al. (2003)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI (Undated b)
French GuianaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentDe Leon (1965)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / mummification
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Stems / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agistemus exsertus Predator Eggs
Agistemus industani Predator Eggs
Amblyseius alstoniae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Amblyseius multidentatus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Amblyseius swirskii Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Cheletogenes ornatus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Euseius mesembrinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Euseius scutalis Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Phytoseius minutus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Phytoseius roseus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae Brazil wheat
Pronematus spp. Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Pronematus ubiquitus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Seiulus finlandicus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae

References

Top of page

Abdelhafez MA; Hanna MA, 1975. The efficiency of acaricides in mixtures with insecticides to control citrus mite populations. Agricultural Research Review, 53(1):173-179.

Aguilar H; Murillo P, 2012. New hosts and records of plant feeding mites for Costa Rica: interval 2008-2012. (Nuevos hospederos y registros de ácaros fitófagos para Costa Rica: período 2008-2012.) Agronomía Costarricense, 36(2):11-28. http://www.mag.go.cr/rev_agr/index.html

Aguilar H; Ochoa R, 1988. Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), a new pest of cardamoms (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) in Costa Rica. Agronomia Costarricense, 12(2):251-252.

Anupam Tagore; Putatunda BN, 2004. Mite pest of vegetable crops in Hisar (Haryana) India. Plant Protection Bulletin (Faridabad), 56(3/4):32-36.

Attiah HH, 1956. The genus Brevipalpus in Egypt (Acarina:Tenuipalpidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypte, 40:433-448.

Attiah HH; Soliman AA; Wahba ML; Daniel M; Rosicky B, 1973. On the biology of Brevipalpus californicus (Banks). In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of Acarology. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk BV, 107-191.

Attiah HH; Wahba ML; Soliman AA; Daniel M; Rosicky B, 1973. Phosphorus compounds as a cause of an increase in numbers of the flat mite, Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), on lemon trees in Egypt. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of Acarology. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk BV, 193-196.

Badii MH; Hernandez E; Flores S, 1993. Functional response of Euseius mesembrinus (Dean) as a function of the density of Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tenuipalpidae). Southwestern Entomologist, 18(4):301-304.

Baker EW, 1949. The genus Brevipalpus (Acarina:Pseudoleptidae). Am. Midl. Nat., 42(2):350-402.

Baker EW; Tuttle DM, 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). Technical Bulletin No. 1706. USA: USDA-ARS.

Banks N, 1904. Four new species of injurious mites. J. N. J. Ent. Soc., 12:53-56.

Barbosa DGF; Gondim Júnior MGC; Barros R; Oliveira JV, 2003. Mite diversity on Barbados Cherry (Malpighia emarginata A.DC.) at the Campus of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, PE, Brazil. (Diversidade de ácaros em aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata A.DC.) na Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco em Recife, PE.) Neotropical Entomology, 32(4):577-583.

Benfatto D, 1980. The principal citrus mites and their control. Frutticoltura, 42:12, 43-54.

Bolland H; Gutierrez J; Helle W, 1981. Chromosomes in spider mites (Tetranychidae-Acari). Acarologia, 22(3):271-275

Castagnoli M, 1974. La spermateca in alcune specie di Brevipalpini (Acarina, Tenuipalpidae). Redia, 55:83-88.

Childers CC, 1994. Feeding injury to 'Robinson' tangerine leaves by Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in Florida and evaluation of chemical control on citrus. Florida Entomologist, 77(2):265-271.

Collyer E, 1973. Records of Brevipalpus species (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from New Zealand and the Pacific area. New Zealand Entomologist, 5(3/4):303-304.

Danthanarayana W, 1972. Acaricides for control of red spider mite as a pest of tea in Ceylon. International Pest Control, 14(2):6-10, 20.

Danthanarayana W; Ranaweera DJW, 1970. The red spider mite and the scarlet mite of tea and their control. Tea Quarterly, 41(1):19-33.

Danthanarayana W; Ranaweera DJW, 1974. The effects of rainfall and shade on the occurrence of three mite pests of tea in Ceylon. Tea Quarterly, 44(1):47-58.

De Leon D, 1965. New Tenuipalpidae (false spider mites) from British Guiana with notes on four described species. Florida Entomologist, 48: 65-75.

Dean HA; Maxwell NP, 1975. Spotting of grapefruit as associated with false spider mites. Proceedings of the Rio Grande Valley Horticultural Society, 21:35-45.

Denmark HA, 1982. Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), a pest of woody ornamentals (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 240.

Denmark HA, 1984. Brevipalpus mites found on Florida citrus (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 69.

Elkady MH; Nassar MES; El-Halawany MES, 1977. A study of the chemical control of the citrus flat mite Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) on guava (Psidium guava) trees (Acarina - Tenuipalpidae). Agricultural Research Review, 55(1):139-141

El-Kady MH; Nassar MES; Heykal IH, 1977. The effect of certain insecticides on the mite Brevipalpus californicus on citrus trees (Acarina, Tenuipalpidae). Agricultural Research Review, 55(1):95-97.

Elmer HS; Jeppson LR, 1957. Biology and control of citrus flat mite. Journal of Economic Entomology, 50(5):566-570.

El-Minshawy AM; Abd-Elsalam AM; Hammad SM, 1971. On the chemical control of some scale insects and mites on guava trees. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 68(2):164-168.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Evans GA; Cromroy HL; Ochoa R, 1993. The Tenuipalpidae of Honduras (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). Florida Entomologist, 76(1):126-155; 33 ref.

Grewal JS, 1992. Incidence of various mites on okra (Hibiscus esculentus) in Punjab. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 62(2):169-170; 3 ref.

Grewal JS, 1992. Seasonal fluctuation in the populations of various mite species associated with brinjal crop in Punjab. Annals of Entomology, 10(1):37-40.

Gupta SK; Sidhu AS; Singh G, 1971. Occurrence of a Tenuipalpid mite on citrus in Punjab and its control. Indian Journal of Entomology, 33(1):30-33.

Hanna MA; Abdelhafez MA, 1975. On the control of citrus mites: an experimental carbamate fungicide phytotoxic to citrus trees. Agricultural Research Review, 53(1):187-190.

Hanna MA; Wahba ML; Hafez MAA, 1977. Effects of insecticide-acaricide mixtures on populations of the flat mite, Brevipalpus californicus, on lemon. Agricultural Research Review, 55(1):163-166.

Holtzer T; Accher T; Norman J, 1988. Host plant suitability in relation to water stress in plant stress. In: Heinrichs EA, ed. Insect Interactions. New York, USA: Wiley-Interscience.

Ibrahim GA, 1992. Effect of different fungicides on the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) and Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) with their associated predator mites. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 70(1):207-213; 4 ref.

Iskander NG, 1993. Chemical control of the rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora Ashmead, flat mite Brevipalpus californicus Banks and its side effect on Amblyseius scutalis (Athias-Henriot) on citrus trees. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 71(2):463-472; 5 ref.

Iskander NG; Ibrahim SM; Heikal IH, 1993. Effect of certain chemicals on different development stages of some phytophagous and predaceous mite species. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 71(2):453-461; 12 ref.

Iskander NG; Ibrahim SM; Megali MKH; El-Atrouzy NA; Wahba ML, 1990. Biological effects of flufenoxuron on Eutetranychus orientalis Klein. Agricultural Research Review, 68(1):67-75.

Iskander NG; Ibrahim SM; Sedrak RA; Iskander AKF, 1995. Survey and population fluctuation of mites and scale insects on citrus trees in Fayoum and Qalyobia Governorate. Egyptian Journal of Applied Sciences, 10(1):78-87.

Jeppson LR, 1977. Bionomics and control of mites attacking citrus. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 2:445-451.

Jeppson LR; Keifer HH; Baker EW, 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press.

Kerhili S; Barbar Z; Aslan LH, 2015. First record on identification and population dynamics of the false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), in lemon orchards in Lattakia governorate of Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 33(3):248-253. http://www.asplantprotection.org/ASPP_Journal-33-3_2015.htm

Knorr LC, 1959. Presenting Brevipalpus mites and some questions that they pose. Citrus Mag., 21:8-12, 20, 22.

Knorr LC; Denmark HA; Burnett HC, 1968. Occurrence of Brevipalpus mites, leprosis on citrus in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 51:11-17.

Livshits IZ; Mitrofanov VI; Strunkova ZI, 1980. False spider mites - pests of decorative plants and tree plantations in parks. Part I. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 1 (78):47-54.

Maeda T; Kondo H; Mitsuhata M; Tamada T, 1998. Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Japan. http://www.bspp.org.uk/icpp98/abstracts/1.13/18.html.

Manglitz GR; Cory EN, 1953. Biology and control of Brevipalpus australis. Journal of Economic Entomology, 46:116-119.

McGregor EA, 1949. Nearctic mites of the family Pseudoleptidae. Mem. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., 3(2):1-45.

Meena-Thakur; Sangita-Sharma; Dinabandhoo CL, 2004. Phytophagous mites associated with temperate and sub-tropical fruit trees in Himachal Pradesh. Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 12(1):83-87.

Meyer MKPS, 1979. The Tenuipalpidae (Acari) of Africa. With keys to the world fauna. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Republic of South Africa, No. 50.

Miranda LC; Návia D; Rodrigues JCV, 2007. Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 36(4):587-592. http://www.scielo.br/ne

Misra KK; Sarkar PK; Das TK; Somchoudhury AK, 1990. Incidence of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on some selected accessions of brinjal with special reference to the physical basis of resistance. Indian Agriculturist, 34(3):177-185.

Mitrofanov VI, 1973. Revision of the system of phytophagous mites of the subfamily Tenuipalpinae s. str. (Trombidiformes, Tenuipalpidae). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 52(9):1315-1320

Mitrofanov VI; Strunkova ZI, 1979. A key to false spider mites. Opredelitel' kleshchei-ploskotelok. "Donish". Dushanbe USSR.

Monjarás-Barrera JI; Vanoye-Eligio V; Rocandio-Rodríguez M; Mora-Ravelo SG; Gaona-García G; Chacón-Hernández JC, 2016. New wild host of Brevipalpus californicus Banks in northeastern Mexico. Southwestern Entomologist, 41(2):583-585. http://www.bioone.org/loi/swen

Moralde NM; Pedro LB de; Bernardo EN, 1982. Technique for evaluating sweet potato varieties for resistance to false spider mite, Brevipalpus californicus Banks (Tenuipalpidae, Acarina). Philippine Entomologist, 5(4):345-354.

Morishita FS, 1954. Biology and control of Brevipalpus inornatus (Banks). Tour. Econ. Ent., 14:449-456.

Muma MH, 1961. Mites associated with citrus in Florida. University of Florida Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin No. 640.

Muma MH, 1975. Spiders in Florida Citrus groves. Florida Entomologist, 58(2):83-90

Murthy RLN; Rao GN; Chandrasekaran R, 1983. Recent developments in mite control: to achieve early prevention, greater coverage and longer spraying intervals. In: Venkata Ram CS, ed. Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium on Plantation Crops. Plant protection (entomology, microbiology, nematology, plant pathology and rodentology). Kasaragod, Kerala, India: PLACROSYM II 1979 PLACROSYM Standing Committee, 243-257.

Nehru RK; Bhagat KC; Koul VK; Rajinder Bhan, 2005. Preferential distribution of false spider mite, Brevipalpus caulifornicus banks on sweet orange, Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 13(2):396-399. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Pritchard AE; Baker EW, 1958. The false spider mites (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). University of California Publications in Entomology, 14(3):175-274.

Rabindra Prasad; Sanjay Kumar; Devendra Prasad, 2006. An account of mite pest fauna associated with common vegetables grown in Ranchi. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 3(1):149-151.

Rao GN, 1974. Control of tea mites in South India. Planters Chronicle, 69(5/6):91-94, 111-114.

Rao VP; Datta B; Ramaseshiah G, 1970. Natural enemy complex of flushworm and phytophagous mites on tea in India. Scientific Publications Series No. 5. Calcutta, India: Tea Board.

Reddy GVP; Kikuchi R; Remolona JE, 2011. New mite species associated with certain plant species from Guam. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, 43(1):41-46. http://users.unimi.it/~agra/entomo/Bulletin.htm

Rodrigues M da C, 1973. The mites on Citrus in Mozambique. II. Agronomia Mocambicana, 7(2):91-95.

Sadana GL; Balpreet, 1995. New species, new records of brevipalpid mites and their hosts from northern India. Entomon, 20(1):75-79.

Sadana GL; Gupta BK, 1982. Distribution and new host records of phytophagous mites (Acarina: Tetranychoidea) of north India. International Journal of Entomology, India, 1(1):65-68.

Sadana GL; Gupta BK; Chopra R, 1983. Mites associated with the crops and weeds in the Punjab, India. Science and Culture, 49(6):184-186.

Sadana GL; Joshi R, 1976. Host range of the mite, Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) infesting citrus. Science and Culture, 42(2):106-107.

Sadana GL; Joshi R, 1979. Comparative susceptibility of different varieties of citrus to the attack of phytophagous mite, Brevipalpus californicus. Science and Culture, 45(10):413-414.

Sayed MT, 1942. Contribution to the knowledge of the Acarina of Egypt: II. The genus Tenuipalpus Donnadieu (Tetranychidae). Soc. Fouad 1er Ent. Bull., 26:93-113.

Trindade MLB; Chiavegato LG, 1994. Biological characteristics of the mites Brevipalpus obovatus D., B. californicus B. and B. phoenicis G. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 23(2):189-195.

Tucker RWE, 1926. Some South African mites, mainly Tetranychidae and Eriophyidae. Union of South African Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology Memoirs, 5:1-15.

Villiers E, 1976. Leaf insects and mites damage bananas. Information Bulletin Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, 45:8.

Vitarana SI, 1990. Mite [Oligonychus coffeae, Brevipalpus californicus, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, Calacarus carinatus] outbreaks - timely identification for effective implementation of acaricidal control measures in [Sri Lankan] tea lands. Tea Bulletin, 10(2):9-15.

Wahba ML, 1971. Biological studies on some mites existing on citrus trees in Egypt. MSc. Thesis. Egypt: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University.

Yousef AA, 1967. Ecological and biological studies on mites of family Tenuipalpidae in the United Arab Emirates. PhD. Thesis. Cairo, Egypt: Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.

Zaher MA, 1984. Survey and ecological studies on phytophagous, predaceous and soil mites in Egypt. I. Phytophagous mites in Egypt (New Valley and Delta). Scientific Report, PL 480 Programme, USA. Cairo, Egypt: Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.

Zaher MA; Rasmy AH; Abou-Awad BA, 1971. Ecological studies on mites infesting deciduous fruit trees in Lower Egypt. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 69(1):59-64.

Distribution References

Aguilar H, Murillo P, 2012. New hosts and records of plant feeding mites for Costa Rica: interval 2008-2012. (Nuevos hospederos y registros de ácaros fitófagos para Costa Rica: período 2008-2012.). Agronomía Costarricense. 36 (2), 11-28. http://www.mag.go.cr/rev_agr/index.html

Aguilar H, Ochoa R, 1988. Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), a new pest of cardamoms (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) in Costa Rica. (Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), nueva plaga del cardamomo (Elettaria cardamomum) en Costa Rica.). Agronomía Costarricense. 12 (2), 251-252.

Anupam Tagore, Putatunda B N, 2004. Mite pest of vegetable crops in Hisar (Haryana) India. Plant Protection Bulletin (Faridabad). 56 (3/4), 32-36.

Baker E W, Tuttle D M, 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). In: Technical Bulletin, US Department of Agriculture, 237 pp.

Barbosa D G F, Gondim Júnior M G C, Barros R, Oliveira J V, 2003. Mite diversity on Barbados Cherry (Malpighia emarginata A.DC.) at the Campus of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, PE, Brazil. (Diversidade de ácaros em aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata A.DC.) na Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco em Recife, PE.). Neotropical Entomology. 32 (4), 577-583. DOI:10.1590/S1519-566X2003000400007

Benfatto D, 1980. The principal citrus mites and their control. (Principali acari degli agrumi e relativi mezzi di lotta.). Frutticoltura. 42 (12), 43-54.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Collyer E, 1973. Records of Brevipalpus species (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from New Zealand and the Pacific area. New Zealand Entomologist. 5 (3/4), 303-304.

Danthanarayana W, Ranaweera D J W, 1970. The red spider mite and the scarlet mite of tea and their control. Tea Quarterly. 41 (1), 19-33.

Danthanarayana W, Ranaweera D J W, 1974. The effects of rainfall and shade on the occurrence of three mite pests of tea in Ceylon. Tea Quarterly. 44 (1), 47-58.

De Leon D, 1965. New Tenuipalpidae (false spider mites) from British Guiana with notes on four described species. In: Florida Entomologist, 48 65-75.

Denmark H A, 1982. Brevipalpus californicus (Banks), a pest of woody ornamentals (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). In: Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2 pp.

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