Invasive Species Compendium

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Brugmansia candida
(angel's trumpet)

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Datasheet

Brugmansia candida (angel's trumpet)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Brugmansia candida
  • Preferred Common Name
  • angel's trumpet
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • B. candida is a perennial shrub widely introduced as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that has escaped from cultivation to become invasive principally in waste places in and around...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit. USA, 2003.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionBrugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit. USA, 2003.
Copyright©Linda Naeve-2003 – All Rights Reserved
Brugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit. USA, 2003.
Flowering habitBrugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit. USA, 2003.©Linda Naeve-2003 – All Rights Reserved
Brugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit, showing characteristic large pendulous flowers. Roadside plant, Mangonui, North Island, New Zealand. March, 2008.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionBrugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit, showing characteristic large pendulous flowers. Roadside plant, Mangonui, North Island, New Zealand. March, 2008.
CopyrightPublic Domain/via wikipedia - Released by J. Hayman, New Zealand.
Brugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit, showing characteristic large pendulous flowers. Roadside plant, Mangonui, North Island, New Zealand. March, 2008.
Flowering habitBrugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit, showing characteristic large pendulous flowers. Roadside plant, Mangonui, North Island, New Zealand. March, 2008.Public Domain/via wikipedia - Released by J. Hayman, New Zealand.
Brugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit, showing characteristic large pendulous flowers. Roadside plant, Mangonui, North Island, New Zealand. March, 2008.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionBrugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit, showing characteristic large pendulous flowers. Roadside plant, Mangonui, North Island, New Zealand. March, 2008.
CopyrightPublic Domain/via wikipedia - Released by J. Hayman, New Zealand.
Brugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit, showing characteristic large pendulous flowers. Roadside plant, Mangonui, North Island, New Zealand. March, 2008.
Flowering habitBrugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit, showing characteristic large pendulous flowers. Roadside plant, Mangonui, North Island, New Zealand. March, 2008.Public Domain/via wikipedia - Released by J. Hayman, New Zealand.
Brugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit. île Royale, îles du Salut (Salvation Islands) off the coast of French Guiana (Amazonia). July, 2006.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionBrugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit. île Royale, îles du Salut (Salvation Islands) off the coast of French Guiana (Amazonia). July, 2006.
Copyright©Arria Belli-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Brugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit. île Royale, îles du Salut (Salvation Islands) off the coast of French Guiana (Amazonia). July, 2006.
Flowering habitBrugmansia candida (angel's or devil's trumpets); flowering habit. île Royale, îles du Salut (Salvation Islands) off the coast of French Guiana (Amazonia). July, 2006.©Arria Belli-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Brugmansia candida Pers.

Preferred Common Name

  • angel's trumpet

Other Scientific Names

  • Brugmansia x candida Pers.
  • Datura × candida (Pers.) Voigt
  • Datura candida (Pers.) Saff.

International Common Names

  • English: datura
  • Spanish: borrachero; campana; floripondio; guanto; reina de la noche
  • French: trompette blanche des anges

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: campana; clarín
  • Dominican Republic: campana de Paris
  • Germany: Stechapfel, Weisser
  • Italy: stramonio candido
  • Netherlands: doornappel
  • Puerto Rico: cornucopia
  • Saint Lucia: joy juice
  • Samoa: logo; tagamimi
  • USA/Hawaii: nanahonua

EPPO code

  • DATCA (Brugmansia x candida)

Summary of Invasiveness

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B. candida is a perennial shrub widely introduced as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world that has escaped from cultivation to become invasive principally in waste places in and around settled areas (Webb et al., 1988; Gilman, 1999; Wagner et al., 1999; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). It is also a long persistent relic of cultivation in old gardens. It is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds where it listed as a naturalized weed in Australia, New Zealand, Central America, the West Indies, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (Randall, 2012). It is also listed as invasive in New Zealand, Hawaii and Cuba (Webb et al., 1988; Wagner et al., 1999; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). This species spreads by seeds, but also by cuttings and stem segments and it may persist as suckering clumps particularly in moist sites (Wagner et al., 1999).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Brugmansia
  •                                 Species: Brugmansia candida

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Solanaceae includes about 102 genera and 2460 species (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are characterized by solitary or clustered flowers with sepals and petals, five in number and fused; five stamens; and a superior ovary composed of two fused carpels. Flowers are usually conspicuous and are pollinated mainly by insects (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Brugmansia, named after Sebald Justin Brugmans (1763-1819), includes 11 species of shrubs and trees with showy flowers. The majority of the species within this genus were initially placed in the genus Datura L. and later separated (Lockwood, 1973). Brugmansia × candida is a hybrid between B. aurea and B. versicolor developed for horticultural proposes. This hybrid can now be found growing wild in nature, spreads without human assistance, and all parts of the plant are poisonous (Alvarez, 2008).

Description

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Large shrubs or small trees, up to 4 m tall, often spreading clonally, all parts densely pubescent with simple, erect, crisped hairs. Leaves simple, alternate, ovate, to 15-25 cm long, 8-12 cm wide, entire, rarely with a few shallow lobes, apex acute to acuminate, base oblique, petioles up to 6 cm long. Flowers solitary, pendulous, pedicels 3-5 cm long, stout in fruit; calyx tubular, spathe-like, split on 1 side and the lobes not clearly separated, up to 12 cm long; corolla white or pale apricot, 25-30 cm long, tube slender, gradually flaring to the limb, lobe apices broadly triangular and terminated by cusps 2-3 cm long; stamens 5, inserted below middle of corolla tube; filaments 4-5 cm long; anthers distinct, linear, ca 2.5 cm long, opening longitudinally; ovary 2-celled; style 17-19 cm long; stigma oblong, 5-7 mm long, included in corolla throat. Fruit a capsule, rarely formed, fusiform, reportedly up to 20 cm long, 2 cm wide, pendulous, unarmed. Seeds (not seen) reportedly numerous, D-shaped, 6-10 mm long, seed coat corky (Wagner et al., 1999).

Plant Type

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Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree

Distribution

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B. candida is native to Ecuador and Peru (USDA-ARS, 2014). It is naturalized in Mexico, Central America, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, the West Indies and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details; Villaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 2004; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Madagascar Catalogue, 2014; PIER, 2014;USDA-ARS, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MadagascarPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMadagascar Catalogue (2014)Naturalized in Antananarivo

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedChavarría et al. (2000)Cultivated as ornamental
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedLinares (2005)Cultivated
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedAlvarez (2008)Cultivated
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedAlvarez (2008)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MexicoPresentIntroducedVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia (2004)
PanamaPresentIntroducedAlvarez (2008)Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson (2012)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedRoy et al. (1998)Weed
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedRoy et al. (1998)Weed
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack (2007)Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedLorence and Wagner (2013)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedVander (2003)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveWebb et al. (1988)

South America

ChilePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)Invasive on Juan Fernandez Island
ColombiaPresentIntroducedAlvarez (2008)Cultivated in: Antioquia, Bolivar, Boyacá, Cauca, Cesar, Cundinamarca, Huila, Norte Santander, Putumayo, Risaralda, and Valle
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
VenezuelaPresentHokche et al. (2008)Barinas, Mérida, Táchira, Trujillo and Zulia

History of Introduction and Spread

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B. candida was introduced for horticultural purposes, probably during the last part of the nineteenth century. In 1856 it was collected in Mexico and by the 1940s it appears in collections made in Colombia and El Salvador (Kew Herbarium Catalogue). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of B. candida is high. This species and many cultivars are widely commercialized as ornamentals. In addition, because it spreads by seeds, cuttings and rhizome fragments, the potential to escape from cultivation and colonize new habitats is very high. 

Habitat

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B. candida grows in warm and humid places in lowland rainforest, forest edges, disturbed habitats, riverbanks and urban open spaces. In New Zealand it can be found in lowland areas towards the coast (Webb et al., 1988). It may persist as suckering clumps particularly in moist sites in Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1999) and in moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

Flowers of Brugmansia are perfect, solitary, pendulous, and very fragrant in the evenings to attract nocturnal moths which are its pollinator (Alvarez, 2008).          

Environmental Requirements

B. candida grows best on acidic to slightly alkaline sand, loam, and clay soil. This species has moderate drought tolerance and poor soil salt tolerance (Gilman, 1999). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8003000mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The following caterpillar species (Lepidoptera) have been reported feeding on B. candida in Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs, 2009):

  • Olceclostera sp.
  • Hypercompe icasia
  • Hypercompe laeta
  • Melese asana
  • Pelochyta misera
  • Pelochyta umbrata
  • Iridopsis oberthuri
  • Nematocampa completa
  • Phyllodonta latrata
  • Nisoniades godma

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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B. candida spreads by seeds, cuttings and rhizome fragments. This species may form thickets where it roots from waste stem and rhizome fragments in and around settled areas (Webb et al., 1988; Gilman, 1999; Wagner et al., 1999; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeOften planted as an ornamental Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Garden waste disposalStem segments Yes Alvarez, 2008
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes Alvarez, 2008
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesGrown as an ornamental Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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All parts of B. candida are potentially toxic to humans and animals. It can be poisonous to farm animals when large amounts of seeds are present as a contaminant in fodder and forage (Roy et al., 1998; Feo, 2004; Alvarez, 2008). In humans, the ingestion of infusions of parts of the plant including leaves, flowers, seeds and nectar may cause delirium, convulsions, amnesia, and violent behaviour. The atropine found in this species is a stimulant that induces toxic psychosis (Feo, 2004; Alvarez, 2008). 

Environmental Impact

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B. candida is one of the most frequent and striking plants in tropical regions, used as an ornamental and in hedges, and as fence posts. This species has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and has become invasive principally in disturbed areas near cultivation. It has the potential to grow forming thickets where it roots from waste plant segments. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Hawaii, Chile, Galapagos Islands, New Zealand, and Cuba where it is invading riverine areas, open grounds, forest edges and disturbed forests (Webb et al., 1988; Wagner et al., 1999; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2014). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Poisoning
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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B. candida is often planted as ornamental and hedge plant. Alkaloids such as scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine, found in members of the Solanaceae, including Brugmansia, have proven medical value for their spasmolytic, anti-asthmatic, anticholinergic, narcotic and anesthetic properties, although many of these alkaloids, or their equivalents, are now artificially synthesized (Giulietti et al., 1993; Pitta–Alvarez, 2000; Niño et al., 2003; Cardillo et al., 2010). In South America, within the native distribution range, Brugmansia have been used traditionally by indigenous cultures in medical preparations (Feo, 2004; Alvarez, 2008). This species is used as analgesic against traumatic or rheumatic pains as well as for the treatment of dermatitis, orchitis, arthritis, headaches, infections, and as an anti-inflammatory. The tincture is also used to relieve headaches by absorption through the nasal mucous and simultaneously rubbing the head and limbs with the same preparation (Feo, 2004; Kvist and Moraes, 2006; Alvarez, 2008; Armijos et al., 2014). Several South American cultures have also used Brugmansia in religious or spiritual ceremonies (Feo, 2004; Kvist and Moraes, 2006; Armijos et al., 2014). 

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Masticatory
  • Narcotic
  • Religious

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Propagation material

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Alvarez LM, 2008. [English title not available]. (Borrachero, Cacao Sabanero o Floripondio (Brugmansia spp.) Un Grupo de Plantas por Redescubrir en la Biodiversidad Latinoamericana.) Cultura y Droga, 13(15):77-93. http://200.21.104.25/culturaydroga/downloads/culturaydroga13%2815%29_6.pdf

Armijos C; Cota I; González S, 2014. Traditional medicine applied by the Saraguro yachakkuna: a preliminary approach to the use of sacred and psychoactive plant species in the southern region of Ecuador. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 10(26):(24 February 2014). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-10-26.pdf

Cardillo AB; Otálvaro AÁM; Busto VD; Rodríguez Talou J; Velásquez LME; Giulietti AM, 2010. Scopolamine, anisodamine and hyoscyamine production by Brugmansia candida hairy root cultures in bioreactors. Process Biochemistry, 45(9):1577-1581. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13595113

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Chavarría F; Espinoza R; Guadamuz A; Perez D; Masís A, 2000. Species Page de Brugmansia candida (Solanaceae), Species Home Pages, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica ([English title not available]). http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr

Feo Vde, 2004. The ritual use of Brugmansia species in traditional Andean medicine in Northern Peru. Economic Botany, 58(1(Supplement 1)):S221-S229. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1663/0013-0001%282004%2958%5BS221%3ATRUOBS%5D2.0.CO%3B2

Gilman EF, 1999. Brugmansia spp. Fact Sheet FPS-76. University of Florida. Cooperative Extension Service. http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/shrub_fact_sheets/brusppa.pdf

Giulietti AM; Parr AJ; Rhodes MJC, 1993. Tropane alkaloid production in transformed root cultures of Brugmansia candida. Planta Medica, 59(5):428-431.

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

Janzen DH; Hallwachs W, 2009. Dynamic database for an inventory of the macrocaterpillar fauna, and its food plants and parasitoids, of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu

Kvist LP; Moraes M, 2006. [English title not available]. (Plantas psicoactivas.) In: Botánica Económica de los Andes Centrales [ed. by Morales, M. \Ollgaard, B. \Kvist, L. P. \Borchsenius, F. \Balslev, H.]. 294-312.

Linares JL, 2005. [English title not available]. (Listado comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador.) Ceiba, 44:105-268.

Lockwood TE, 1973. Generic recognition of Brugmansia. Harvard University Botanical Museum Leaflets, 23:273-283.

Lorence DH; Wagner WL, 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/

Madagascar Catalogue, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

McMullen CK, 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Ithaca, New York, USA: Comstock Publisher Assoc., 370 pp.

Niño J; Gallego CM; Correa YM; Mosquera OM, 2003. Production of scopolamine by normal root cultures of Brugmansia candida. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 74(3):289-291.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pitta-Alvarez SI; Spollansky TC; Giulietti AM, 2000. The influence of different biotic and abiotic elicitors on the production and profile of tropane alkaloids in hairy root cultures of Brugmansia candida. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 26(2/4):252-258.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Roy B; Popay I; Champion P; James T; Rahman A, 1998. An Illustrated Guide to Common Weeds of New Zealand. Canterbury, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Vander N, 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Atoll Research Bulletin, 503:1-141.

Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: DSIR Botany Division, 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Alvarez LM, 2008. [English title not available]. (Borrachero, Cacao Sabanero o Floripondio (Brugmansia spp.) Un Grupo de Plantas por Redescubrir en la Biodiversidad Latinoamericana). In: Cultura y Droga, 13 (15) 77-93. http://200.21.104.25/culturaydroga/downloads/culturaydroga13%2815%29_6.pdf

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos., Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Chavarría F, Espinoza R, Guadamuz A, Perez D, Masís A, 2000. [English title not available]. (Species Page de Brugmansia candida (Solanaceae), Species Home Pages, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica)., http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean)., http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela. (Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela)., Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela. 860 pp.

Linares JL, 2005. [English title not available]. (Listado comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador). In: Ceiba, 44 105-268.

Lorence DH, Wagner WL, 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands., National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/

Madagascar Catalogue, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar., St. Louis, Missouri and Antananarivo, USA, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada

McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. In: Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2, Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Roy B, Popay I, Champion P, James T, Rahman A, 1998. An illustrated guide to common weeds of New Zealand. Rotorua, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society. vi + 282 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Vander N, 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. In: Atoll Research Bulletin, 503 Smithsonian Institution. 1-141.

Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

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Contributors

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25/11/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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