Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Brevicoryne brassicae
(cabbage aphid)

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Datasheet

Brevicoryne brassicae (cabbage aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Brevicoryne brassicae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cabbage aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Colony of B. brassicae on underside of cabbage leaf (x8).
TitleColony of cabbage aphid
CaptionColony of B. brassicae on underside of cabbage leaf (x8).
CopyrightPeter Scott
Colony of B. brassicae on underside of cabbage leaf (x8).
Colony of cabbage aphidColony of B. brassicae on underside of cabbage leaf (x8).Peter Scott

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • cabbage aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphis brassicae Linnaeus, 1758
  • Aphis floris-rapae Curtis, 1842
  • Aphis isatidis Boyer Fonscolombe, 1841
  • Aphis raphani Schrank, 1801
  • Brachycolus brassicae Linnaeus
  • Brachysiphoniella brassicae (Linnaeus)
  • Brevicoryne dusmeti Gomez-Menor, 1950 partim.
  • Hyadaphis brassicae
  • Siphocoryne brassicae Goot

International Common Names

  • English: grey cabbage aphid; mealy cabbage aphid
  • Spanish: afido de las crucíferas; pulgón ceroso; pulgón del repollo; pulgón del repollo (Arg); pulgón harinoso de las cruciferas (Mexico)
  • French: puceron blanc du chou; puceron cendre du chou
  • Portuguese: piolho da couve; pulgao da couve

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: kalbladlus; kallus
  • Finland: kaalikirva
  • Germany: mehlige kohl-blattlaus
  • Iran: schatte kalam
  • Israel: knimat hakruv
  • Italy: afide ceroso del cavolo; afide del cavolo
  • Netherlands: melige kolenbladluis; melige koolluis
  • Norway: kalbladlus
  • Sweden: kalbladlus
  • Turkey: lanana yaprak biti

EPPO code

  • BRVCBR (Brevicoryne brassicae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Brevicoryne
  •                                         Species: Brevicoryne brassicae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIIE, 1992
AzerbaijanPresentSafarova, 2002
BangladeshPresentIIE, 1992
BhutanPresentIIE, 1992
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentIIE, 1992
-GansuPresentIIE, 1992
-HebeiPresentIIE, 1992
-HeilongjiangPresentIIE, 1992
-HubeiPresentIIE, 1992
-JiangsuPresentIIE, 1992
-JilinPresentIIE, 1992
-LiaoningPresentIIE, 1992
-Nei MengguPresentIIE, 1992
-ShaanxiPresentIIE, 1992
-XinjiangPresentIIE, 1992
-YunnanPresentIIE, 1992
-ZhejiangPresentIIE, 1992
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentRao et al., 2003
-AssamPresentIIE, 1992
-BiharPresentIIE, 1992
-DelhiPresentIIE, 1992
-Himachal PradeshPresentIIE, 1992
-Indian PunjabPresentIIE, 1992
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIIE, 1992
-KarnatakaPresentIIE, 1992
-Madhya PradeshPresentPokhraj et al., 2005
-MaharashtraPresentIIE, 1992
-ManipurPresentIIE, 1992
-MeghalayaPresentIIE, 1992; Pankaj et al., 2016
-OdishaPresentIIE, 1992
-RajasthanPresentIIE, 1992
-SikkimPresentIIE, 1992
-Tamil NaduPresentIIE, 1992
-Uttar PradeshPresentIIE, 1992
-West BengalPresentIIE, 1992
IranPresentIIE, 1992
IraqPresentIIE, 1992
IsraelPresentIIE, 1992
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoPresentIIE, 1992
-HonshuPresentIIE, 1992
-KyushuPresentIIE, 1992
-ShikokuPresentIIE, 1992
JordanPresentIIE, 1992
KazakhstanPresentIIE, 1992
Korea, DPRPresentIIE, 1992
Korea, Republic ofPresentIIE, 1992
LebanonPresentIIE, 1992
MyanmarPresentIIE, 1992
NepalPresentBhat and Dhoj, 2005
OmanPresentIIE, 1992
PakistanPresentIIE, 1992
PhilippinesPresentIIE, 1992; Waterhouse, 1993
Saudi ArabiaPresentIIE, 1992
SyriaPresentIIE, 1992
TaiwanPresentIIE, 1992
ThailandPresentIIE, 1992; Waterhouse, 1993
TurkeyPresentIIE, 1992
VietnamPresentWaterhouse, 1993
YemenPresentIIE, 1992

Africa

AngolaPresentIIE, 1992
BotswanaPresentMunthali, 2009
BurundiPresentIIE, 1992
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIIE, 1992
EgyptPresentIIE, 1992
EthiopiaPresentIIE, 1992
KenyaPresentIIE, 1992
LibyaPresentIIE, 1992
MadagascarPresentIIE, 1992
MalawiPresentIIE, 1992
MauritiusPresentIIE, 1992
MoroccoPresentIIE, 1992
MozambiquePresentIIE, 1992
NigeriaPresentIIE, 1992
RwandaPresentIIE, 1992
Saint HelenaPresentIIE, 1992
SomaliaPresentIIE, 1992
South AfricaPresentIIE, 1992
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIIE, 1992
SudanPresentIIE, 1992
TanzaniaPresentIIE, 1992
ZambiaPresentIIE, 1992
ZimbabwePresentIIE, 1992

North America

BermudaPresentIIE, 1992
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentIIE, 1992
-British ColumbiaPresentIIE, 1992
-ManitobaPresentIIE, 1992
-New BrunswickPresentIIE, 1992
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIIE, 1992
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentIIE, 1992
-Nova ScotiaPresentIIE, 1992
-OntarioPresentIIE, 1992
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIIE, 1992
-QuebecPresentIIE, 1992
MexicoPresentIIE, 1992
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIIE, 1992
-AlaskaPresentIIE, 1992
-ArizonaPresentIIE, 1992
-CaliforniaPresentIIE, 1992
-ColoradoPresentIIE, 1992
-ConnecticutPresentIIE, 1992
-DelawarePresentIIE, 1992
-FloridaPresentIIE, 1992
-GeorgiaPresentIIE, 1992
-HawaiiPresentIIE, 1992
-IdahoPresentIIE, 1992
-IllinoisPresentIIE, 1992
-IndianaPresentIIE, 1992
-IowaPresentIIE, 1992
-KansasPresentIIE, 1992
-KentuckyPresentIIE, 1992
-LouisianaPresentIIE, 1992
-MainePresentIIE, 1992
-MarylandPresentIIE, 1992
-MassachusettsPresentIIE, 1992
-MichiganPresentIIE, 1992
-MinnesotaWidespreadIIE, 1992
-MississippiPresentIIE, 1992
-MissouriPresentIIE, 1992
-MontanaPresentIIE, 1992
-NebraskaPresentIIE, 1992
-NevadaPresentIIE, 1992
-New HampshirePresentIIE, 1992
-New JerseyPresentIIE, 1992
-New YorkPresentIIE, 1992
-North CarolinaPresentIIE, 1992
-North DakotaPresentIIE, 1992
-OhioPresentIIE, 1992
-OklahomaPresentIIE, 1992
-OregonPresentIIE, 1992
-PennsylvaniaPresentIIE, 1992
-South CarolinaPresentIIE, 1992
-South DakotaPresentIIE, 1992
-TennesseePresentIIE, 1992
-TexasPresentIIE, 1992
-UtahPresentIIE, 1992
-VirginiaPresentIIE, 1992
-WashingtonPresentIIE, 1992
-West VirginiaPresentIIE, 1992
-WisconsinPresentIIE, 1992
-WyomingPresentIIE, 1992

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIIE, 1992
Dominican RepublicPresentIIE, 1992
El SalvadorPresentIIE, 1992
GuatemalaPresentIIE, 1992
Puerto RicoPresentIIE, 1992
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIIE, 1992
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIIE, 1992

South America

ArgentinaPresentIIE, 1992
BoliviaPresentIIE, 1992
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentIIE, 1992
-CearaPresentIIE, 1992
-Minas GeraisPresentIIE, 1992
-ParaPresentIIE, 1992
-ParanaPresentIIE, 1992
-PernambucoPresentIIE, 1992
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIIE, 1992
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIIE, 1992
-Santa CatarinaPresentIIE, 1992
-Sao PauloPresentIIE, 1992
-SergipePresentIIE, 1992
ChilePresentIIE, 1992
ColombiaPresentIIE, 1992
EcuadorPresentIIE, 1992
PeruPresentIIE, 1992
UruguayPresentIIE, 1992
VenezuelaPresentIIE, 1992

Europe

AustriaPresentIIE, 1992
BelarusPresentIIE, 1992
BelgiumPresentIIE, 1992
BulgariaPresentIIE, 1992
CroatiaPresentCuljak et al., 2008
CyprusPresentIIE, 1992
Czech RepublicPresentSedivý and Vasák, 2002
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIIE, 1992
DenmarkPresentIIE, 1992
FinlandPresentIIE, 1992
FrancePresentIIE, 1992
GermanyPresentIIE, 1992
GreecePresentIIE, 1992
HungaryPresentIIE, 1992
IcelandPresentIIE, 1992
IrelandPresentIIE, 1992
ItalyPresentIIE, 1992
LatviaPresentIIE, 1992
LithuaniaPresentDuchovskiene, 2005
MaltaPresentIIE, 1992
NetherlandsPresentIIE, 1992
NorwayPresentIIE, 1992
PolandPresentIIE, 1992
PortugalPresentIIE, 1992
-AzoresPresentIIE, 1992
-MadeiraPresentIIE, 1992
RomaniaPresentIIE, 1992
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentIIE, 1992
-Russia (Europe)PresentIIE, 1992
-Russian Far EastPresentIIE, 1992
SerbiaPresentMarcic et al., 2007
SpainPresentIIE, 1992
SwedenPresentIIE, 1992
SwitzerlandPresentIIE, 1992
UKPresentIIE, 1992
UkrainePresentIIE, 1992
Yugoslavia (former)PresentIIE, 1992
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIIE, 1992

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIIE, 1992
-QueenslandPresentIIE, 1992
-South AustraliaPresentIIE, 1992
-TasmaniaPresentIIE, 1992
-VictoriaPresentIIE, 1992
-Western AustraliaPresentIIE, 1992
New CaledoniaPresentIIE, 1992
New ZealandPresentIIE, 1992
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIIE, 1992

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Seeds / external feeding
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator
Adalia tetraspilota Predator
Alloxysta victrix Hyperparasite
Anthocoris pilosus Predator
Aphelinus Parasite
Aphelinus asychis Parasite
Aphidius cingulatus Parasite
Aphidius colemani Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphidius picipes Parasite Nymphs
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predator Adults/Nymphs
Aphidoletes urticariae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Asaphes lucens Hyperparasite
Asaphes suspensus Parasite
Asaphes vulgaris Hyperparasite
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen
Betasyrphus serarius Predator
Carabidae Predator Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator
Chrysopa edwardsi Predator
Chrysopa pallens Predator
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs Moldova
Chrysoperla harrisii Predator
Chrysoperla zastrowi Predator
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs Australia; Pakistan Brassica
Coccinella transversalis Predator
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs Yugoslavia cabbages
Cycloneda limbifer Predator
Cycloneda sanguinea Predator
Dasysyrphus eggeri Predator
Dendrocerus carpenteri Hyperparasite
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs Honduras; India; Jammu and Kashmir; Morocco; Poland Brassica; Brassica oleracea; Brassica oleracea acephala; cabbages; Sinapis arvenis
Episyrphus alternans Predator Adults/Nymphs Punjab mustard
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Poland Brassica oleracea; cabbages; Indian mustard
Episyrphus viridaureus Predator
Erynia neoaphidis Pathogen Yugoslavia cabbages
Erynia nouryi Pathogen Yugoslavia cabbages
Eupeodes confrater Predator India; Punjab mustard
Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Poland Brassica oleracea; cabbages; Indian mustard
Eupeodes flaviceps Predator
Eupeodes latilunulatus Predator India; Punjab mustard
Harmonia axyridis Predator
Harmonia eucharis Predator
Harmonia obscurosignata Predator
Hippodamia convergens Predator
Hippodamia variegata Predator
Ischiodon aegyptius Predator
Ischiodon scutellaris Predator India; India; Punjab Indian mustard; radishes
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs Yugoslavia cabbages
Lecanicillium longisporum Pathogen Pankaj et al., 2016
Melanostoma fasciatum Predator
Melanostoma orientale Predator India Brassica oleracea; Indian mustard
Neozygites fresenii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Nusalala uruguaya Predator
Pachyneuron aphidis Parasite
Pachyneuron minutissimum Hyperparasite
Pachyneuron villosa Hyperparasite
Pandora neoaphidis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Paragus compeditus Predator
Podisus maculiventris Predator
Praon volucre Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Scaeva latimaculata Predator India; Punjab mustard
Scaeva pyrastri Predator Poland cabbages
Scymnus interruptus Predator
Sphaerophoria indiana Predator India; Punjab mustard
Sphaerophoria rueppellii Predator
Sphaerophoria scripta Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Poland cabbages; Indian mustard
Steinernema feltiae Parasite
Syrphophagus aphidivorus Parasite
Syrphus ribesii Predator Poland cabbages

References

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Acheampong S; Stark JD, 2004. Effects of the agricultural adjuvant Sylgard 309 and the insecticide pymetrozine on demographic parameters of the aphid parasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae. Biological Control, 31(2):133-137.

Amin AH; El-Defrawy GM, 1980. The biology of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), in Egypt. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. 63:111-118

Anzabi SHM; Ghanbalani GN; Eivazi A; Shojaee M; Ranji H, 2009. Evaluation of resistance of canola genotypes to cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 11(1):55-66. http://www.agrobreed.ir

Arjad Hussain; Muhammad Razaq; Waseem Shahzad; Khalid Mahmood; Khan FZA, 2014. Influence of aphid herbivory on the photosynthetic parameters of Brassica campestris at Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES), 5(1):410-416. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/JBES-Vol5No1-p410-416.pdf

Bahana J; Karuhize G, 1986. The role of Dipretiella rapae (Mc'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the population control of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Kenya. Insect Science and its Application, 7(5):605-609

Banfield-Zanin JA; Rossiter JT; Wright DJ; Leather SR; Staley JT, 2012. Predator mortality depends on whether its prey feeds on organic or conventionally fertilised plants. Biological Control, 63(1):56-61. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1049964412001120

Baskey Z, 1984. Effect of reflective mulches on virus incidence in seed cucumbers. Protection Ecology, 6:57-61.

Bayhan SO; Ulusoy MR; Bayhan E, 2007. Is the parazitization rate of Diaretiella rapae influenced when Brevicoryne brassicae feeds on Brassica plants? Phytoparasitica, 35(2):146-149.

Bhat BR; Dhoj GCY, 2005. Effect of melia azedarach on aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) of organic cabbage farming. In: Researching sustainable systems. Proceedings of the First Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR), held in Cooperation with the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) and the National Association for Sustainable Agriculture, Australia (NASAA), Adelaide Convention Centre, Adelaide, South Australia, 21-23 September, 2005 [ed. by Köpke, U.\Niggli, U.\Neuhoff, D.\Cornish, P.\Lockeretz, W.\Willer, H.]. Bonn, Germany: International Society of Organic Agricultural Research (ISOFAR), 175-178.

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Bonnemaison L, 1976. The action of crowding and of two juvenile hormone analogues on Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera, Aphididae). Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, 8(3):289-314

Brown J; McCaffrey JP; Harmon BL; Davis JB; Brown AP; Erickson DA, 1999. Effect of late season insect infestation on yield, yield components and oil quality of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea and Sinapis alba in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Journal of Agricultural Science, 132(3):281-288; 30 ref.

Castro e Castro BMde; Soares MA; Andrade Júnior VCde; Pires EM, 2013. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam): a new host for Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). (Batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.): um novo hospedeiro para Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) e Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).) Comunicata Scientiae, 4(2):220-223. http://comunicata.ufpi.br/index.php/comunicata/article/view/256/184

Chua TH, 1977. Population studies of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), its parasites and hyperparasites in England. Researches on Population Ecology, 19(1):125-139

Coaker TH, 1980. Insect pest management in Brassica crops by inter-cropping. Bulletin SROP, 3:117-125

Culjak TG; Jelovcan S; Grubi?ic D; Badurina D; Sesvecanec M, 2008. Oilseed rape pests. (?tetnici uljane repice.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(5):285-296.

Desh Raj; Lakhanpal GC, 1998. Efficiency of endoparasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) on aphid complex infesting rapeseed in mid hill zone of Himachal Pradesh (India). Journal of Entomological Research, 22(3):245-251; 11 ref.

Desh Raj; Lakhanpal GC, 1998. Prevalence and impact of entomogenous fungus, Entomophthora aphidis Hoffman on three important aphid species infesting rapeseed on the Palm Valley of Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Entomological Research, 22(1):73-76; 10 ref.

Dpbeler F; Hinz B, 1980. Cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) injury with autumn and spring infestation of winter rape. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 34(1):16-17

Duchovskiene L, 2005. Seasonal abundance dynamic of cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae in differently fertilized white cabbages. Sodininkyste ir Darzininkyste, 24(4):163-171. http://www.LSDI.lt

Ellis PR; Farrell JA, 1995. Resistance to cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) in six brassica accessions in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 23(1):25-29; 14 ref.

Ellis PR; Hardman JA; Hommes M; Dunne R; Fischer S; Freuler J; Kahrer A; Terretaz C, 1988. An evaluation of supervised systems for applying insecticide treatments to control aphid and foliage caterpillar pests of cabbage. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases Thornton Heath, UK; British Crop Protection Council, No. 1:269-274

Ellis PR; Kift NB; Pink DAC; Jukes PL; Lynn J; Tatchell GM, 2000. Variation in resistance to the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) between and within wild and cultivated Brassica species. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 47(4):395-401.

Ellis PR; Pink DAC; Phelps K; Jukes PL; Breeds SE; Pinnegar AE, 1998. Evaluation of a core collection of Brassica oleracea accessions for resistance to Brevicoryne brassicae, the cabbage aphid. Euphytica, 103(2):149-160; 19 ref.

Ellis PR; Singh R, 1993. A review of the host plants of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera, Aphididae). Bulletin OILB/SROP, 16(5):192-201

Ellis PR; Singh R; Pink DAC; Lynn JR; Saw PL, 1996. Resistance to Brevicoryne brassicae in horticultural brassicas. Euphytica, 88(2):85-96; 21 ref.

Ellis SA; Oakley JN; Parker WE; Raw K, 1999. The development of an action threshold for cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) in oilseed rape in the UK. Annals of Applied Biology, 134(2):153-162; 23 ref.

Emden HFvan, 1966. Effectiveness of aphidophagous insects in reducing aphid populations: a review. In: Ecology of Aphidophagous Insects [ed. by Honek, I.]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Emden HFvan, 1990. The effect of Brevicoryne brassicae on leaf area, dry matter distribution and amino acids of the Brussels sprout plant. Annals of Applied Biology, 116(2):199-204.

Emden HFvan, 1991. .

Emden HFvan; Wratten SD, 1991. Tritrophic interactions involving plants in the biological control of aphids. USDA/Agricultural Research Service and Oklahoma State University. Aphid-plant interactions: population to molecules [ed. by Peters, D. C. \Webster, J. A. \Chlouber, C. S.]., USA: USDA/Agricultural Research Service and Oklahoma State University., 29-43.

Fathipour Y; Hosseini A; Talebi AA; Moharramipour S, 2006. Functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Entomologica Fennica, 17(2):90-97. http://www.entomologicafennica.org/Volume17/abstracts17_90.htm

Finch S; Kienegger M, 1997. A behavioural study to help clarify how undersowing with clover affects host-plant selection by pest insects of brassica crops. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 84(2):165-172; 31 ref.

Fluckiger CR; Senn R; Buholzer H, 1992. CGA 215944- Opportunities for use in vegetables. In: Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases., UK: British Crop Protection Council, 1187-1192.

Francis F; Lognay G; Wathelet JP; Haubruge E, 2001. Effects of allelochemicals from first (Brassicaceae) and second (Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae) trophic levels on Adalia bipunctata. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 27(2):243-256.

GabryS B; ChoraZyczewska J, 1998. Probing behaviour of the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) on host and non-host plants. Progress in Plant Protection, 38(2):395-397; 4 ref.

Gabrys B; Gadomski H; Sobota G; Halarewicz-Pacan A; Paul VH, 1998. Reduction of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), population by Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) on oilseed rape, white mustard, and Brassica vegetables. In: Kohn K, Thomas J, Dapprich PD, eds. Integrated Control in Oilseed Crops. Proceedings of a meeting held at Poznan, Poland, 10-12, April 1997. Bulletin OILB SROP, 21(5)?:197-203.

GabryS BJ; Gadomski HJ; Klukowski Z; Pickett JA; Sobota GT; Wadhams LJ; Woodcock CM, 1997. Sex pheromone of cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae: identification and field trapping of male aphids and parasitoids. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23(7):1881-1890; 31 ref.

Gamal ES; El-Ghar A; El-Ghany A; El-Saya M, 1992. Lond-term effects of insecticides on Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh), a parasite of the cabbage aphid. Pesticide Science, 36:109-114.

Gopalakrishnan C; Mohan KS, 1993. Epizootics of Erynia neoaphidis (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) in field population of Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on cabbage. Entomon, 18(1-2):21-26; 12 ref.

Hagen KS; Bosch Rvan den, 1968. Impact of pathogens, parasites and predators on aphids. Annual Review of Entomology, 13:325-384.

Hagvar EB; Hofsvang T, 1991. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae): biology, host selection and use in biological control. Biocontrol News and Information, 12(1):13-42

Hagvar EB; Hofsvang T, 1991. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae): biology, host selection and use in biological control. Biocontrol News and Information, 12(1):13-42

Hagvar EB; Hofsvang T, 1991. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae): biology, host selection and use in biological control. Biocontrol News and Information, 12(1):13-42

Hare JD, 1992. Effects of plant variation on herbivore- natural enemy interactions. In: Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens: ecology, evolution, and genetics [ed. by Fritz, R. S.\Simms, E. L.]. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press, 278-298.

Hayamizu E, 1982. Comparative studies on aggregations among aphids in relation to population dynamics I. Colony formation and aggregation behavior of Brevicoryne brassicae L. and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 17(4):519-529

Hildenhagen R; Hommes M, 1997. Mealy cabbage aphid controlled according to threshold values. Gemu^umlaut~se (Mu^umlaut~nchen), 33(5):316-320; 2 ref.

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